Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures
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  • Release Date: 2024-04-17
  • X-ray microscopy
  • high-resolution radiography
  • nanostructure
  • advanced packaging
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/nano14020233

High-resolution imaging of buried metal interconnect structures in advanced microelectronic products with full-field X-ray microscopy is demonstrated in the hard X-ray regime, i.e., at photon energies > 10 keV. The combination of two multilayer optics—a side-by-side Montel (or nested Kirkpatrick–Baez) condenser optic and a high aspect-ratio multilayer Laue lens—results in an asymmetric optical path in the transmission X-ray microscope. This optics arrangement allows the imaging of 3D nanostructures in opaque objects at a photon energy of 24.2 keV (In-Kα X-ray line). Using a Siemens star test pattern with a minimal feature size of 150 nm, it was proven that features < 150 nm can be resolved. In-Kα radiation is generated from a Ga-In alloy target using a laboratory X-ray source that employs the liquid-metal-jet technology. Since the penetration depth of X-rays into the samples is significantly larger compared to 8 keV photons used in state-of-the-art laboratory X-ray microscopes (Cu-Kα radiation), 3D-nanopattered materials and structures can be imaged nondestructively in mm to cm thick samples. This means that destructive de-processing, thinning or cross-sectioning of the samples are not needed for the visualization of interconnect structures in microelectronic products manufactured using advanced packaging technologies. The application of laboratory transmission X-ray microscopy in the hard X-ray regime is demonstrated for Cu/Cu6Sn5/Cu microbump interconnects fabricated using solid–liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding.

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Lechowski, B.; Kutukova, K.; Grenzer, J.; Panchenko, I.; Krueger, P.; Clausner, A.; Zschech, E. Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 25 May 2024).
Lechowski B, Kutukova K, Grenzer J, Panchenko I, Krueger P, Clausner A, et al. Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed May 25, 2024.
Lechowski, Bartlomiej, Kristina Kutukova, Joerg Grenzer, Iuliana Panchenko, Peter Krueger, Andre Clausner, Ehrenfried Zschech. "Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures" Encyclopedia, (accessed May 25, 2024).
Lechowski, B., Kutukova, K., Grenzer, J., Panchenko, I., Krueger, P., Clausner, A., & Zschech, E. (2024, April 17). Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures. In Encyclopedia.
Lechowski, Bartlomiej, et al. "Laboratory X-ray Microscopy of 3D Nanostructures." Encyclopedia. Web. 17 April, 2024.
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