Table of Contents

    Topic review

    Enzymatic Activity

    View times: 289
    Submitted by: Elżbieta Harasim

    Definition

    Enzymatic Activity is a sensitive indicator of changes in soil environment, and it changes depending on the farming system. 

    1. Inroduction

    Organic agriculture has been and is a response to the intensification of agricultural production—excessive use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides as well as related environmental pollution. Agriculture intensification is thought to be a cause of soil degradation [1]. This entry presents the effect of organic and conventional agriculture on the chemical properties and enzymatic activity of loess soil. Organic matter (which is the basis for fertilization under the organic system) has an important influence on soil quality, improvement of its structure, and increased water capacity. Many studies indicate that practices used in organic agriculture generally increase soil biological and enzymatic activity through greater accumulation of organic matter. This is achieved by using catch crops, farmyard manure, and reduced tillage practices [2,3].

    Soil enzymes are natural mediators and catalysts of many important soil processes, such as: decomposition of organic matter released into soil during plant growth, processes of soil humus formation and decomposition, the release of mineral nutrients and their supply to plants, fixation of molecular nitrogen, and the flow of carbon, nitrogen and other major elements of the biochemical cycle [4,5]. It is necessary to determine enzymatic activity and to understand factors regulating it in order to characterize soil metabolic potential and fertility. This can be used to study biochemical processes occurring in soil and to evaluate soil quality [6,7,8,9]. Information regarding enzymatic activity, coupled with information on other soil properties, facilitate the selection of soil use [10,11].

    Enzymatic activity is a sensitive indicator of changes in soil environment, and it changes depending on the farming system. Dehydrogenase and protease activity, as well as organic carbon and total nitrogen content, are higher in the soil in which crop rotation is used than in soil where crops are grown in monoculture [4]. Gianfreda et al. [12] have similar observations. Saviozzi et al. [13] recorded higher values for soil metabolic potential and the biological index of fertility (BIF) in a meadow than in a cereal field. According to Dahm [14] and Burns [15], the effects of higher plants on soil enzymes depend on the plant chemical composition, which, even in the case of root exudates alone, can exhibit significant differences between various genera, species, and also varieties. Krämer et al. [16] think that plants stimulate soil enzymatic activity due to increased biomass of enzyme-producing microbes. Woźniak [17] demonstrated that legumes (pea) had a more beneficial effect on soil enzymes than cereal crops.

    Soil enzymatic activity is considered to be an essential parameter that reveals the status of the natural environment and shows the biochemical process that occurs in the environment. This parameter reflects the level and extent of pollution found in the environment [8]. Soil enzymatic activity can be influenced through agronomic practices (fertilization) [9]. Farming system (organic or conventional) and catch crops (in particular under the organic system) also have a significant impact on the activity of soil enzymes [18,19]. Catch crops are used to improve soil organic matter content, prevent the leaching of nutrients (predominantly nitrogen and phosphorus), and enhance the activity of soil microbes [20,21].

    2. Selected soil chemical components (0–20 cm profile)

    Table 1. Selected soil chemical components (0–20 cm profile)—mean for 2017–2019.

    Crop plant

    Farming system

    pH     1M KCl

    Organic  C %

    Total N %

    C/N

    P         mg kg−1

    K          mg kg−1

    Sugar beet

    Organic

    6.7 ± 0.1**

    1.50 ± 0.11

    0.16 ± 0.03

    9.3 ± 0.1

    159.8 ± 2.2

    240.1 ± 2.5

    Conventional

    6.4 ± 0.1

    0.98 ± 0.08

    0.09 ± 0.02

    10.8 ± 0.2

    192.5 ± 1.9

    274.2 ± 3.1

    Mean

    6.5

    1.24

    0.12

    10.0

    176.1

    257.15

    Spring barley

    Organic

    6.5 ± 0.2

    0.81 ± 0.03

    0.09 ± 0.02

    9.0 ± 0.2

    139.6 ± 2.0

    226.0 ± 1.7

    Conventional

    6.1 ± 0.1

    0.70 ± 0.04

    0.06 ± 0.01

    10.0 ± 0.2

    180.7 ± 1.6

    251.9 ± 1.9

    Mean

    6.3

    0.75

    0.07

    9.5

    160.1

    238.9

    Red clover

    Organic

    6.6 ± 0.2

    1.19 ± 0.05

    0.13 ± 0.04

    9.1 ± 0.1

    146.8 ± 2.0

    219.8 ± 2.5

    Conventional

    6.3 ± 0.1

    0.93 ± 0.03

    0.09 ± 0.03

    10.3 ± 0.1

    170.2 ± 1.8

    243.3 ± 2.6

    Mean

    6.4

    1.06

    0.11

    9.7

    158.5

    231.5

    Winter wheat

    Organic

    6.4 ± 0.1

    0.86 ± 0.04

    0.09 ± 0.02

    9.5 ± 0.3

    141.0 ± 0.8

    231.6 ± 1.8

    Conventional

    6.0 ± 0.2

    0.72 ± 0.01

    0.07 ± 0.02

    10.2 ± 0.2

    186.7 ± 1.4

    260.4 ± 2.6

    Mean

    6.2

    0.79

    0.08

    9.8

    163.8

    246.0

    Oats

    Organic

    6.4 ± 0.1

    1.03 ± 0.05

    0.10 ± 0.03

    10.3 ± 0.2

    150.2 ± 2.4

    219.7 ± 2.2

    Conventional

    6.0 ± 0.2

    0.96 ± 0.04

    0.09 ± 0.03

    10.6 ± 0.2

    178.8 ± 2.7

    242.4 ± 2.4

    Mean

    6.2

    0.99

    0.09

    10.4

    164.5

    231.0

    HSD (0.05)  for farming system (A)

    0.29

    0.112

    0.022

    0.72

    44.62

    33.23

    HSD (0.05)  for crop plant (B)

    0.28

    0.178

    0.015

    n.s.

    19.4

    24.92

    HSD (0.05)  for interaction    (A × B)

    n.s.*

    0.214

    0.029

    n.s.

    n.s.

    n.s.

    HSD (0.05) for years (C)—not significant differences. HSD (0.05) for interaction (A × B × C)—not significant differences. * n.s.—not significant differences; **SD—standard deviation.

    The entry is from 10.3390/agriculture10040135

    References

    1. Diego Medan; Juan Pablo Torretta; Karina Hodara; Elba B. De La Fuente; Norberto H. Montaldo; Effects of agriculture expansion and intensification on the vertebrate and invertebrate diversity in the Pampas of Argentina. Biodiversity and Conservation 2011, 20, 3077-3100, 10.1007/s10531-011-0118-9.
    2. D. Shannon; A.M. Sen; Johnson D.B.; A comparative study of the microbiology of soils managed under organic and conventional regimes. Soil Use and Management 2002, 18, 274-283, 10.1079/sum2002130.
    3. Yi Wang; C. Tu; Lei Cheng; Chunyue Li; Laura Gentry; Greg D. Hoyt; Xingchang Zhang; Shuijin Hu; Long-term impact of farming practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools and microbial biomass and activity. Soil and Tillage Research 2011, 117, 8-16, 10.1016/j.still.2011.08.002.
    4. Elcio Libório Balota; Miriam Kanashiro; Arnaldo Colozzi Filho; Diva S. Andrade; Richard Peter Dick; Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2004, 35, 300-306, 10.1590/s1517-83822004000300006.
    5. Matthew D. Wallenstein; Michelle Haddix; Daniel D. Lee; Richard T. Conant; Eldor A. Paul; A litter-slurry technique elucidates the key role of enzyme production and microbial dynamics in temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2012, 47, 18-26, 10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.12.009.
    6. Itziar Alkorta; Ana Aizpurua; Patrick Riga; Isabel Albizu; Ibone Amézaga; Carlos Garbisu; Soil enzyme activities as biological indicators of soil health.. Reviews on Environmental Health 2003, 18, 65-73, 10.1515/reveh.2003.18.1.65.
    7. Z. Reicher; M. Bischoff; Ronald F. Turco; The role of tree leaf mulch and nitrogen fertilizer on turfgrass soil quality. Biology and Fertility of Soils 1999, 29, 55-61, 10.1007/s003740050524.
    8. Autumn S. Wang; J. Scott Angle; Rufus L. Chaney; Thierry A. Delorme; Marla McIntosh; Changes in soil biological activities under reduced soil pH during Thlaspi caerulescens phytoextraction. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2006, 38, 1451-1461, 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.11.001.
    9. Skowrońska, M.; Bielińska, E.J.; Szymański, K.; Futa, B.; Antonkiewicz, J.; Kołodziej, B. An integrated assessment of the long-term impact of municipal sewage sludge on the chemical and biological properties of soil. Catena 2020, 189, 104484, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2020.104484.
    10. Carmen Trasar-Cepeda; M.C. Leirós; Socorro Seoane; F. Gil-Sotres; Limitations of soil enzymes as indicators of soil pollution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2000, 32, 1867-1875, 10.1016/s0038-0717(00)00160-7.
    11. V.V. Kochetkov; Т.в. Сиунова; T.O. Anokhina; O. I. Sizova; A.M. Boronin; Plasmid bearing rhizosphere Pseudomonas bacteria for biodegradation of organic pollutants in the plant rhizosphere. New Biotechnology 2012, 29, S192, 10.1016/j.nbt.2012.08.538.
    12. L. Gianfreda; Maria A Rao; Anna Piotrowska-Długosz; Giuseppe Palumbo; Claudio Colombo; Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution. Science of The Total Environment 2005, 341, 265-279, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.10.005.
    13. Alessandro Saviozzi; R. Levi-Minzi; Roberto Cardelli; R. Riffaldi; A comparison of soil quality in adjacent cultivated, forest and native grassland soils. Plant and Soil 2001, 233, 251-259, 10.1023/a:1010526209076.
    14. Dahm, H. Generic composition and physiological and cultural properties of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from soil, rhizosphere and mycorrihizosphere of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Acta Microbiol. Pol. 1984, 33, 147–156.
    15. Burns, R.G. The rhizosphere: Microbial and enzymatic gradient and prospects for manipulation. Pedologie 1985, 35, 283–295.
    16. S Krämer; Acid and alkaline phosphatase dynamics and their relationship to soil microclimate in a semiarid woodland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2000, 32, 179-188, 10.1016/s0038-0717(99)00140-6.
    17. Andrzej Woźniak; Chemical Properties and Enzyme Activity of Soil as Affected by Tillage System and Previous Crop. Agriculture 2019, 9, 262, 10.3390/agriculture9120262.
    18. Yongqiang Tian; Xueyan Zhang; Jun Liu; Qing Chen; Lihong Gao; Microbial properties of rhizosphere soils as affected by rotation, grafting, and soil sterilization in intensive vegetable production systems. Scientia Horticulturae 2009, 123, 139-147, 10.1016/j.scienta.2009.08.010.
    19. Elżbieta Bielińska; Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak; Impact of the Tillage System on the Soil Enzymatic Activity. Archives of Environmental Protection 2012, 38, 75-82, 10.2478/v10265-012-0006-8.
    20. A. N’Dayegamiye; Thi Sen Tran; Effects of green manures on soil organic matter and wheat yields and N nutrition. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 2001, 81, 371-382, 10.4141/s00-034.
    21. Jian Liu; Göran Bergkvist; Barbro Ulén; Biomass production and phosphorus retention by catch crops on clayey soils in southern and central Sweden. Field Crops Research 2015, 171, 130-137, 10.1016/j.fcr.2014.11.013.
    22. Institute of Plant Protection—State Research Institute in Poznan. Crop Protection Calendar. In Cereal, Root, Legume Crops; Institute of Plant Protection—State Research Institute in Poznan: Poznan, Poland, 2017.
    23. Thalmann, A. Zur Methodik der Bestimmung der Dehydrogenase Aktivität in Boden mittels Triphenyltetrazoliumchlorid (TTC). Landwirtsch. Forsch. 1968, 21, 249–258.
    24. M.A. Tabatabai; J.M. Bremner; Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1969, 1, 301-307, 10.1016/0038-0717(69)90012-1.
    25. M.I. Zantua; J.M. Bremner; Comparison of methods of assaying urease activity in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1975, 7, 291-295, 10.1016/0038-0717(75)90069-3.
    26. J.N. Ladd; J.H.A. Butler; Short-term assays of soil proteolytic enzyme activities using proteins and dipeptide derivatives as substrates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1972, 4, 19-30, 10.1016/0038-0717(72)90038-7.
    27. Zhanguo Bai; Thomas Caspari; Maria Ruiperez Gonzalez; Niels Batjes; Paul Mäder; Else K. Bünemann; Ron De Goede; Lijbert Brussaard; Minggang Xu; Carla S.S. Ferreira; et al. Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2018, 265, 1-7, 10.1016/j.agee.2018.05.028.
    28. L. E. Drinkwater; D. K. Letourneau; F. Workneh; A. H. C. Van Bruggen; Carol Shennan; Fundamental Differences Between Conventional and Organic Tomato Agroecosystems in California. Ecological Applications 1995, 5, 1098-1112, 10.2307/2269357.
    29. Fließbach, A.; Oberholzer, H.R.; Gunst, L.; Mader, P. Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2007, 118, 273–284, doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.022.
    30. Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S.; Dubois, D.; Ekelund, F.; Fliesbach, A.; Gunst, L.; Hedlund, K.; et al. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity, Soil Biol. Biochem. 2008, 40, 2297–2308, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.05.007.
    31. Rainer Georg Joergensen; Paul Mäder; Andreas Fließbach; Andreas Fliessbach; Long-term effects of organic farming on fungal and bacterial residues in relation to microbial energy metabolism. Biology and Fertility of Soils 2010, 46, 303-307, 10.1007/s00374-009-0433-4.
    32. Anne‐Kristin L⊘Es; Anne Falk Øgaard; Changes in the nutrient content of agricultural soil on conversion to organic farming in relation to farm?level nutrient balances and soil contents of clay and organic matter. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science 1997, 47, 201-214, 10.1080/09064719709362462.
    33. M. Askegaard; Jørgen Eriksen; Jørgen Eivind Olesen; Exchangeable potassium and potassium balances in organic crop rotations on a coarse sand. Soil Use and Management 2003, 19, 96-103, 10.1079/sum2002173.
    34. Paul Gosling; M. Shepherd; Long-term changes in soil fertility in organic arable farming systems in England, with particular reference to phosphorus and potassium. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2005, 105, 425-432, 10.1016/j.agee.2004.03.007.
    35. Elinor M. Lichtenberg; Christina M. Kennedy; Claire Kremen; Peter Batary; Frank Berendse; Riccardo Bommarco; Luísa G. Carvalheiro; William E. Snyder; Neal M. Williams; Rachael Winfree; et al. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes. Global Change Biology 2017, 23, 4946-4957, 10.1111/gcb.13714.
    36. Sara Marinari; Roberto Mancinelli; Enio Campiglia; Stefano Grego; Chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in organic and conventional farming systems in Central Italy. Ecological Indicators 2006, 6, 701-711, 10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.029.
    37. Antonio Roldan; J.R. Salinas-García; Maria Del Mar Alguacil; G. Caravaca; Changes in soil enzyme activity, fertility, aggregation and C sequestration mediated by conservation tillage practices and water regime in a maize field. Applied Soil Ecology 2005, 30, 11-20, 10.1016/j.apsoil.2005.01.004.
    38. Janvier, C.; Villeneuvel, F.; Alabouvette, C.; Edel-Hermenn, V.; Mateille, T.; Steinberg, C. Soil health through soil disease suppression: Which strategy from descriptors to indicators? Soil Biol. Biochem. 2007, 39, 1–23, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.07.001.
    39. Paolo Nannipieri; Judith Ascher-Jenull; Maria Teresa Ceccherini; L. Landi; Giacomo Pietramellara; G. Renella; Microbial diversity and soil functions. European Journal of Soil Science 2003, 54, 655-670, 10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0556.x.
    40. Ranjan Bhattacharyya; Ved Prakash; S. Kundu; A. K. Srivastva; H. S. Gupta; S. Mitra; Long term effects of fertilization on carbon and nitrogen sequestration and aggregate associated carbon and nitrogen in the Indian sub-Himalayas. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 2009, 86, 1-16, 10.1007/s10705-009-9270-y.
    41. Joshua P. Schimel; Jennifer Bennett; NITROGEN MINERALIZATION: CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING PARADIGM. Ecology 2004, 85, 591-602, 10.1890/03-8002.
    42. Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres; Luz Marina Melgarejo; Carlos-Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca; J Sanchez; Enzymatic activities of potato crop soils subjected to conventional management and grassland soils. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 2013, , , 10.4067/s0718-95162013005000025.
    43. Abdallahi, M.M.; N’Dayegamiye, A. Effets de deux incorporations d’engrais verts sur le rendement et la nutrition en azote du blé (Triticum aestivum L.), ainsi que sur les propriétés physiques et biologiques du sol. Can. J. Soil Sci. 2000, 80, 81–89, doi:10.4141/598-094.
    44. Elias T. Ayuk; Social, economic and policy dimensions of soil organic matter management in sub-Sahara Africa: challenges and opportunities. Managing Organic Matter in Tropical Soils: Scope and Limitations 2001, , 183-195, 10.1007/978-94-017-2172-1_17.
    45. M.M. Jurado; F. Suárez-Estrella; M.C. Vargas-García; María J. López; Juan Antonio López-González; J. Moreno; Evolution of enzymatic activities and carbon fractions throughout composting of plant waste. Journal of Environmental Management 2014, 133, 355-364, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.020.
    46. Brzezińska, M.; Stępniewska, Z.; Stępniewski, W.; Włodarczyk, T.; Przywara, G.; Bennicelli, R. Effect of oxygen deficiency on soil dehydrogenase activity (pot experiment with barley). Int. Agrophys. 2001, 15, 3–7.
    47. Edward Brzostek; Adrien Finzi; Seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity in temperate forest soils. Journal of Geophysical Research 2012, 117, , 10.1029/2011jg001688.
    48. Błońska, E.; Lasota, J.; Gruba, P. Effect of temperate forest tree species on soil dehydrogenase and urease activities in relation to Rother properties of soil derived from less and glaciofluvial sand. Ecol. Res. 2016, 31, 655–664, doi:10.1007/s11284-016-1375-6.
    49. Mariangela Diacono; Francesco Montemurro; Long-Term Effects of Organic Amendments on Soil Fertility. Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2 2011, , 761-786, 10.1007/978-94-007-0394-0_34.
    50. Liangliang Liu; Jijie Kong; Huiling Cui; Jinbo Zhang; Fenghe Wang; Zucong Cai; Xinqi Huang; Relationships of decomposability and C/N ratio in different types of organic matter with suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and microbial communities during reductive soil disinfestation. Biological Control 2016, 101, 103-113, 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2016.06.011.
    51. Bielińska, E.J.; Pranagal, J. Enzymatic activity of soil contaminated with triazine herbicides. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2007, 16, 295–300.
    52. Bielińska, E.J.; Mocek, A.; Paul-Lis, M. Impact of the tillage system on the enzymatic activity of typologically diverse soils. J. Res. Appl. Agric. Eng. 2008, 53, 10–13.
    53. Niewiadomska, A.; Sulewska, H.; Wolna-Maruwka, A.; Klama, J. Effect of organic fertilization on development of proteolytic bacteria and activity of proteases in the soil for cultivation of maize (Zea mays L.). Arch. Environ. Prot. 2010, 36, 47–56.
    54. Lalith M. Rankoth; Ranjith Udawatta; Kristen S. Veum; Shibu Jose; Salah M. Alagele; Cover Crop Influence on Soil Enzymes and Selected Chemical Parameters for a Claypan Corn–Soybean Rotation. Agriculture 2019, 9, 125, 10.3390/agriculture9060125.
    More