The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics: History
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Subjects: Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan. It runs to 7,680 pages and 5.8 million words. It includes 1,844 articles, of which 1057 are new articles and, from the earlier edition, 80 "classic" essays, 157 revised articles, and 550 edited articles. It is the product of 1,506 contributors, 25 of them Nobel Laureates in Economics. Articles are classified according to Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) classification codes. The New Palgrave is also available in a hyperlinked online version. Article information by abstract, outline, and keywords is available without subscription. These are accessed by "Go to" or "Quick" searches or alphabetical article links by first letter, see Articles A-Z. Refined search by using JEL classification code, article elements, Boolean operators, or wildcards is available, see Advanced search. Online content is added to the 2008 edition from quarterly updates links, see Online Updates. The first edition was titled The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics (1987), edited by John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman and published in four volumes. It is discussed in a section below. Access to full-text articles for both editions and post-2008 updates is available online by subscription, whether of an organization, a person, or a person through an organization.

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1. Editors and Contributors of the Revised 2008 Edition

The General Editors are Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume[1]

The Associate Editors are:

  • Roger Backhouse, Professor of the History and Philosophy of Economics, Birmingham, UK
  • Mark Bils, Professor of Economics, Rochester, US
  • Moshe Buchinsky, Professor of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, US
  • Gregory Clark, Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis, US
  • Catherine Eckel, Professor of Economics and Political Economy, University of Texas at Dallas, US
  • Marcel Fafchamps, Professor of Development Economics, Oxford, UK
  • David Genesove, Professor, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • James Hines, Professor of Economics, University of Michigan, US
  • Barry Ickes, Professor of Economics, Penn State University, US
  • Yannis Ioannides, Professor of Economics, Tufts University, US
  • Eckhard Janeba, Professor of Economics, University of Mannheim, Germany
  • Garett Jones, Associate Professor of Economics, George Mason University
  • Shelly Lundberg, Castor Professor of Economics, University of Washington, US
  • John Nachbar, Professor of Economics, Washington University (St Louis), US
  • Lee Ohanian, Professor of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, US
  • Joon Park, Professor of Economics, Texas A&M University, US
  • John Karl Scholz, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, US
  • Christopher Taber, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, US
  • Bruce Weinberg, Professor of Economics at The Ohio State University, US

Other notable contributors include:

  • Daron Acemoğlu, John Bates Clark Award; member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; author of the forthcoming book Introduction to Modern Economics Growth
  • Philippe Aghion, 2001 Yrjo Jahnsson Award; co-editor of Handbook of Economic Growth
  • William Baumol, author of Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism, and the Economics of Growth and Prosperity
  • Alan Blinder, Vice Chairman, Board of Governors, US Federal Reserve; member of Council of Economic Advisors (Clinton Administration); member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; author of Hard Heads, Soft Hearts: Tough Minded Economics for a Just Society
  • Samuel Bowles, served as an economic advisor to the World Bank and the International Labor Organization; co-author of Schooling in Capitalist America and Microeconomics: Behavior, Institutions and Evolution
  • Tyler Cowen, New York Times columnist; author of Discover Your Inner Economist
  • Peter Diamond, Nemmers Prize; member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, National Academy of Sciences; author of Saving Social Security: A Balanced Approach
  • Avinash Dixit, president of the American Economic Association; member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Corresponding (Foreign) Fellow of the British Academy; former president of the Econometric Society.
  • Huw Dixon, author of Surfing Economics.
  • William Easterly, author of The Elusive Quest for Growth : Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics and The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good
  • Stanley Fischer, Governor of the Bank of Israel; formerly President of Citigroup International
  • Robert H. Frank, author of The Economic Naturalist
  • Douglas Holtz-Eakin, chief economic advisor to the McCain campaign
  • Steven Levitt, author of Freakonomics
  • Paul Klemperer, Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, elected 2005; Fellow of the British Academy, elected 1999
  • Richard Posner, Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
  • Jeffrey Sachs, author of The End of Poverty
  • Thomas Sargent, former president of the American Economic Association; former president of the Econometric Society; member of the American Academy and National Academy
  • Robert Shiller, author of The Subprime Solution: How Today's Global Financial Crisis Happened, and What to Do about It

Nobel Laureate contributors include George Akerlof, Maurice Allais, Kenneth Arrow, Robert Aumann, James Buchanan, Gérard Debreu, Milton Friedman, Clive Granger, John Harsanyi, James Heckman, Leonid Kantorovich, Wassily Leontief, Harry Markowitz, Robert C. Merton, Roger Myerson, Edmund Phelps, Edward Prescott, Paul Samuelson, Amartya Sen, Herbert A. Simon, Vernon L. Smith, George Stigler, Joseph E. Stiglitz, James Tobin, and William Vickrey.[2]

2. The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics (1987) is the title of the first New Palgrave edition. It is a four-volume reference edited by John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman. It has 4,000 pages of entries, including 1,300 subject entries (with 4,000 cross-references), and 655 biographies. There were 927 contributors, including 13 Nobel Laureates in Economics at the time of first publication. It includes about 50 articles from Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy (1925–1927).[3] It was roughly twice the length of its predecessor and differed further in excluding most subjects not on economics or closely related to its practice.[4]

Contents include;

List of Entries A–Z, including cross-references, at the beginning of each volume.
Volume 1: A–D.
Volume 2: E–J.
Volume 3: K–P.
Volume 4: Q–Z.
Appendix I: Entries by author
Appendix II: Biographies of persons in Palgrave's Dictionary (1925) but not The New Palgrave
Appendix III: Entries by author in Palgrave's Dictionary (1925–27)
Appendix IV: Subject Index, 10 pp.
Index: 38 pp.

2.1. Subject Index

As distinct from the 2008 edition, which uses the JEL codes, the 1987 edition employs its own Subject Index, with each article entered under exactly one (sub)classification:

  1. History of Thought and Doctrine: classical economics, Marxian economics, doctrines, schools of thought
  2. Cognate Disciplines: philosophy, methodology, rationality & behaviour, anthropology, history
  3. Natural and Human Resources: agriculture & land, environment, labour & employment, population, justice, inequality, & discrimination
  4. Social and Political Organization: public finance, welfare economics, planned economies, social choice & public choice, law & economics
  5. Economic Organization: economic organization, transaction cost, industrial organization, monopoly & oligopoly, conflict & war, game theory, risk & uncertainty
  6. Techniques: mathematical economics, mathematical methods, statistical methods, private accounting & social accounting, econometrics, time series
  7. Money and Macroeconomics: finance, monetary theory & institutions, international monetary economics, macroeconomic theory & policy
  8. Dynamics, Growth, and Development: investment, cycles, economic growth, technical change, development, international trade, spatial economics
  9. Value and Capital: competition, utility, consumers' demand, & index numbers, production, cost, & supply, general equilibrium, capital theory, distribution
  10. Miscellaneous: American Economic Association, Palgrave's Dictionary, economics libraries, Royal Economic Society
  11. Biographies by Country: Britain & Ireland, Germany, Austria, Low Countries, Italy & S. Europe, Scandinavia, E. Europe, N. America, Asia, Australia & New Zealand, Japan, S. Africa, S. America & Caribbean.

2.2. Reviews

General remarks

Reviewing the 1987 edition for the New York Times , Robert M. Solow concluded that "this is a dictionary only in a very special sense. There are excellent survey articles, in various sizes, on various subjects. But the best of them are written by professionals for professionals." According to Solow, graduate students in economics would find the dictionary useful, but most of the articles would be inaccessible to non-economists, even undergraduate students of the liberal arts. For economists, however, the dictionary provided many excellent overviews of contemporary research.[5] In response, editor (Milgate 1992) confirmed that the articles were written for an audience of professional economists, and so neither for the general reading public nor for specialist economists.

Mathematics and contemporary economics

According to Milgate, New Palgrave downplayed mathematics, in comparison to leading economic journals. Only 24% of the columns contained "any mathematics" (and so required expensive hand-typesetting), while only 25% of the most recent issue of the American Economic Review (AER) in fact lacked mathematics, according to Milgate, who averred that the AER's mathematical usage was typical of leading contemporary journals: The New Palgrave's usage of mathematics was the reciprocal of the contemporary profession's. (Milgate 1992) "It must be concluded that the New Palgrave actually under-represented the mathematical element in modern economics; and under-represented it to a significant degree", wrote (Milgate 1992).

Commenting on contemporary economics, Solow described technical economics as its essential "infrastructure":

There is a lesson in the fate of Palgrave. Economics is no longer a fit conversation piece for ladies and gentlemen. It has become a technical subject. Like any technical subject it attracts some people who are more interested in the technique than the subject. That is too bad, but it may be inevitable. In any case, do not kid yourself: the technical core of economics is indispensable infrastructure for the political economy. That is why, if you consult Palgrave looking for enlightenment about the world today, you will be led to technical economics, or history, or nothing at all.[5]

More advanced mathematics was implicit in some of the articles, many of which were well written and reasonably accessible. Solow recommended the "broad and deep" article on game theory by Robert J. Aumann for well-equipped graduate students, along with John Harsanyi's article on bargaining theory. The articles on financial economics were "written by the best people—Stephen Ross, Robert Merton, and others—and they show it"; however, they were too difficult for the average investor. Complimenting the article on international trade, Solow added a caveat lector: "But God forbid that" a reader without knowledge of economics should try to understand protectionism, by consulting the New Palgrave.[5]

In his review, George Stigler commended the dictionary's non-technical and conceptually rich article on social choice, which was written by Kenneth Arrow, among "numerous" excellent articles. However, Stigler criticized the inclusion of "dozens" of articles in mathematical economics, which failed to provide intuitive introductions to the problem, how it was solved, and what the solution is: "These articles were written, not for a tolerably competent economist, but exclusively for fellow specialists."[6]

Exclusion of empirical material

Whitaker wrote, "Readers to whom economics is nothing if not a science based on empirical inquiry may be dismayed by the lack of attention to empirical studies and factual matters".[7]

Stigler criticized the New Palgrave for largely ignoring empirical economics—economic data, summary statistics, and econometric investigations. According to Stigler, the empirical investigation of consumption and production functions has profoundly influenced microeconomic theory, while the empirical investigation of price levels has profoundly influenced monetary economics: The New Palgrave's neglect of empirical economics also weakened its treatment of economic theory and the history of economic thought. Furthermore, the editors failed to explain their neglect of empirical economics, while they gave large space to treatments of "technical economics", especially mathematical economics, and faddish topics, wrote Stigler.[8]

"The article on 'Profit and profit theory' does not contain a single number for what profits are or ever have been, in the United States or any other country, or any reference to any source that might provide such a number", wrote Herbert Stein, who complained "There are articles about elasticities of this or that but no estimate of the elasticity of anything."[9]

Reviewing the critics of the over-emphasis on theoretical and "doctrinal" economics, editor Milgate admitted that the New Palgrave was flawed by its neglect of empirical economics.[10]

Criticisms of undue weight for heterodox approaches

Robert M. Solow criticized the 1987 edition for slighting mainstream economics by giving excessive space to the "dissenting fringes within academic economics", namely Marxist economics as well as "Austrian persuasion", Post-Keynesians, and neo-Ricardian.[5]

Nevertheless, there is usually a definite consensus—there is one now—and an accurate picture of the discipline would make that clear. It would have to give dissent a fair shake. It would have to treat mainstream ideas critically. But it should keep the various "paradigms" in proportion. I do not think The New Palgrave has managed to do that.

The most obvious, though not the most important, manifestation of imbalance is the large number of items devoted to Marxist themes, from "abstract and concrete labor" to "vulgar economy." Some of the articles are informative, some are mystifying; but that is not the point. Marx was an important and influential thinker, and Marxism has been a doctrine with intellectual and practical influence. The fact is, however, that most serious English-speaking economists regard Marxist economics as an irrelevant dead end. The New Palgrave does not take up the issue head on, but I think it gives a false impression of the state of play by this deadpan statement. It is rather as if a medical dictionary were to intersperse articles on mainstream orthopedics, written by orthopedists, with articles on osteopathy, written by osteopaths, and were to leave it at that.[5]

The 1987 dictionary's discussion of heterodox approaches was also criticized by George Stigler, who complained that these articles were written by sympathetic editors in a partisan manner:

The selection of sympathetic writers ... is in fact a general practice in Palgrave II. Israel Kirzner's essay on the Austrian economists does not hint at the existence of error, misrepresentation of critics, or tasteless attacks upon the German Historical School, and Klaus Henning did little better with Böhm-Bawerk. An ersatz Austrian is apparently more loyal than the genuine article.[6] [Italics added]

Stigler complained about the extensive and biased articles on Marxist economics, including "neo-Ricardian" economists (who follow Piero Sraffa): "A nonprofessional reader would never guess from these volumes that economists working in the Marxian-Sraffian tradition represent a small minority of modern economists, and that their writings have virtually no impact upon the professional work of most economists in major English-language universities." Stigler provided a table of articles that were biased by Marxist orthodoxy and criticized some authors by name, especially a "violently pro-Marxist" entry by C. B. Macpherson.[6]

3. Earlier Editions

R. H. Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy (1894–1899), 3 v., was the forerunner of The New Palgrave. The initial contractual agreement between Palgrave and the publisher Macmillan & Co. is dated 1888. Serial installments in 1891–92 had disappointing sales. An appendix was added to Volume III in 1908, so completing publication of the set. The Dictionary was wide-ranging and sometimes idiosyncratic. It included for example a comprehensive treatment of laws on property and commercial transactions. Professional reaction has been described as generally favorable and unsurprising, "given that almost all economists of any repute had already endorsed the enterprise by agreeing to contribute."[4] Nearly thirty years after the first volume appeared, Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy (1923–1926), edited by Henry Higgs, appeared with Palgrave's name added to the title but few changes in structure or contents.[11]

The content is sourced from:


  1. Blaug, Mark; Sturges, Rodney P. (1999). Who's who in economics. Cheltenham, UK Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 9781858988863. 
  2. A complete list of articles and associated authors is here.
  3. Eatwell, John; Milgate, Murray; Newman, Peter K. (1987). The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics (2nd ed.). London New York Tokyo: Macmillan Stockton Press Maruzen. ISBN 9780333740408. 
  4. Stigler (1988).
  5. Robert M. Solow, New York Times "The Wide, Wide World of Wealth", March 28, 1998
  6. Stigler (1988), p. 1732
  7. Whitaker, John K. (1989). "Palgrave resurrected: a review article". Journal of Political Economy 97 (2): 484. 
  8. Stigler (1988), p. 1731
  9. Stein, Herbert, 1988. "The state of economics", The AEI Economist, January, pp. 1–7, as cited by Milgate (1992), p. 291.
  10. Milgate (1992), p. 291
  11. ""Palgrave"", The New Palgrave: a dictionary of economics (2nd ed.), London New York Tokyo: Macmillan Stockton Press Maruzen, 1987, pp. 791–92, ISBN 9780333740408 
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