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Natural Photosensitizers in APDT
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is constantly evolving and can minimize this antimicrobial resistance problem. Reactive oxygen species produced when nontoxic photosensitizers are exposed to light are the main functional components of APDT responsible for microbial destruction; therefore, APDT has a broad spectrum of target pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Various photosensitizers, including natural extracts, compounds, and their synthetic derivatives, are being investigated. Light, oxygen, and PSs in precise cooperation are the key factors determining APDT efficiency and are responsible for ROS production and the inactivation of the targeted cells.
2. Key Factors in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT)
2.1. Light Sources
Natural product PSs are converted from the ground singlet state into the excited singlet state when exposed to a specific wavelength of light.
If the PS in the excited singlet state does not return to the initial ground state, it can be subjected to intersystem crossing into the triplet excited state.
A type I reaction comprises transferring a hydrogen atom from PS to an organic molecule to form radicals, and the reduced PS interacts with oxygen through a redox reaction, forming ROS and a superoxide anion radical (O2•−) .
The type II reaction comprises direct energy transfer from the activated PS to molecular oxygen to form singlet oxygen (1O2) and is simpler than the type I reaction.
2.3. Photosensitizers (PSs)
Have a strong absorption peak in the red to near-infrared spectral region (between 650 and 800 nm) ;
Possess a substantial triplet quantum yield leading to good ROS production upon irradiation ;
Have high tissue selectivity ;
Exhibit no dark toxicity ;
Have ideal solubility to maintain lipophilic ability to cross the phospholipid membrane and prevent self-aggregation ;
Exhibit high stability under storage conditions ;
Kill microorganisms sufficiently without damaging eukaryotic host cells ;
Display optimal absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) ;
Have a small size to enable microbial membrane permeation ; and
Have low manufacturing costs .
The entry is from 10.3390/biomedicines9060584
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