Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, the reduction of beneficial bacteria reduces the gastrointestinal immunity. Once the drug is stopped, it is easy to re-infect. There are many reasons for stomach problems, including genetics, environment, diet, drugs, bacterial infections, etc., as well as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This collection of entries aims to collect various items related to the topic of gastrointestinal diseases, such as clinical care, case cases, disease research, etc., to help people increase their knowledge and understanding of this common disease

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Topic Review
Probiotics Influence the Gut–Brain Link
The effect of the intestinal microbiome on the gut–brain axis has received considerable attention, strengthening the evidence that intestinal bacteria influence emotions and behavior. The colonic microbiome is important to health and the pattern of composition and concentration varies extensively in complexity from birth to adulthood. That is, host genetics and environmental factors are complicit in shaping the development of the intestinal microbiome to achieve immunological tolerance and metabolic homeostasis from birth. Given that the intestinal microbiome perseveres to maintain gut homeostasis throughout the life cycle, epigenetic actions may determine the effect on the gut–brain axis and the beneficial outcomes on mood.
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  • 02 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Dual-Layer Spectral Computed Tomography
The advance in technology allows for the development of different CT scanners in the field of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). In particular, a recently developed detector-based technology can collect data from different energy levels, thanks to its layers. The use of this system is suited for material decomposition with perfect spatial and temporal registration. Thanks to post-processing techniques, these scanners can generate conventional, material decomposition (including virtual non-contrast (VNC), iodine maps, Z-effective imaging, and uric acid pair images) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs). 
  • 45
  • 02 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Relationship between the Gut Virome and Metabolic Pathologies
The human gastrointestinal tract contains large communities of microorganisms that are in constant interaction with the host, playing an essential role in the regulation of several metabolic processes. Human adenovirus infection was identified as a significant risk factor for the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Furthermore, in liver cirrhosis, gut virome (GV) alterations correlate with cirrhosis progression. The most widely investigated matter is the relationship between the GM and intestinal diseases, primarily inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although there is also a potential relation between GV and type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, hypertension, malnutrition and low growth rate, metabolic syndrome, liver diseases, colorectal cancer (CRC), melanoma, cognitive maintenance, and cerebral ischemia.
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  • 31 May 2023
Topic Review
Development of the Colorectal Cancer Obstructive Mechanism
The spontaneous evolution of colorectal cancer is always burdened by complications. The most common complication is low bowel obstruction, found in approximately 20% of the cases of colorectal cancer, and it can occur either relatively abruptly, or is preceded by initially discrete premonitory symptoms, non-specific (until advanced evolutionary stages) and generally neglected or incorrectly interpreted. Success in the complex treatment of a low neoplastic obstruction is conditioned by a complete diagnosis, adequate pre-operative preparation, a surgical act adapted to the case (in one, two or three successive stages), and dynamic postoperative care. The moment of surgery should be chosen with great care and is the result of the experience of the anesthetic-surgical team. The operative act must be adapted to the case and has as its main objective the resolution of intestinal obstruction and only in a secondary way the resolution of the generating disease.
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  • 29 May 2023
Topic Review
Emerging Therapeutics of Gastroesophageal Cancers
Gastroesophageal cancers are a group of aggressive malignancies that are inherently heterogeneous with poor prognosis. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma all have distinct underlying molecular biology, which can impact available targets and treatment response. Novel therapeutic targets are under development and future treatments will be personalized based on molecular profiling.
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  • 22 May 2023
Topic Review
Dietary Fibers and Intestinal Microbiota Affects T2D
Foods contain dietary fibers which can be classified into soluble and insoluble forms. The nutritional composition of fast foods is considered unhealthy because it negatively affects the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Dietary fiber is resistant to digestive enzymes in the gut, which modulates the anaerobic intestinal microbiota (AIM) and fabricates SCFAs. Acetate, butyrate, and propionate are dominant in the gut and are generated via Wood–Ljungdahl and acrylate pathways. In pancreatic dysfunction, the release of insulin/glucagon is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia. SCFAs enhance insulin sensitivity or secretion, beta-cell function, leptin release, mitochondrial function, and intestinal gluconeogenesis in human organs, which positively affects type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research models have shown that SCFAs either enhance the release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from L-cells (entero-endocrine), or promotes the release of leptin hormone in adipose tissues through G-protein receptors GPR-41 and GPR-43. Dietary fiber is a component that influences the production of SCFAs by AIM, which may have beneficial effects on T2D.
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  • 22 May 2023
Topic Review
Biomarkers for Esophageal Cancers
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the deadliest cancer worldwide, with a 92% annual mortality rate per incidence. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are the two major types of ECs, with EAC having one of the worst prognoses in oncology. Limited screening techniques and a lack of molecular analysis of diseased tissues have led to late-stage presentation and very low survival durations.
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  • 15 May 2023
Topic Review
Cholangiocarcinoma According to Different Etiologies
This scenario is even more complex in the context of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which encompasses an extremely heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the intrahepatic (iCCA) and extrahepatic (eCCA) biliary tree. The molecular heterogeneity of CCA has been observed not only when comparing iCCA and eCCA subtypes, but also among patients with the same cancer type (inter-patient heterogeneity), and even across the different topographic regions of the tumor from the same patient (intra-patient heterogeneity).
  • 50
  • 12 May 2023
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in Digestive Healthcare
With modern society well entrenched in the digital area, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to extract useful information from big data has become more commonplace in our daily lives than we perhaps realize. A number of medical specialties such as Gastroenterology rely heavily on medical images to establish disease diagnosis and patient prognosis, as well as to monitor disease progression. Moreover, some such imaging techniques have been adapted so that they can potentially deliver therapeutic interventions. The digitalization of medical imaging has paved the way for important advances in this field, including the design of AI solutions to aid image acquisition and analysis.
  • 115
  • 08 May 2023
Topic Review
The Role of EPH/Ephrin System in the Pancreas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major concern for health care systems worldwide, since its mortality remains unaltered despite the surge in cutting-edge science. The EPH/ephrin signaling system was first investigated in the 1980s. EPH/ephrins have been shown to exert bidirectional signaling and cell-to-cell communication, influencing cellular morphology, adhesion, migration and invasion. 
  • 51
  • 04 May 2023
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