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Bitumen Aging and Rejuvenation Chemistry
Bitumen aging and rejuvenation include a series of chemical transformations that the material undergoes and that results in the variation of its physical characteristics.
|Keywords||Papers Published Since 2016|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Aging”, “AFM”||114|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Aging”, “Chemistry”||71|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Aging”, “Chromatography”||115|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Aging”, “FTIR”||395|
|Total number of papers of bitumen aging chemistry||589|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Rejuvenation”, “AFM”||24|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Rejuvenation”, “Chemistry”||15|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Rejuvenation”, “Chromatography”||29|
|“Bitumen/Asphalt”, “Rejuvenation”, “FTIR”||73|
|Total number of papers on bitumen rejuvenation chemistry||121|
2. Bitumen Chemistry
2.1. Basic Characterization
saturated: only simple bonds are present between the carbon atoms;
unsaturated: double or triple bonds are present.
2.2. Chemical-Structural Analysis—SARA Analysis
3. Bitumen Aging
Physical and steric hardening (reversible mechanisms);
Loss of low-weight components (volatiles) by evaporation;
Oxidation, with the consequent changes at the molecular level that cause a change in the SARA fractions.
3.1. Physical and Steric Hardening
3.2. Evaporation of the Volatile Components
4. Bitumen Rejuvenation
Softening agents (also called fluidifying agents or rheological rejuvenators), which include:
- ○ Incompatible softeners, which mainly have a viscosity lowering effect;
- ○ Soluble softeners, which restore the balance in the SARA composition by re-enriching the maltene fraction;
Real rejuvenators or compatibilizers, which help to renovate the physical and chemical characteristics of the bitumen through the disruption of the intermolecular associations between the asphaltenes.
4.1. Rejuvenators for Hot Recycled Mix Asphalt (HRMA)
|Tall oil||4–20%||Tall oil is an organic product deriving from the kraft process, a procedure for converting wood into wood pulp, the main component of the paper. It contains fatty acids, acid resins, and surfactants.|||
|Exhausted vegetable cooking oil (mix of the main oils used for frying)||1–20%||The chemical composition of these additives mainly contains fatty acids and methyl esters, with both oleophilic and hydrophilic properties.|||
|Sunflower oil||5–9%||It is the oil extracted from sunflower seeds. Contains triglycerides, with a high content of linoleic acid. It has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.|||
|Linseed oil||6–9%||It is the oil obtained by squeezing previously dried or toasted flax seeds. It is mainly composed of triglycerides. It is one of the vegetable oils with the highest concentrations of acidolinolenic acid.|||
|Soybean oil||6–9%||It is obtained by extraction from soybeans through a special process called “crushing” with the use of chemical solvents. It too is mainly composed of triglycerides.|||
|Rapeseed oil||1.5–9%||It is a vegetable oil produced from rapeseed seeds. It occurs naturally in many varieties. The resulting oil, therefore, depends on the characteristics of the rapeseed from which it is extracted. The chemical composition includes fatty acids and methyl esters.|||
|Castor oil||5–50%||It is a very valuable vegetable oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the castor plant. It is mainly composed of acylglycerides, and the main fatty acid present is ricinoleic acid.|||
|Pongamia oil||5–15%||It is a fixed oil derived from the seeds of the Millettia pinnata tree. Typically, Pongamia oil is made up of glycerides, especially triglycerides. It is considered a fluxing agent rather than a rejuvenator.|||
|Tung oil||2–8%||Also called China wood oil, it is the oil extracted from Aleurites fordii seeds. It is mainly composed of triglycerides and is considered a drying oil, with extremely short polymerization times.|||
|Cashew oil||5%||It is an oil that derives from natural resins that fill the interstitial spaces of the honeycomb structure of the cashew shell. The resin is made up of 80–85% of anacardial acids (o-pentadeca dienylsalicylic acid) and the remaining fraction is cardol and methylcardol.|||
|Corn oil||1.5–9%||It is an oil extracted from the germs of the seeds of Zea mays, a graminaceous plant native to North America. It has a composition similar to sunflower oil, very rich in linoleic acid. It is mainly composed of triglycerides|||
|Cotton seed oil||12%||It is the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants. It is mainly composed of triglycerides.|||
|Oleic acid||2.5–4.5%||It is an 18-carbon monounsaturated carboxylic acid of the omega-9 series. In the form of triglyceride, it is an important component of animal fats, and is the most abundant constituent of the majority of vegetable oils.|||
|Organic oil from wood waste||2–12.4%||A very wide range of types of timber can be used, such as Red Maple, Magnolia, Balsam, Poplar, Linden, Beech and Pine.|||
|Vegetable waste fat||12%||Material composed of waste grease produced by catering processes.|||
|Pig manure||2–10%||It is the product of the fermentation of pig manure mixed with solid material used as bedding.|||
|Algae additive||10%||This is a bio-oil extracted from algae leaves or blooms through pyrolysis, and it is rich in phenolic compounds.|||
|Waste engine oil||1–20%||It is the waste lubricating oil used by engines. It is mainly produced from paraffinic oil.|||
|Rubber powder from pyrolysis of used tires||5–12%||Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition process of organic materials, obtained by applying heat in the complete absence of an oxidizing agent. The pyrolytic product from tires pyrolysis contains high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.|||
|Aromatic extract||5–9%||Aromatic extracts are refined products from crude oil and constitute one of the most traditional classes of rejuvenators. Their chemical structure includes aromatic polar rings.|||
|Naphthenic oil||50–400%||Naphthenic oils are high-quality pure naphthenic mineral bases, obtained by hydrogen refining of selected crude oil.|||
|“Soft” bitumen||5%||Bitumen with a high penetration value and low stiffness. It is typically classified as a fluxing agent since it does not restore the physical and chemical properties of the aged binder. However, this binder can lead to a decrease in bitumen blend viscosity.|||
4.2. Rejuvenating Mechanisms
4.3. Laboratory Rejuvenating Assessment Methods: General Results
Adding the biological rejuvenator (BB) (10% by weight) causes a decrease in the CI from 0.61 of the aged binder to 0.51 (bringing it back to values similar to that of virgin bitumen). However, by increasing the percentage of the same additive up to 30%, the index increases to the unit value (exceeding even that of the aged binder without additives);
Adding the vegetable-oil-based additive (VB), a progressive decrease in the index by increasing the percentage of rejuvenator occurs. This means that the stability of the binder is increased as the additive dosage increases. With an additive content of 30%, a CI lower than that of virgin bitumen is reached.
Adding the hydrocarbon-based rejuvenator (PB), the percentage of asphaltenes decreases and this leads to a slight decrease in the CI. Increasing the percentage of additive from 10% to 30%, there is not a further decrease.
the large molecules (LMS) increase from 83% for the non-aged binder to 87% for the aged binder, at the expense of the percentage of medium-sized molecules (MMS), which is reduced by 14% to 10%. The increase in LMS is a consequence of the increase in the number of asphaltenes in the system and their agglomeration.
the addition of a rejuvenator tends to decrease the percentage of larger LMS molecules by increasing the presence of medium-sized molecules (MMS).
The aged binder gets higher Mw and Mn values than the virgin one, denoting the formation of larger molecules in the binder during the aging process. Compared to the virgin bitumen, the higher poly-dispersion of the aged binder indicates that there is a greater distribution of molecular weights.
Adding waste cooking oil with different dosages, there is no chemical reaction between the additive and the aged binder. The decrease in Mw and the poly-dispersion is due to a physical dilution.
TOAS: blend of virgin and aged bitumen extracted from Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) from re-roofing or roof removal projects;
MWAS: blend of virgin and aged bitumen extracted from RAS from the excess material obtained during the shingles’ production.
The entry is from 10.3390/su13126523
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