Summary

Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, the reduction of beneficial bacteria reduces the gastrointestinal immunity. Once the drug is stopped, it is easy to re-infect. There are many reasons for stomach problems, including genetics, environment, diet, drugs, bacterial infections, etc., as well as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This collection of entries aims to collect various items related to the topic of gastrointestinal diseases, such as clinical care, case cases, disease research, etc., to help people increase their knowledge and understanding of this common disease

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Entries
Topic Review
Hidden World of Gut Microbiota
Metabolites generated from the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host’s health by regulating metabolic homeostasis. A disruption in this equilibrium can lead to the emergence of numerous illnesses and their etiology. Pesticides have been shown in a few recent studies to harm the host’s gut microbiome.
  • 130
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Crises in Antimicrobial Stewardship
Helicobacter pylori is a class I carcinogen that infects more than 100 million individuals in the United States. Antimicrobial therapy for H. pylori has typically been prescribed empirically rather than based on susceptibility testing.
  • 75
  • 06 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Cost-Effective Diagnostic Algorithm for Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms
The increased detection of pancreatic cysts in recent years has triggered extensive diagnostic investigations to clarify their potential risk of malignancy, resulting in a large number of patients undergoing numerous imaging follow-up studies for many years. Therefore, there is a growing need for optimization of the current surveillance protocol to reduce both healthcare costs and waiting lists, while still maintaining appropriate sensibility and specificity. Imaging is an essential tool for evaluating patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) since it can assess several predictors for malignancy and thus guide further management recommendations. Although contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been widely recommended by most international guidelines, recent results support the use of unenhanced abbreviated-MRI (A-MRI) protocols as a surveillance tool in patients with IPMN. In fact, A-MRI has shown high diagnostic performance in malignant detection, with high sensitivity and specificity as well as excellent interobserver agreement. 
  • 88
  • 18 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Application in Small-Bowel Capsule Endoscopy
The role of capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy in managing various small-bowel pathologies is well-established. However, their broader application has been hampered mainly by their lengthy reading times. As a result, there is a growing interest in employing artificial intelligence (AI) in these diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, driven by the prospect of overcoming some major limitations and enhancing healthcare efficiency, while maintaining high accuracy levels.
  • 115
  • 04 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Minimally Invasive Capsule Panendoscopy
In the early 2000s, the introduction of single-camera wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) redefined small bowel study. Progress continued with the development of double-camera devices, first for the colon and rectum, and then, for panenteric assessment. Advancements continued with magnetic capsule endoscopy (MCE), particularly when assisted by a robotic arm, designed to enhance gastric evaluation.
  • 104
  • 04 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Gastric Cancer in the Molecular Era
Gastric cancer (GC) is a heterogeneous disease, often diagnosed at advanced stages, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. Numerous molecular alterations have been identified in GC, leading to various molecular classifications, such as those developed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG). 
  • 94
  • 29 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Diabetic Gastroparesis
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is a debilitating gastrointestinal disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying in individuals with diabetes mellitus, particularly type 1 and long-standing type 2 diabetes. This condition, although not widely known, significantly impacts the quality of life of affected individuals. The symptoms of DGP, including early satiety, excessive fullness after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, abdominal pain, and vomiting, stem from the slowed or stalled movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine.
  • 104
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Antibiotics Related to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, recently re-named metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic fatty liver disease, is considered the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. Its molecular initiation events are multiple and not always well-defined, comprising insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, gut dysbiosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, all of them acting on genetic and epigenetic grounds.
  • 155
  • 18 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Management
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) poses a common and challenging clinical scenario, characterized by mechanical blockage in the pylorus, distal stomach, or duodenum, resulting in symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and early satiety. Its diverse etiology encompasses both benign and malignant disorders. The spectrum of treatment modalities extends from conservative approaches to more invasive interventions, incorporating procedures like surgical gastroenterostomy (SGE), self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) placement, and the advanced technique of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE). While surgery is favored for longer life expectancy, stents are preferred in malignant gastric outlet stenosis. The novel EUS-GE technique, employing a lumen-apposing self-expandable metal stent (LAMS), combines the immediate efficacy of stents with the enduring benefits of gastroenterostomy. 
  • 100
  • 17 Feb 2024
Topic Review
PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK Pathways in Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, with more than 1 million cases diagnosed every year. Helicobacter pylori represents the main risk factor, being responsible for 78% of the cases. Increased amounts of salt, pickled food, red meat, alcohol, smoked food, and refined sugars negatively affect the stomach wall, contributing to GC development.
  • 102
  • 08 Feb 2024
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