Versatile Polyaniline-Based Polymers in Food Industry: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.

Intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) have been widely studied in various applications, such as sensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and semiconductors. Specifically, polyaniline (PANI) stands out in food industry applications due to its advantageous reversible redox properties, electrical conductivity, and simple modification. The rising concerns about food safety and security have encouraged the development of PANI as an antioxidant, antimicrobial agent, food freshness indicator, and electronic nose. At the same time, it plays an important role in food safety control to ensure the quality of food.

  • polyaniline
  • intrinsic conducting polymer
  • active and intelligent food packaging

1. Biodegradable Food Packaging

Biodegradable food packaging is a current trend due to the rising awareness of environmental sustainability, and it is further encouraged by governmental policies, such as the Plastic Tax (European Union), Plastic Packaging Tax (United Kingdom), and Climate Change and Principle-Based Taxonomy (Malaysia). It was recorded that about 584 million tonnes of plastic waste was generated, and packaging waste accounted for over 50% of global plastic waste. Therefore, the replacement of single-use plastics with biodegradable plastics is deemed to overcome plastic pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems [1][2]. Biopolymers such as starch, cellulose, and chitosan are widely studied for the replacement of synthetic polymers in food packaging. Nonetheless, these biopolymers are often associated with drawbacks such as hydrophilicity, poor mechanical properties, weak thermal resistance, intrinsic electrical insulation, susceptibility to wet environments, and high cost of production [3][4][5]. PANI is able to improve upon the chemical and mechanical properties of biopolymers so that they can be more feasible for applications in food packaging [6][7][8]. At the same time, studies have shown that biopolymer matrices retain their biodegradability behaviour after the incorporation of polyaniline (PANI) [9][10][11][12]. In fact, the addition of PANI improves the biodegradability of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) via oxo-biodegradation [13]. The combination of PANI with biopolymers not only contributes to the packaging industry, but also has great potential in a broad array of applications, including sensors, supercapacitors, solar cells, dye removers, and optical devices [14][15][16][17][18]
The hydrophobicity of PANI and the hydrogen linkage interactions between PANI and the matrix reduce the free hydrogen groups for the binding of water molecules [19][20]. Therefore, the incorporation of PANI into chitosan film reduces water solubility and water vapour permeability by approximately 30% and, at the same time, lowers the transmission of light (transparency), allowing the chitosan film to be used in the packaging of foodstuffs that are easily oxidised under light [21]. The strong interaction between PANI and chitosan also improves the processability and tensile strength of biofilms [22][23].
Additionally, the encapsulation of biodegradable polymers by PANI and the cationisation of PANI are used for the enhancement of thermal stability. PANI is able to enhance the thermal stability of whey protein isolate (WPI), starch, cellulose nanofibre (CNF), cellulose nano-whiskers (CNWs), and polylactic acid (PLA) films [24][25][26][27][28]. PANI may also exhibit electrical conductivity and anti-static properties in intrinsically insulating biopolymers, making it a good material for anti-static packaging. Although the electrical conductivity of PANI-based biopolymers is often lowered when compared to that of pristine PANI, nonetheless, they are still suitable for application as anti-static materials. However, the addition of PANI into highly oriented CNF and PLA results in the weakening of tensile strength [9][26]. It is important to note that the poor processability, solubility, and fusibility of PANI are major drawbacks that have to be overcome with suitable blending routes for the preparation of homogenous biodegradable packaging films [29].

2. Active Food Packaging

PANI is a potential antioxidant material due to its radical scavenging capability [30][31][32]. In the form of emeraldine salt, PANI possesses nitrogen atoms that are capable of electron transfer [33][34][35]. Specifically, the stabilisation of peroxyl radicals depends on the donating ability of the hydrogen atoms [36]. Its antioxidant activity is expected to greatly contribute to active food packaging applications, since it is reported that PANI has a comparable antioxidant activity to that of well-known antioxidants, such as catechin and ascorbic acid [37][38].
In addition, PANI has been proven to be active against various fungi and bacteria, such as Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus [39][40][41][42]. Its quaternary ammonium structure renders it strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The biological activity of PANI arises from its electrical conductivity, which could mediate contact on the surface of a bacterial cell via electrostatic adherence [43][44][45]. So, it is more active against Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the hydrophobic benzene ring on PANI interacts with the membrane core of bacteria, causing membrane permeabilisation. Membrane disruption eventually leads to cell lysis due to the leakage of cellular components and the potential breakdown of the membrane. In addition, PANI may induce oxidative stress on microorganisms through the production of hydroxyl radicals (H2O2), leading to the Fenton reaction. In this reaction, free ions accelerate the formation of H2O2, causing cell destruction [39].
Several studies on the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of PANI have been conducted for the purpose of active food packaging [22][46][47]. PANI was proven to improve the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and antimicrobial activity of pure chitosan film [23]. PANI-coated PMMA/CNC showed 45% inhibition of DPPH after 240 min and was active against B. cereus and S. typhimurium [48]. On the other hand, chitosan/PANI exhibited slight antioxidant strength. PLA/PANI film strengthened with CuO and ZnO also performed well as an antibacterial film against S. aureus and E. coli. The film was proven to slow down the microbial growth (total aerobic bacteria and acidophilus bacteria) in orange juice, thus preserving the quality of orange juice and resulting in a longer life span [49].

3. Intelligent Food Packaging

Microbial growth and metabolism are major causes of food spoilage, and they result in the formation of amines, sulfides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and organic acids with unpleasant and unacceptable off-flavours [50][51][52]. Trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylacetamide (DMA), decomposed urea, and amino acid are released in the form of ammonia during food spoilage by bacteria [53]. Therefore, ammonia and TMA are common marker gases for indicating food spoilage [54][55][56]. They are usually released during the spoilage of high-protein foods, but can also be released by spoiled vegetables, including spinach, seaweed, and corn [57][58].
Moreover, E. coli is a very common food-borne bacterial pathogen found in the gut of cattle. E. coli often leads to food-borne illnesses such as haemolytic uremic syndrome and haemorrhagic colitis. In addition, due to the extreme climatic change, COVID-19 pandemic, and Russia–Ukraine war, people are alarmed about global food insecurity and are concerned about solutions for tackling food waste [59]. According to the Food Waste Index Report 2021 by the United Nations (UN), in 2019, approximately 931 million tonnes of food waste (17% of global food production) was generated. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a rapid and reliable technique for the detection of E. coli in foodstuffs. An effective and simple colourimetric sensor can be utilized to detect the presence of these gases within food packaging to monitor the quality of perishable foods in a real-time manner and reduce food waste [54].
As a stimulus-responsive polymer, PANI is able to conduct electricity and is sensitive to pH changes through protonation and deprotonation of its central axis. It has been widely studied as a colourimetric indicator of food freshness [60][61][62]. Starch/PANI film was studied as an ammonia sensor for the purpose of the indication of food spoilage. During food decomposition, ammonia vapour was released, and its interaction with PANI changed it from a green emeraldine salt into a blue emeraldine base. This starch/PANI colourimetric sensor exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 245 ppm and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8.72% [24]. PANI was also specifically applied to food samples as a real-time food freshness indicator. PANI/TPE showed a good linear response to TVB-N within the concentration range of 25.2 mg to 100 g and was able to indicate the spoilage of live red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fish through its colour change from emerald green to peacock blue [63]. A similar study was also performed to evaluate the freshness of tilapia, where doped PANI film acted as a colourimetric sensor, even under chilled conditions (4 ℃), and was able to be recycled up to three times [64]. On the other hand, E. coli in milk and butter was detected by PANI through colour changes due to its interaction with the acidic product of E.coli’s glycosidic pathways, such as succinate, acetate, lactate, and malate [65].
Furthermore, the changes in PANI’s electrical conductivity due to gases released during food spoilage make it a simple yet effective food freshness indicator. This is due to the flexible polar bond rotation, which eventually modifies the PANI chains through the structure of complex charge transmission, resulting in AC conductivity [66]. There was a more recent study in which a PANI/silver nanowire/silk composite was applied as a resistometric microsensor for the detection of TMA, and it was capable of indicating the freshness of pork. The high sensitivity (LOD: 3.3 µg/L), good stability, and repeatability (up to five cycles) made this composite a great potential freshness indicator for pork [67]. In addition, in a PLA/ZnO/CuO film, PANI played a significant role in the estimation of the shelf life and expiration date of orange juice, where it yielded an accuracy higher than 90%. As the spoilage of the juice began, gases were released, and they applied pressure to the smart film as they accumulated in the packaging. The pressure applied caused a change in the electrical conductivity of the film, thus indicating food spoilage [49]. However, the greatest challenge of PANI in intelligent food packaging is that the electroconductivity of PANI is easily affected by humidity, leading to the false detection of target molecules [68]. Moreover, the lack of an evaluation of its toxicity and the imposed risk of the migration of substances are stumbling blocks on the path toward PANI-based food packaging [69][70].

4. Food Safety Control

Antibiotic contamination from the wastes of hospitals, the pharmaceutical industry, and human and animal excretion often occurs in an aquatic environment, where prolonged unintended exposure towards these antibiotics promotes antibiotic resistance in humans [71][72][73]. Therefore, a PANI-nanofibre-coated U-bend optical-fibre-based sensor is a useful tool for monitoring β-lactam antibiotics in food. During the enzymatic hydrolysis of β-lactam, protons and acidic by-products, such as penicillinoic acid (from penicillin) and ampicilloic acid (from ampicillin), are released, leading to a pH change that converts PANI from the form of an emeraldine base into that of an emeraldine salt, which is measured by the increase in wave absorbance at 435 nm. This optical fibre sensor is able to detect penicillins and cephalosporins in food, including milk, chicken, and water, with an LOD as low as 0.18 nM [74]. PANI nanowires have also been synthesised into molecular-imprinted (MIP) sensors, where the nanowires were electro-polymerised onto a gold electrode and then imprinted with chloramphenicol as a molecular template. It turned out that a PANI MIP sensor was able to detect chloramphenicol at levels as low as 10−7 mM [75]. In addition, magnetic mesoporous PANI coated with hydrophilic monomers and casein for solid-phase extraction coupled with HPLC was able to simultaneously determine a wide array of antibiotics in milk samples with recoveries as close as 100%. These included doxycycline, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and penicillin G [76]. Similarly, PANI/GO was used for the electrochemically controlled SPME of antibiotics—specifically, tetracyclines—in milk samples, with recoveries ranging from 71% to 104% [77].
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common veterinary medicines, and NSAID residues in animal-originating foodstuffs adversely affect human health, causing cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal ulceration, kidney toxicity, and platelet aggregation inhibition [78]. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a PANI/PAC nanofibre mat was used in the extraction of NSAIDs, as the amino and benzene ring groups of PANI rendered it a strong affinity towards NSAIDs via a hydrogen bond, π–π interaction, its acid–base function, and its hydrophobicity. This showed practical feasibility with meat and egg samples and was able to detect a wide array of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carprofen, ketoprofen, tolfenamic acid, and salicylic acid) with LODs and recoveries in the ranges of 0.6–12.2 µg kg−1 and 85.18–107.31%, respectively [79]. Other similar studies on the extraction of NSAIDs using PANI have also been done in recent years [80][81][82].
Heavy metal ions, such as lead, chromium, cobalt, and copper, are severely toxic to human health, even at low dosages [83][84][85]. In order to separate, enrich, and detect metal ions at trace levels, SPE is one of the most selective and sensitive techniques. Electrically or magnetically assisted SPE eliminates the use of eluent by changing the surface of the conducting sorbent, thus simultaneously improving the extraction efficiency. Due to its reversible redox and electroactivity properties, PANI is an excellent candidate as the conducting sorbent of electrically assisted SPE [86]. Moreover, the abundance of imine and amine functional groups in PANI also enhances the adsorption of heavy metal ions [87][88]. A PANI nanofibre–graphene oxide (GO) sorbent was developed to extract Pb2+, and it achieved an LOD, RSD, and reproducibility of 0.04 µgL−1, 1.97%, and 2.51%, respectively [89]. Another similar study was performed by using SiO2-coated GO/PANI/Polypyrole (PPy) in magnetic SPE of Cr(III) and Pb(II) with LODs of 4.808 and 3.401 ngL−1, respectively [83]. In addition to SPE, free-standing PANI composites have also been studied in the adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous samples [90][91][92][93]. Although volume changes in PANI—either swelling or shrinking—may occur during electrochemical cycling, thus adversely affecting its stability, most of the PANI-based sensors reported for food safety control have exhibited reliable stability with good reproducibility [81][84][89].

5. Electronic Noses

The discrimination of aromas is important for the determination of the freshness, quality, and safety of food. The π-conjugated PANI chains capable of electron delocalisation make it suitable for application as a sensitive layer for gas sensors. A HCl-doped PANI electronic nose system’s potential effectiveness was proven in detecting and distinguishing several aromas, and it showed the best sensitivity towards grapes (112%) [94]. In another study, an electronic nose with PANI-layered gold-interdigitated microelectrodes (IDEs) was also able to analyse artificial aromas found in gummy candies by detecting aromas with concentrations as low as 900 ppb, as it had good reversibility (97.6%) [95][96]. Another similar study in situ involved the polymerisation of PANI onto a graphite-interdigitated electrode to monitor the release of aromas (apple, strawberry, and grape) from gummy candies. It showed that an electronic nose with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped PANI had the best sensitivity towards artificial aromas [97]. On the other hand, a PANI/functionalised single-wall carbon nanotube was developed into an electronic nose for the detection of ammonia vapours to monitor the freshness of beef [98].

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/polym14235168


  1. Benson, N.U.; Bassey, D.E.; Palanisami, T. COVID pollution: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global plastic waste footprint. Heliyon 2021, 7, e06343.
  2. Meys, R.; Frick, F.; Westhues, S.; Sternberg, A.; Klankermayer, J.; Bardow, A. Towards a circular economy for plastic packaging wastes—The environmental potential of chemical recycling. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2020, 162, 105010.
  3. Moeini, A.; Germann, N.; Malinconico, M.; Santagata, G. Formulation of secondary compounds as additives of biopolymer-based food packaging: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 114, 342–354.
  4. Barra, A.; Santos, J.D.C.; Silva, M.R.F.; Nunes, C.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.; Gonçalves, I.; Yildirim, S.; Ferreira, P.; Marques, P.A.A.P. Graphene derivatives in biopolymer-based composites for food packaging applications. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 2077.
  5. Khalid, M.Y.; Arif, Z.U. Novel biopolymer-based sustainable composites for food packaging applications: A narrative review. Food Packag. Shelf Life 2022, 33, 100892.
  6. Boudjelida, S.; Souad, D.; Hana, F.; Benguerba, Y.; Imane, C.; Mauro, C. Physicochemical Properties and Atomic-Scale Interactions in Polyaniline (Emeraldine Base)/Starch Bio-Based Composites: Experimental and Computational Investigations. Polymers 2022, 14, 1505.
  7. Zhang, Z.; Wang, G.H.; Gu, W.; Zhao, Y.; Tang, S.; Ji, G. A breathable and flexible fiber cloth based on cellulose/polyaniline cellular membrane for microwave shielding and absorbing applications. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2022, 605, 193–203.
  8. Shahadat, M.; Jha, A.; Shahid-ul-Islam; Adnan, R.; Ali, S.W.; Ismail, I.M.I.; Oves, M.; Ahammad, S.Z. Recent advances in chitosan-polyaniline based nanocomposites for environmental applications: A review. Polymer 2022, 254, 124975.
  9. Wong, P.Y.; Phang, S.W.; Baharum, A. Effects of synthesised polyaniline (PAni) contents on the anti-static properties of PAni-based polylactic acid (PLA) films. RSC Adv. 2020, 10, 39693–39699.
  10. Abou Hammad, A.B.; Abd El-Aziz, M.E.; Hasanin, M.S.; Kamel, S. A novel electromagnetic biodegradable nanocomposite based on cellulose, polyaniline, and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 216, 54–62.
  11. Shahadat, M.; Khan, M.Z.; Rupani, P.F.; Embrandiri, A.; Sultana, S.; Ahammad, S.Z.; Wazed Ali, S.; Sreekrishnan, T.R. A critical review on the prospect of polyaniline-grafted biodegradable nanocomposite. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2017, 249, 2–16.
  12. Wong, P.Y.; Takeno, A.; Takahashi, S.; Phang, S.W.; Baharum, A. Crazing effect on the bio-based conducting polymer film. Polymers 2021, 13, 3425.
  13. Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Yuan, X.; Tao, J.; Peng, S.; Yang, W.; Dong, X.; Zhang, C.; Luo, Y. Polyaniline modified mesoporous titanium dioxide that enhances oxo-biodegradation of polyethylene films for agricultural plastic mulch application. Polym. Int. 2019, 68, 1332–1340.
  14. Anisimov, Y.A.; Evitts, R.W.; Cree, D.E.; Wilson, L.D. Polyaniline/biopolymer composite systems for humidity sensor applications: A review. Polymers 2021, 13, 2722.
  15. Aswathy, N.R.; Kumar, S.A.; Mohanty, S.; Nayak, S.K.; Palai, A.K. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled biopolymer based flexible substrate electrodes for supercapacitor applications. J. Energy Storage 2021, 35, 102256.
  16. Arrieta-Almario, A.A.; Mendoza-Fandino, J.M.; Palencia, M.S. Composite material elaborated from conducting biopolymer cassava starch and polyaniline. Rev. Mex. Ing. Química 2020, 19, 707–715.
  17. Liu, T.; Wang, Z.; Wang, X.; Yang, G.; Liu, Y. Adsorption-photocatalysis performance of polyaniline/dicarboxyl acid oxide for dye removal. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 182, 492–501.
  18. Atta, A.; Alotaibi, B.M.; Abdelhamied, M.M. Structural characteristics and optical properties of methylcellulose/polyaniline films modified by low energy oxygen irradiation. Inorg. Chem. Commun. 2022, 141, 109502.
  19. Minisy, I.M.; Salahuddin, N.A.; Ayad, M.M. Chitosan/polyaniline hybrid for the removal of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47056.
  20. Kumar, A.M.; Jose, J.; Hussein, M.A. Novel polyaniline/chitosan/reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites: Feasible reinforcement in epoxy coatings on mild steel for corrosion protection. Prog. Org. Coat. 2022, 163, 106678.
  21. Pirsa, S.; Mohammadi, B. Conducting/biodegradable chitosan-polyaniline film; Antioxidant, color, solubility and water vapor permeability properties. Main Group Chem. 2021, 20, 133–147.
  22. Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, M.; Pupe, J.M.; Silva, L.P.; Stanisavljev, D.; Svirskis, D.; Swift, S. Composition tuning of scalable antibacterial polyaniline/chitosan composites through rapid enhanced microwave synthesis. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2022, 278, 125676.
  23. Mohammadi, B.; Pirsa, S.; Alizadeh, M. Preparing chitosan–polyaniline nanocomposite film and examining its mechanical, electrical, and antimicrobial properties. Polym. Polym. Compos. 2019, 27, 507–517.
  24. Chia, M.; Ahmad, I.; Phang, S. Starch/Polyaniline Biopolymer Film as Potential Intelligent Food Packaging with Colourimetric Ammonia Sensor. Polymers 2022, 14, 1122.
  25. de Oliveira, A.C.S.; Ugucioni, J.C.; da Rocha, R.A.; Borges, S.V. Development of whey protein isolate/polyaniline smart packaging: Morphological, structural, thermal, and electrical properties. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47316.
  26. He, W.; Tian, J.; Li, J.; Jin, H.; Li, Y. Characterization and Properties of Cellulose Nanofiber/Polyaniline Film Composites Synthesized through in Situ Polymerization. BioResources 2016, 11, 8535–8547.
  27. Liu, D.Y.; Sui, G.X.; Bhattacharyya, D. Synthesis and characterisation of nanocellulose-based polyaniline conducting films. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2014, 99, 31–36.
  28. Wang, X.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhou, Y.; Hong, X. Preparation and characterization of polylactic acid/polyaniline/nanocrystalline cellulose nanocomposite films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 146, 1069–1075.
  29. Visakh, P.M. Polyaniline-Based Blends, Composites, and Nanocomposites: State of the Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities. In Polyaniline Blends, Composites, and Nanocomposites; Vikash, P.M., Pina, C.D., Falletta, E., Eds.; Elsevier Inc.: Oxford, UK, 2018; pp. 1–22.
  30. Azmi, N.S.; Kadir Basha, R.; Othman, S.H.; Mohammed, M.A.P. Characterization of antioxidant tapioca starch/polyaniline composites film prepared using solution casting method. Food Res. 2019, 3, 317–324.
  31. Kumar, V.; Manomaisantiphap, S.; Takahashi, K.; Goto, T.; Tsushima, N.; Takahashi, T.; Yokozeki, T. Cationic scavenging by polyaniline: Boon or bane from synthesis point of view of its nanocomposites. Polymer 2018, 149, 169–177.
  32. Feng, L.; Xia, W.; Wang, T.; Jiang, C.; Gong, H.; Gao, B.; Jiang, Z.; Liu, X.; He, J. Structure stability of polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites in gamma-ray environment. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 2018, 315, 627–638.
  33. Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Luo, X.; Guo, H.; Wang, N.; Su, D.; Zhang, C.; Liu, T.; Wang, G.; Cui, L. Polyaniline engineering defect-induced nitrogen doped carbon-supported Co3O4 hybrid composite as a high-efficiency electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2020, 526, 146626.
  34. Norouzian, R.S.; Lakouraj, M.M. Polyaniline-thiacalixarene metallopolymer, self-doped, and externally doped conductive polymers. Prog. Org. Coat. 2020, 146, 105731.
  35. Rana, A.K.; Scarpa, F.; Kumar, V. Industrial Crops & Products Cellulose/polyaniline hybrid nanocomposites: Design, fabrication, and emerging multidimensional applications. Ind. Crops Prod. 2022, 187, 115356.
  36. Thong, N.M.; Vo, Q.V.; Le Huyen, T.; Van Bay, M.; Dung, N.N.; Thu Thao, P.T.; Nam, P.C. Functionalization and antioxidant activity of polyaniline-fullerene hybrid nanomaterials: A theoretical investigation. RSC Adv. 2020, 10, 14595–14605.
  37. Wang, J.; Zhu, L.H.; Li, J.; Tang, H.Q. Antioxidant activity of polyaniline nanofibers. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2007, 18, 1005–1008.
  38. Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, M.; Travas-Sejdic, J.; Kilmartin, P.A.; Bowmaker, G.A.; Cooney, R.P. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of aniline and polyaniline. Curr. Appl. Phys. 2004, 4, 343–346.
  39. Zare, E.N.; Makvandi, P.; Ashtari, B.; Rossi, F.; Motahari, A.; Perale, G. Progress in Conductive Polyaniline-Based Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications: A Review. J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 1–22.
  40. Boomi, P.; Poorani, G.P.; Palanisamy, S.; Selvam, S.; Ramanathan, G.; Ravikumar, S.; Barabadi, H.; Prabu, H.G.; Jeyakanthan, J.; Saravanan, M. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Anticancer Potential of Polyaniline-Bimetal Nanocomposites Synthesized from Chemical Reduction Method. J. Clust. Sci. 2019, 30, 715–726.
  41. Maruthapandi, M.; Saravanan, A.; Luong, J.H.T.; Gedanken, A. Antimicrobial properties of the polyaniline composites against pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11, 59.
  42. Switha, D.; Basha, S.K.; Kumari, V.S. A novel, biocompatible nanostarch incorporated Polyaniline-Polyvinyl alcohol-Nanostarch hybrid scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Eur. Polym. J. 2022, 178, 111448.
  43. Robertson, J.; Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, M.; Nieuwoudt, M.K.; Swift, S. The antimicrobial action of polyaniline involves production of oxidative stress while functionalisation of polyaniline introduces additional mechanisms. PeerJ 2018, 6, e5135.
  44. Dhivya, C.; Vandarkuzhali, S.A.A.; Radha, N. Antimicrobial activities of nanostructured polyanilines doped with aromatic nitro compounds. Arab. J. Chem. 2019, 12, 3785–3798.
  45. Andriianova, A.N.; Latypova, L.R.; Vasilova, L.Y.; Kiseleva, S.V.; Zorin, V.V.; Abdrakhmanov, I.B.; Mustafin, A.G. Antibacterial properties of polyaniline derivatives. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2021, 138, 51397.
  46. Mahdavi, B.; Farbodi, M. Investigation of Morphology and Antibacterial Properties of Nylon 6, 6/PANI/ZnO Nanocomposite. Int. J. New Chem. 2022, 9, 282–290.
  47. Fenniche, F.; Henni, A.; Khane, Y.; Aouf, D.; Harfouche, N.; Bensalem, S.; Zerrouki, D.; Belkhalfa, H. Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide–Wrapped Polyaniline Nanorods for Improved Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activities. J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. Mater. 2022, 32, 1011–1025.
  48. Abdel Rehim, M.H.; Yassin, M.A.; Zahran, H.; Kamel, S.; Moharam, M.E.; Turky, G. Rational design of active packaging films based on polyaniline-coated polymethyl methacrylate/nanocellulose composites. Polym. Bull. 2020, 77, 2485–2499.
  49. Abdolsattari, P.; Rezazadeh-bari, M. Smart Film Based on Polylactic Acid, Modified with Polyaniline/ZnO/CuO: Investigation of Physicochemical Properties and its use of Intelligent Packaging of Orange Juice. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2022, 1–30.
  50. Gram, L.; Dalgaard, P. Fish spoilage bacteria—Problems and solutions. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2002, 13, 262–266.
  51. Torre, R.; Costa-Rama, E.; Nouws, H.P.A.; Delerue-Matos, C. Screen-printed electrode-based sensors for food spoilage control: Bacteria and biogenic amines detection. Biosensors 2020, 10, 139.
  52. Wang, L.; Ran, X.; Tang, H.; Cao, D. Recent advances on reaction-based amine fluorescent probes. Dyes Pigment. 2021, 194, 109634.
  53. Franceschelli, L.; Berardinelli, A.; Dabbou, S.; Ragni, L.; Tartagni, M. Sensing Technology for Fish Freshness and Safety: A Review. Sensors 2021, 21, 1373.
  54. Cai, C.; Mo, J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, N.; Wu, Z.; Wang, S.; Nie, S. Integration of a porous wood-based triboelectric nanogenerator and gas sensor for real-time wireless food-quality assessment. Nano Energy 2021, 83, 105833.
  55. Jung, Y.; Min, J.; Choi, J.; Bang, J.; Jeong, S.; Rok, K.; Ahn, J.; Cho, Y.; Hong, S.; Hong, S.; et al. Smart paper electronics by laser-induced graphene for biodegradable real-time food spoilage monitoring. Appl. Mater. Today 2022, 29, 101589.
  56. Herath, I.S.; O’Donnell, T.E.; Pavlov, J.; Attygalle, A.B. Screening freshness of seafood by measuring trimethylamine (TMA) levels using helium-plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS). J. Anal. Sci. Technol. 2019, 10, 32.
  57. Yuan, Z.; Bariya, M.; Fahad, H.M.; Wu, J.; Han, R.; Gupta, N.; Javey, A. Trace-Level, Multi-Gas Detection for Food Quality Assessment Based on Decorated Silicon Transistor Arrays. Adv. Mater. 2020, 32, 1908385.
  58. Sánchez-García, F.; Hernández, I.; Palacios, V.M.; Roldán, A.M. Freshness quality and shelf life evaluation of the seaweed Ulva rigida through physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory methods. Foods 2021, 10, 181.
  59. Zhao, J.; Madni, G.R.; Anwar, M.A. Exploring rural inhabitants’ perceptions towards food wastage during COVID-19 lockdowns: Implications for food security in Pakistan. PLoS ONE 2022, 17, e0264534.
  60. Ocampo, A.M.; Santos, L.R.; Julian, S.; Bailon, M.X.; Bautista, J. Polyaniline-based cadaverine sensor through digital image colorimetry. E-Polymers 2018, 18, 465–471.
  61. Maravillas, M.J.; Mendenilla, A.M.; Merino, A.F.; Quinto, E. Development of a method through digital image analysis for analyzing polyaniline based sensors for total volatile basic nitrogen (tvbn) as fish freshness indicators. ASEAN J. Chem. Eng. 2018, 18, 7–12.
  62. Shao, P.; Liu, L.; Yu, J.; Lin, Y.; Gao, H.; Chen, H.; Sun, P. An overview of intelligent freshness indicator packaging for food quality and safety monitoring. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 118, 285–296.
  63. Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Tang, Y.; Gao, X.; Tang, L.; Li, X.; Li, J. Dual-mode smart packaging based on tetraphenylethylene-functionalized polyaniline sensing label for monitoring the freshness of fish. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2020, 323, 128694.
  64. Wang, W.; Li, M.; Li, H.; Liu, X.; Guo, T.; Zhang, G.; Xiong, Y. A renewable intelligent colorimetric indicator based on polyaniline for detecting freshness of tilapia. Packag. Technol. Sci. 2017, 31, 133–140.
  65. Anjali, M.K.; Bharath, G.; Rashmi, H.M.; Avinash, J.; Naresh, K.; Raju, P.N.; Raghu, H.V. Polyaniline-Pectin nanoparticles immobilized paper based colorimetric sensor for detection of Escherichia coli in milk and milk products. Curr. Res. Food Sci. 2022, 5, 823–834.
  66. Abutalib, M.M.; Rajeh, A. Preparation and characterization of polyaniline/sodium alginate-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with promising mechanical and electrical properties and antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 2020, 31, 9430–9442.
  67. Li, Y.; Li, Y.; Shi, J.; Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Hu, X.; Gong, Y.; Zou, X. A Novel Gas Sensor for Detecting Pork Freshness Based on PANI/AgNWs/Silk. Foods 2022, 11, 2372.
  68. Kazemi, F.; Naghib, S.M.; Zare, Y.; Rhee, K.Y. Biosensing Applications of Polyaniline (PANI)-Based Nanocomposites: A Review. Polym. Rev. 2021, 61, 553–597.
  69. Dodero, A.; Escher, A.; Bertucci, S.; Castellano, M.; Lova, P. Intelligent packaging for real-time monitoring of food-quality: Current and future developments. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3532.
  70. Poyatos-Racionero, E.; Ros-Lis, J.V.; Vivancos, J.L.; Martínez-Máñez, R. Recent advances on intelligent packaging as tools to reduce food waste. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 172, 3398–3409.
  71. Yang, Y.; Qiu, W.; Li, Y.; Liu, L. Antibiotic residues in poultry food in Fujian Province of China. Food Addit. Contam. Part B Surveill. 2020, 13, 177–184.
  72. Chen, J.; Ying, G.G.; Deng, W.J. Antibiotic Residues in Food: Extraction, Analysis, and Human Health Concerns. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2019, 67, 7569–7586.
  73. Menkem, Z.E.; Ngangom, B.L.; Tamunjoh, S.S.A.; Boyom, F.F. Antibiotic residues in food animals: Public health concern. Acta Ecol. Sin. 2019, 39, 411–415.
  74. Nag, P.; Sadani, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mukherji, S.; Mukherji, S. Evanescent Wave Optical Fiber Sensors Using Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Nanostructured Polyaniline for Detection of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Food and Environment. Anal. Chem. 2021, 93, 2299–2308.
  75. Vu, V.-P.; Tran, Q.-T.; Pham, D.-T.; Tran, P.-D.; Thierry, B.; Chu, T.-X.; Mai, A.-T. Possible detection of antibiotic residue using molecularly imprinted polyaniline-based sensor. Vietnam. J. Chem. 2019, 57, 328–333.
  76. Florez, D.H.A.; Dutra, F.V.A.; Borges, K.B. Magnetic solid phase extraction employing a novel restricted access material based on mesoporous polyaniline coated with hydrophilic monomers and casein for determination of antibiotics in milk samples. Microchem. J. 2019, 150, 104145.
  77. Sereshti, H.; Karami, F.; Nouri, N.; Farahani, A. Electrochemically controlled solid phase microextraction based on a conductive polyaniline-graphene oxide nanocomposite for extraction of tetracyclines in milk and water. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2021, 101, 2304–2311.
  78. Rana, M.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Kang, H.J.; Hur, S.J. Reducing veterinary drug residues in animal products: A review. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 2019, 39, 687–703.
  79. Liang, S.; Jian, N.; Cao, J.; Zhang, H.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, C. Rapid, simple and green solid phase extraction based on polyaniline nanofibers-mat for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug residues in animal-origin food. Food Chem. 2020, 328, 127097.
  80. Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Dong, H.; Zhao, J.; Wang, C.; Zhou, S.; Lu, J.; Yan, Y.; Li, H. Accelerating the design of molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes modified by for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2018, 428, 555–565.
  81. Xu, H.; Zhu, S.; Xia, M.; Wang, F.; Ju, X. Three-dimension hierarchical composite via in-situ growth of Zn/Al layered double hydroxide plates onto polyaniline-wrapped carbon sphere for efficient naproxen removal. J. Hazard. Mater. 2022, 423, 127192.
  82. Jian, N.; Qian, L.; Wang, C.; Li, R.; Xu, Q.; Li, J. Novel nanofibers mat as an efficient, fast and reusable adsorbent for solid phase extraction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in environmental water. J. Hazard. Mater. 2019, 363, 81–89.
  83. Suo, L.; Zhao, J.; Dong, X.; Gao, X.; Li, X.; Xu, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, L. Functionalization of a SiO2-coated magnetic graphene oxide composite with polyaniline-polypyrrole for magnetic solid phase extraction of ultra-trace Cr(iii) and Pb(ii) in water and food samples using a Box-Behnken design. New J. Chem. 2019, 43, 12126–12136.
  84. Akhtar, M.; Tahir, A.; Zulfiqar, S.; Hanif, F.; Warsi, M.F.; Agboola, P.O.; Shakir, I. Ternary hybrid of polyaniline-alanine-reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical sensing of heavy metal ions. Synth. Met. 2020, 265, 116410.
  85. Sonone, S.S.; Jadhav, S.V.; Sankhla, M.S.; Kumar, R. Water Contamination by Heavy Metals and their Toxic Effect on Aquaculture and Human Health through Food Chain. Lett. Appl. Nanobiosci. 2020, 10, 2148–2166.
  86. Eskandari, E.; Kosari, M.; Davood Abadi Farahani, M.H.; Khiavi, N.D.; Saeedikhani, M.; Katal, R.; Zarinejad, M. A review on polyaniline-based materials applications in heavy metals removal and catalytic processes. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2020, 231, 115901.
  87. Senguttuvan, S.; Senthilkumar, P.; Janaki, V.; Kamala-Kannan, S. Significance of conducting polyaniline based composites for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solution and wastewaters—A review. Chemosphere 2021, 267, 129201.
  88. Zare, E.N.; Motahari, A.; Sillanpää, M. Nanoadsorbents based on conducting polymer nanocomposites with main focus on polyaniline and its derivatives for removal of heavy metal ions/dyes: A review. Environ. Res. 2018, 162, 173–195.
  89. Wang, J.; Zhu, W.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, L.; Du, T.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, D.; Sun, J.; Yue, T.; Wang, Y.C.; et al. Conductive polyaniline-graphene oxide sorbent for electrochemically assisted solid-phase extraction of lead ions in aqueous food samples. Anal. Chim. Acta 2020, 1100, 57–65.
  90. Mohammad, N.; Atassi, Y. Enhancement of removal efficiency of heavy metal ions by polyaniline deposition on electrospun polyacrylonitrile membranes. Water Sci. Eng. 2021, 14, 129–138.
  91. Chen, J.; Wang, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, J.; Feng, J.; Yan, W. Synergetic effect in a self-doping polyaniline/TiO2 composite for selective adsorption of heavy metal ions. Synth. Met. 2018, 245, 32–41.
  92. Gapusan, R.B.; Balela, M.D.L. Adsorption of anionic methyl orange dye and lead(II) heavy metal ion by polyaniline-kapok fiber nanocomposite. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2020, 243, 122682.
  93. Abu Taleb, M.; Kumar, R.; Al-Rashdi, A.A.; Seliem, M.K.; Barakat, M.A. Fabrication of SiO2/CuFe2O4/polyaniline composite: A highly efficient adsorbent for heavy metals removal from aquatic environment. Arab. J. Chem. 2020, 13, 7533–7543.
  94. Tiggemann, L.; Ballen, S.C.; Bocalon, C.M.; Graboski, A.M.; Manzoli, A.; Steffens, J.; Valduga, E.; Steffens, C. Electronic nose system based on polyaniline films sensor array with different dopants for discrimination of artificial aromas. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2017, 43, 112–116.
  95. Graboski, A.M.; Galvagni, E.; Manzoli, A.; Shimizu, F.M.; Zakrzevski, C.A.; Weschenfelder, T.A.; Steffens, J.; Steffens, C. Lab-made electronic-nose with polyaniline sensor array used in classification of different aromas in gummy candies. Food Res. Int. 2018, 113, 309–315.
  96. Graboski, A.M.; Ballen, S.C.; Galvagni, E.; Lazzari, T.; Manzoli, A.; Shimizu, F.M.; Steffens, J.; Steffens, C. Aroma detection using a gas sensor array with different polyaniline films. Anal. Methods 2019, 11, 654–660.
  97. Ballen, S.C.; Graboski, A.M.; Manzoli, A.; Steffens, J.; Steffens, C. Monitoring Aroma Release in Gummy Candies During The Storage Using Electronic Nose. Food Anal. Methods 2020, 13, 3–12.
  98. Swe, M.M.; Eamsa-Ard, T.; Srikhirin, T.; Kerdcharoen, T. Monitoring the Freshness Level of Beef Using Nanocomposite Gas Sensors in Electronic nose. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics—Asia, ICCE-Asia 2019, Bangkok, Thailand, 12–14 June 2019; pp. 100–103.
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!
Video Production Service