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Bioremediation can reduce pesticide contamination of agricultural soils by biodegradation processes via the metabolic activities of microorganisms. It is an efficient, cost-effective, and environment-friendly treatment.
|Pesticide diffusion in the environment|||
|Toxic effects on living organisms|||
|Physical techniques for pesticide degradation|||
|Chemical techniques for pesticide degradation|||
|Biological techniques for pesticide degradation|||
|Microorganisms capable of degrading pesticides|||
|Degradation of organochlorine pesticides|||
|Degradation of herbicides.|||
|Monitoring of pesticide clean-up|||
2. Biological Techniques for Pesticide Removal
2.1. Mechanisms of Microbial Degradation
Phase 1: Pesticides are transformed into more water-soluble and less toxic products through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis reactions.
Phase 2: The Phase-1 products are converted into sugars and amino acids, which have higher water solubility and lower toxicity.
Phase 3: Conversion of the Phase-2 metabolites into less toxic secondary conjugates.
2.2. Application of Microbial Remediation
Natural attenuation, which exploits the microflora present in the polluted soil.
Biostimulation, where the amounts and kind of nutrients to stimulate and promote the growth of indigenous microorganisms are optimized.
Bioaugmentation, which is the addition of microbial strains or enzymes into the polluted soils.
Bioventing, where oxygen is fed through unsaturated soil zones to stimulate the growth of indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants.
Biosparging, based on the injection of air under pressure into the saturated soil zone to increase the oxygen concentration and stimulate the microorganisms to degrade the pollutant.
Bioreactors, which treat the contaminated soil with wastewater to obtain a slurry and promote the microbial reactions capable of removing the pollutants.
Composting, where the contaminated soil is mixed with amendments to promote the aerobic degradation of the pesticides. Landfarming and biopiles are included in this technique.
2.3. In-Field Applications
|Landfarming||Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (insecticides)||Contaminated soil with HCH isomers (>5000 mg·kg−1) derived from lindane production was studied in the field for 11 months, setting up two plots (each 2 m × 10 m). The α- and γ-HCH isomers were decreased by 89 and 82% of the initial concentration, respectively. The concentration of the most persistent β-isomer remained essentially unaffected.|||
|Bioaugmentation||Myclobutanil, tetraconazole, and flusilazole.||Experimental tests were conducted on vineyard plots. In the crops, an agricultural formulation of pesticides by foliar spray was applied. After one h of pesticide application, vines were sprayed with a suspension of four Bacillus strains. DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204 were tested. Residue analysis of field samples showed 87.4 and >99% degradation of myclobutanil and tetraconazole, respectively, by the strain DR-39, and 90.8% degradation of flusilazole by the strain CS-126 after 15−20 days of treatment.|||
|Bioaugmentation||DDT||The bioremediation process was studied in 12 experimental plots, including greenhouse and open field soils. Each plot (area of 6 m2) was inoculated with Stenotrophomonas sp. DDT-1 supplemented with 2% yeast powder. The results have shown that this microorganism is efficient for DDT degradation and does not adversely affect soil microbial activity.|||
|Biostimulation||Organochlorine pesticides: toxaphene; DDT; DDE; DDD; endosulfan II; γ-chlordane; α-chlordane; dieldrin.||The Borello Property is a 14 acre area treated with soil amendment to help the indigenous bacteria to metabolize the pesticides. For the analysis, the area was divided into zones and in each of them, the soil samples were collected from four soil depths (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 ft). At the end of the test, OCPs were not detected; toxaphene, DDT, and DDE were detected in a single sample; dieldrin was detected in five samples at concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 μg·kg−1.|||
|Biostimulation||Organochlorine pesticides: toxaphene; DDT; DDE; DDD; endosulfan II; γ-chlordane; α-chlordane; dieldrin.||The Mantegani Property is a 0.8 acre area treated with soil amendment to help the indigenous bacteria to metabolize the pesticides. High concentrations of DDT and dieldrin were present. After treatment, DDT was degraded by 97% and dieldrin by 73%, while the concentrations of other OCPs were below their preliminary remediation goals.|||
The entry is from 10.3390/bioengineering8070092
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