Summary

Hypertension is a major public health concern worldwide because of its rising prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular diseases. Coping strategies may encompass a full spectrum of clinical, epidemiological, experimental, and technological factors to inspire front-line practices and shape critical thinking. This entry collection aims to assemble entries of wealthy topics related to clinical, therapeutic, and population sciences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases that could inform research scientists and healthcare professionals.

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Entries
Topic Review
Factors Affecting the Lipoprotein(a) Levels
Lipoprotein(a) is a variant of LDL-C, distinguished by the covalent binding of ApoB100 to a unique glycoprotein called apolipoprotein(a) via a disulfide thioester bond.
  • 46
  • 01 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Development of Pre-Eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy characterized by a state of multiorgan hypertensive disorders, with or without proteinuria and possible multiorgan dysfunction.
  • 70
  • 21 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Postoperative Myocardial Infarction after Non-Cardiac Surgery
In patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery, perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is a threatened complication. Every year, not less than 300 million non-cardiac surgery interventions are performed in the world. Perioperative mortality after non-cardiac surgery is estimated at 2% in patients over 45 years of age. Cardiovascular events account for half of these deaths, and most are due to perioperative myocardial infarction (MINS). The diagnosis of postoperative myocardial infarction, before the introduction of cardiac biomarkers, was based on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes and its incidence was largely underestimated. The incidence of MINS when a standard troponin assay is used ranges between 8 and 19% but increases to 20–30% with high-sensitivity troponin assays. Higher troponin values suggesting myocardial injury, both with or without a definite diagnosis of myocardial infarction, are associated with an increase in 30-day and 1-year mortality. 
  • 70
  • 20 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Dietary Salt Restriction and MDP for Cardiometabolic Health
The dietary restriction of salt intake and the adhesion to Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) are among the most recommended lifestyle modifications for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A large amount of evidence supports these recommendations. Likewise, findings from observational and clinical studies suggest a causal role of excess salt intake in blood pressure increase, cardiovascular organ damage, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In this context, it is also conceivable that the beneficial effects of these two dietary patterns overlap because Mediterranean dietary patterns are typically characterized by a large consumption of plant-based foods with low sodium content. However, there is little data on this issue, and heterogeneous results are available on the relationship between adherence to salt restriction and to Mediterranean dietary patterns.
  • 78
  • 11 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems in Fulminant Myocarditis
Fulminant myocarditis (FM) constitutes a severe and life-threatening form of acute cardiac injury associated with cardiogenic shock. The condition is characterised by rapidly progressing myocardial inflammation, leading to significant impairment of cardiac function. Due to the acute and severe nature of the disease, affected patients require urgent medical attention to mitigate adverse outcomes. Besides symptom-oriented treatment in specialised intensive care units (ICUs), the necessity for temporary mechanical cardiac support (MCS) may arise. Numerous patients depend on these treatment methods as a bridge to recovery or heart transplantation, while, in certain situations, permanent MCS systems can also be utilised as a long-term treatment option. 
  • 66
  • 11 Mar 2024
Topic Review
The Efficacy of Spirulina Supplementation on Diabetes
As a result of rising mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), there has been a growing urgency to find alternative approaches to conventional pharmaceutical treatment to prevent the onset of chronic diseases. Arthrospira platensis, commonly known as Spirulina, is a blue-green cyanobacterium, classified as a “superfood”, used worldwide as a nutraceutical food supplement due to its remarkable nutritional value, lack of toxicity, and therapeutic effects. Many research studies have demonstrated that Spirulina has therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, and brain-protective properties.
  • 96
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Wearable Technology for Monitoring Electrocardiograms in Adults
In the rapidly evolving landscape of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring systems, there is a heightened demand for non-invasive sensors capable of measuring ECGs and detecting heart rate variability (HRV) in diverse populations, ranging from cardiovascular patients to sports enthusiasts. Challenges like device accuracy, patient privacy, signal noise, and long-term safety impede the use of wearable devices in clinical practice.
  • 94
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Long Non-Coding RNAs in Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF) is a widespread cardiovascular condition that poses significant risks to a wide spectrum of age groups and leads to terminal illness. Although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of HF has improved, the available treatments still remain inadequate. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as crucial players in cardiac function, showing possibilities as potential targets for HF therapy. These versatile molecules interact with chromatin, proteins, RNA, and DNA, influencing gene regulation.
  • 571
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Roles of Nox3 in Diseases
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were formerly known as mere byproducts of metabolism with damaging effects on cellular structures. The discovery and description of NADPH oxidases (Nox) as a whole enzyme family that only produce this harmful group of molecules was surprising. Among the Nox isoforms, the NADPH oxidase 3 is the perhaps most underrated Nox enzyme, since it was firstly discovered in the inner ear. Despite the fact that Nox3 is expressed not only in the inner ear but also in various cell types and organs, the “inner ear stigma” remains until today. However ,the involvment of Nox3 is not just limited to the inner ear but extends to various organs and the related diseases.
  • 76
  • 20 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Congenital Heart Disease
The use of next-generation sequencing has provided new insights into the causes and mechanisms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Examinations of the whole exome sequence have detected detrimental gene variations modifying single or contiguous nucleotides, which are characterised as pathogenic based on statistical assessments of families and correlations with congenital heart disease, elevated expression during heart development, and reductions in harmful protein-coding mutations in the general population.
  • 88
  • 19 Feb 2024
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