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This video is adapted from 10.3390/ani13071128
Animals have been used in research for various purposes, ranging from animal, agricultural, wildlife, environmental and medical sciences to education and training. The ethical and humane use of animals for scientific purposes is often referred to animal research ethics. The latter has matured substantially over the past decades, so that it has become a cornerstone for responsible conduct of research. Scientific studies using animals are diverse and specialized in nature, and the intricacy of animal welfare and other key ethical aspects to be considered has also become expansive and complex, requiring a simplified, birds-eye view model, here called the 12Rs Framework, to guide all stakeholders between key considerations and fostering ethical integrity.