Northwestern European People: History
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Subjects: Others

Northwestern European people are a pan-ethnic group, or multi-ethnic regional grouping, and the inhabitants of Northwestern Europe. Northwest or Northwestern Europeans can usually trace back full or partial heritage to Great Britain and Ireland, Northern Germany, Denmark , Sweden, Norway , the Netherlands, Northern France, Belgium, and other places connected to Northwestern Europe geographically or culturally. As the pan-ethnic group is also a cultural category, rather than exclusively geographical; it often can include peoples with ancestry from bordering regions such as Austria, Finland , Southern Germany, and Switzerland . There is a large Northwestern European diaspora, with significant numbers within North America (Northwestern European Americans and Northwestern European Canadians), and Northwestern European Australians in Oceania. Other subgroupings of Europeans include Eastern European people and Southern European people.

  • multi-ethnic
  • regional
  • europe

1. Background

Northwestern European people have been identified as a distinct pan-ethnic grouping. They have been researched in academia in historical, cultural, linguistic and anthropological studies.[1][2][3] A number of genetic research studies have been conducted with the group.[4][5] The panethnicity has also been referenced in journalistic works.[6][7][8]

Although Northwestern Europeans are often defined by ancestry from the geographic northwest extremities of Europe, the identification also has cultural context, and often includes other related subgroups. For example, Finns may be ethnoculturally considered as Northwest Europeans, while the broader grouping of Baltic Finns may be, at times, identified as northerly Eastern Europeans, depending on certain contexts. In this regard, the Swiss or Austrians and other peoples native to bordering regions are variously described as part of the grouping, particularly when a diasporic people (such as Swiss Americans or Austrian Canadians), or may be identified as Central Europeans. Dr. Virgil F. Fairbanks has summarized the history of the pan-ethnic group:[5]

More than a thousand years ago, northwestern Europeans invaded what had been the Roman Empire by land and by longboat, colonizing areas now included in southern Germany, Austria, France, Spain, Portugal, northern Italy, Sicily, and the British Isles. They also ascended the rivers that enter the Baltic Sea and colonized present-day Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia. In the past few hundred years, their descendants have colonized much of North America, Australia , and New Zealand.

2. History

Northwestern Europeans utilized outcrop coal, especially in Great Britain, during the Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC), where it was used as fuel for funeral pyres.[9][10] A notable critic of Eurocentrism, professor James Morris Blaut detailed some of the historical cultural and civilisational aspects of Northwestern European peoples, which have been posited as explanatory, contributing factors for the "European miracle":[11]

A great many present-day historians believe that Europeans long ago acquired an ability to resist the Malthusian disasters which supposedly blocked development in every other culture, some of the arguments starting with the ancient Iron Age folk, some with an amalgam of Germanic and Christian elements, some with medieval Northwest-Europeans (see Mann 1986; Macfarlane 1986; Jones 1981; Stone 1977; Crone 1989 and many others).

2.1. Late Middle Ages

During the late Middle Ages the group developed a pattern of late marriage (relative to other groups) due to,[11] among other factors, customs of land inheritance and agriculture. Scholar Mary S. Hartman has proposed these changes greatly contributed to the development of state formation and industrialisation in the Western world. She argues that "the unstable households that late-marriage patterns fostered obliged Northwestern Europeans to devise new institutions to perform services that extended families offered in early-marriage societies."[12] In his 2013 book The Measure of Civilization, historian Ian Morris proposed that development in agriculture had raised "energy capture per capita" up to 26,000 kilocalorie for the group in the late Middle Ages. By 1700, Morris estimates that Northwestern Europeans were capturing up to 35,000 kcals a day per person via advanced farming.[13]

2.2. Northwestern European Colonialism

After the success of other Europeans groupings, such as Portuguese and Spanish colonists, Northwestern Europeans competed for land and resources in the what became known as the Age of Discovery. According to historian Herbert S. Klein, in North America "settlement patterns of the northwestern Europeans" were influenced by the "distribution of the pre-columbian Amerindian population". Klein has noted that French, British and Dutch colonists began to established their presence, in what was thought of as the New World, by the 17th century.[14] Historian Seymour Drescher has observed the shifting patterns of Nortwestern Europeans' behaviour during this progression of European colonialism and early modern slavery:[15]

In the sixty years before 1640 more than seven out of every eight people shipped across the Atlantic by Northwestern Europeans were Europeans. In the sixty years after 1700 the proportion was exactly reversed. Seven out of every eight people shipped to the Americas, under French, Dutch and British flags, were from Africa.

During the early 17th-century Dutch and British traders and colonists, outmatched by Iberian transatlantic power and limited by the "naval politics of the north-western Europeans", operated opportunistically with regards land and material gains.[16] Expeditions of Dutch, Irish, French and English people, at first, prioritized gold prospecting, later establishing trading links and gaining territories in the Americas.[17] Around this time, and perhaps partially due to economic gain of colonization, Northwestern Europeans viewed themselves as developmentally superior to other peoples, and attempted to justify their expansion and conquests into other continents. Sociologist Arland Thornton has written:[18]

It is not surprising that ethnocentrism encouraged northwest Europeans to place themselves, especially their middle and upper classes, at the apex of development. The idea that northwest Europe was developmentally superior may have also been enhanced by Europe’s military, economic, and political ascendancy at the time and by the motivation of Europeans to legitimize their territorial expansion and colonization (Jennings 1975; Berkhofer 1978; Pagden 1982).

Anthropologist Jared Diamond and his 1997 book Guns, Germs, and Steel, which attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conquered others, has been described as demonstrating "how the interplay of ecology and technology enabled Northwest Europeans to dominate the world."[19] Professor Deirdre McCloskey has approached the topic of economic growth in Northwestern Europe in her 2011 book Bourgeois Dignity, which suggests that a change in rhetoric regarding the value of business, innovation, and entrepreneurship is responsible. McCloskey suggests that "for largely noneconomic reasons, the prestige of a bourgeois prudence rose around 1700, in the way northwest Euopean people talked, within an economic conversation still honoring a balance of virtues."[20]

2.3. 21st Century

In 2012, it was reported that between 2 to 6 percent of the group had red hair, compared with 1 to 2 percent of the world population. This was found to be disportionately the case in Great Britain and Ireland, with 13 percent of Scots, 10 percent of Irish people and 6 percent of English people being redheaded.[8] In 2016, religious scholar Martin E. Marty noted that Northwestern Europeans living in Germany constituted the largest proportion of Lutherans in any one territory.[21] A 2017 Pew Research Center poll found that a minority of the group held negative views regarding Islam, in comparison to the populations of the Eastern European nations Hungary and Poland , and Southern European Italy, Greece and Spain , where the majority of respondents "harboured hostile attitudes to Islam".[22]

In 2018, professor Laurence Hurst detailed how natural selection had led to over 80 percent of Northwestern Europeans being able to produce the enzyme lactase, and thereby able to break down milk sugars. In contrast, Hurst wrote that East Asian people were mainly lactose intolerant.[23] In 2020, University of York's professor Oliver Craig wrote: "Today, the genetic change that allows adults to digest the lactose in milk is at much higher frequency in Northwestern Europeans than their southern counterparts”.[24]

3. Culture

In a 2009 study by professor Steven Ruggles, which constrasted Northwestern European families in Europe and North America; Ruggles attempts to reconsider the widely held academic position that the pan-ethnic group have been predominantly nuclear family-orientated.[25] Professor David Kaminsky has written that expressions of the group's musical heritage (such as Celtic music) has declined in the 21st-century. This has been replaced by an imagined pan-European "bricolage of Romani, klezmer and Balkan styles" which, Kaminsky argues in his 2015 research, have been "claimed by northwestern Europeans as part of a wider project of reimagining their own identities in the post-Cold-war era".[26]

4. Academic Research

A 2009 study, published in Human Molecular Genetics, studied the physical height of the group in relation to genetics. The research, conducted by Karol Estrada, Albert Hofman, Dorret Boomsma and others, analyzed natriuretic peptide precursor C in Northwestern European genomes and its correlation with human height.[27] 2015 research published in Scientific Reports journal, studied gene flow between Asian people and Europeans, noting East Asians and Northwestern Europeans as two geographic-extremity subgroupings in the study.[28]

5. Diaspora

There is a large diaspora of people with Northwestern European ancestry. Significant concentrations of the group are in North America, representated by Northwestern European Canadians and Northwestern European Americans, as well as Northwestern European Australians in Oceania.

5.1. North America

Early colonisation

Between 1608 to 1760, as a significant part of the European colonization of the Americas, Northwestern European peoples settled lands extensively in North America.[29] In lands that would become the Thirteen Colonies (later the United States ) and Canada , the group created farms and plantations.[30] Their mixed farming techniques, according to geographer Cole Harris, facilitated the settlement of valley areas along the Saint Lawrence River.[31] Harris noted that "remarkably homogeneous and egalitarian rural societies of subsistent farmers emerged quickly" in North America. Among Northwestern Europeans this fostered their "strong sense of the nuclear family supported by a desire for the private control of land".[32]

Early modern slavery, and the Atlantic slave trade itself, "juxtaposed west and central Africans with northwest Europeans in the Americas."[33] Subgroupings of Dutch, French and British settlers, competed for resources and land. There was also intragroup prejudice between them and varied means of operating colonies. For example, British colonists expeditiously imported Northwestern European peoples to populate their settlements, while French colonists in Canadian settlements, such as Acadia, maintained a self-replacing population.[34] During this frontier era, almost all colonists had a Northwestern European ancestry in North America.[35]

Writing in pre-independence America, Benjamin Franklin express racial concerns in 1751, regarding German immigration to the United States. Historian Thomas Borstelmann wrote how, after a few decades, "the idea of Germans having a different complexion than other northwestern European Americans came to seem peculiar".[36] By the 1790s, most of the populace of New York City were of Northwestern European ancestry.[37]

Immigration to US and Canada

The "Northwest European Wave", as described academically, was an period of immigration between 1821 to 1880 in the US. Irish, French, Germans and British people arrived in large number to the East Coast of the United States.[38] Professor Vincent N. Parrillo, wrote that: "By 1890, the "mainstream American" ingroup did not yet include many other northwest European Americans. Although some multigenerational Americans of non-British ancestry had blended into the mainstream, millions of others had not."[39] Between 1880 to 1920, immigration to the United States from Eastern and Southern Europe increased greatly. Despite relatively outsider status, historian Paul Spickard noted that "Northwest Europeans continued to come and stay in very large numbers" during this period.[40]

From 1886 to 1926, about one quarter the Northwestern Europeans that had settled on the Canadian Prairies, were born outside Canada. In comparision, around one half of Eastern and Southern Europeans were born abroad.[41] By the 1901 census, most of Canadians expressed a preference for WASP immigrants from the United States and Great Britain. As a second option, general ancestry from Northwestern Europe, such as Scandinavia, was preferred.[42] Similarly, by 1914, "terms denoting a common northwest European consciousness, such as 'American race stock'" became increasing common in the United States. A broad Northwestern European heritage was gradually utilized by nativists to denote "northwest Europeans who shared the common racial 'stock' of 'our forefathers'".[43]

Northwestern European immigration had reduced to 41 percent of all arrivals between 1901 to 1920 in the United States. Meanwhile by 1921 the pan-ethnic group represented almost all immigraton to Canada.[44] This period of immigration coincided with the popularization of eugenics in North America, and particularly the United States. Figures, such as Madison Grant and Lothrop Stoddard,[45] harnessing the ethnic category for racial supremacism,[46] and publishing theories about Northwestern Europeans becoming genetically diluted.[47] This included suggesting that, alongside public figures such as Thomas Bailey Aldrich and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, that a race suicide was a credible threat to, what they defined as, the grouping.[48]

Much of the racial climate and prejudice of this era had fed directly into the passing of the Immigration Act of 1924, which significantly favored Northwestern Europeans, with its 1890 United States Census-led "National Origins Quota".[49] The Act all but ended any further significant immigration from any region other than Northwestern Europe.[50]

Academic studies

Psychologist John W. Berry's 1977 study observed that, in terms of immigrant groups, Northwestern European people were viewed the most favorably by Canadians citizens. This was followed up by Central and Southern Europeans.[51] A 2011 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics analyzed genetic data for the pan-ethnic group. Conducted by Dr. Evan E. Eichler with multiple other scientists, the research compared genome copy-number variation in multiple ethnic groups, including Northwestern European Americans, Yoruba people, Maasai people and the Han Chinese.[52]

The content is sourced from:


  1. Konrad Ehlich; Johannes Wagner (1995). "Negotiation discourse and interaction in a cross-cultural perspective". The Discourse of Business Negotiation (Studies in Anthropological Linguistics). De Gruyter Mouton. p. 185. ISBN 978-3110140392. "This also explains why bargaining spans tend to be so great at the outset: this should by no means be interpreted (as many Northwest European people would probably do) as lack of empathy or concern with the other party's standpoint, but rather a tension-creating device" 
  2. Ian Haney López (2006). "Ozawa and Thind". White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. NYU Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0814736944. ""In a variety of surveys, the American population ranked Northwestern Europeans highest, then the South-Central-Eastern Europeans, in turn the Japanese and Chinese, and finally blacks." A year after the decision in Thind, Congress responded to this popular prejudice with immigration quotas" 
  3. Leslie Page Moch (2009). "Migration in the Twentieth Century". Moving Europeans, Second Edition: Migration in Western Europe since 1650. Indiana University Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0253215956. "Among the immigrant groups from cultures whose religious practices and perceived appearance were distinct from those of northwestern Europeans, the Turks are most important." 
  4. Martin Richards; Vincent Macaulay; Antonio Torroni; Hans-Jürgen Bandelt (2002), "In Search of Geographical Patterns in European Mitochondrial DNA", American Journal of Human Genetics, Cell Press, "In a comparison of three genetic marker systems, Wilson et al. (2001) showed that northwestern Europeans could be clearly distinguished from both Basques and Near Easterners on the basis of both mtDNA and X chromosome microsatellites." 
  5. Sandosh Padmanabhan (2014). "Part VII: Application in Therapeutics". Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicine. Academic Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-0123868824. "Additionally, this analysis revealed an independent association with the SNP rs2523822, a known tag for the class I HLA allele A*02:01 among Northwestern Europeans. ... These findings likely reflect LD patterns, as it is known that rs2523822 and HLA-A*02:01 exist in strong LD among Northwestern European populations but not among Southern Europeans." 
  6. "Fatherhood Tied to Higher Prostate Cancer Risk". ABC News. 24 March 2008. "Dr. Susan Harlap, now a professor of epidemiology at New York University, led that Israeli study ... "The incidence of prostate cancer is different in Israeli Jews than in northwestern Europeans," Harlap said. "It may be a different disease, and there may be a different set of causes. We do know there are genetic causes of prostate cancer, and there could be different sets of genes in Israeli Jews than in northwestern Europeans."" 
  7. Elizabeth F. Cohen (March 13, 2019). "What Immigration Restrictionists Can’t Foresee". The Atlantic. "Instead of engineering a population of highly educated, northwestern Europeans, the authors of the legislation created new immigrant communities that persist to this day." 
  8. "Does cloudy weather make you ginger?". The Daily Telegraph. 7 November 2012. "Provisional statistics indicate that between two and six per cent of northwest Europeans are redheads, compared to an average of one or two per cent in the world population. But in the UK the numbers are much higher, with 13 per cent of Scots, 10 per cent of the Irish, and six per cent of individuals in England having red hair." 
  9. Encyclopædia Britannica 2004: Coal mining: ancient use of outcropping coal
  10. Ian Morris (2015). "Fossil Fuels". Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels: How Human Values Evolve. Princeton University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0691160399. "Fossil-fuel society is the product of two innovations. The first, which some northwest Europeans had already made two thousand years ago, was the discovery that coal could be burned to release heat." 
  11. James M. Blaut (1992). "The Theory of Cultural Racism". Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography. 23. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 289–299. "This then becomes a general theory explaining what some call the "European miracle," by arguing that the (mythically unique) European family, nuclear, late-marrying, companionate, led to population control (Hall [1985: 131] speaks of "the relative continence of the European family"); led also to a capitalist mentality (Macfarlane 1986; Laslett 1988); even led unmarried European men to go forth and conquer the world because of their sexual frustration (Stone 1977: 54)." 
  12. Gayle K. Brunelle. "Book Review: The Household and the Making of History". University of Illinois Press. "The consequences of this change in marriage patterns were enormous, Hartman contends, and underlay many of the most momentous developments in Western history, such as the growth of state power and industrialization. The unstable households that late-marriage patterns fostered obliged Northwestern Europeans to devise new institutions to perform services that extended families offered in early-marriage societies." 
  13. Ian Morris (2014). "Energy Capture". The Measure of Civilization: How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations. Princeton University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0691160863. "The advanced agriculturalists of the late Middle Ages were already capturing 26,000 kcal/cap/day, early modern Northwest Europeans around 1700 CE must have been consuming somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 kcal/cap/day." 
  14. Herbert S. Klein (2012). "Colonization and Settlement of North America". A Population History of the United States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-1107613621. "The distribution of the pre-columbian Amerindian population would have as much influence on the settlement patterns of the northwestern Europeans who would colonize the Americas as did the Iberians who had preceded them ... The English and French were next to arrive ... unsuccessful in their efforts to establish North American colonies until the early 17th century ... Only the Dutch had the resources to challenge the Iberians directly ... The first third of the 17th century also saw a determined effort of the French, English, and Dutch to establish permanent colonies in the lesser Antilles."
  15. Seymour Drescher (2004). "White Atlantic? The Choice for African Slave Labor in the Plantation Americas". Slavery in the Development of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0521832779.
  16. Paul Butel (2014). "The Atlantic and the Iberians: Sixteenth to seventeenth centuries". The Atlantic. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-0415756389. "It was only in the course of the seventeenth century that two new Atlantics - the Dutch and the British - asserted themselves, playing a growing role in the European economy and, in some degree, to the detriment of Seville's Atlantic. They nevertheless remained strictly dependent on the latter and hopes of the treasures to be captured or even dominated remained an essential element of the naval politics of the north-western Europeans." 
  17. Karwan Fatah-Black (2015). "Origins of Dutch and European Colonization in Suriname". White Lies and Black Markets: Evading Metropolitan Authority in Colonial Suriname, 1650-1800. Brill Publishers. p. 16. ISBN 978-9004283329. "The plans of Northwest Europeans most focused on organizing expeditions to finding gold ... French, Dutch, Irish and English expeditions began to establish trading links with the area around the turn of the century." 
  18. Arland Thornton (2012), "Developed and less developed societies", in George Ritzer, The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization, Wiley-Blackwell 
  19. Joan Huber (2007). "5". On the Origins of Gender Inequality. Routledge. pp. 96–104. ISBN 978-1594513626. "Jared Diamond (1997; 2002), an apparently magisterial social scientist, demonstrated how the interplay of ecology and technology enabled Northwest Europeans to dominate the world. In this chapter I compare infant diet in foraging, hoe, herding, and plow societies in order to show how ecology and technology have affected beliefs and behaviors concerning the feeding of human offspring." 
  20. Deirdre McCloskey (2011). "And The Bourgeois Era Warrants Not Pessimism". Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World. University of Chicago Press. p. 438. ISBN 978-0226556741. 
  21. Martin E. Marty (October 31, 2016). "Reformation Jostlings". University of Chicago. "What is the current status of the Reformation as it lives on among those Christians who call themselves “Lutheran” and/or “Protestant”? To update Whitehead’s cramping observation, we look at statistics in atlases. Yes, northwest Europeans in Germany still head the list." 
  22. "Attitudes to Islam in Europe are hardening". The Economist. 1 September 2017. "A poll by Pew Research, an American think-tank, found that a majority of people in Hungary, Italy, Poland, Greece and Spain harboured hostile attitudes to Islam while only a minority of northwestern Europeans held similar views." 
  23. Laurence Hurst (22 November 2018). "Humans are still evolving – and scientists don't know why". The Independent. "Studies also show that natural selection favouring a mutation allowing adults to produce lactase – the enzyme that breaks down milk sugars – is why some groups of people can digest milk after weaning. Over 80 per cent of northwest Europeans can, but in parts of East Asia, where milk is much less commonly drunk, an inability to digest lactose is the norm." 
  24. "Study traces spread of early dairy farming across Western Europe". University of York. 27 April 2020. 
  25. Steven Ruggles (2009). "Reconsidering the Northwest European family system: Living arrangements of the aged in comparative historical perspective". Population and Development Review (Volume 35 ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 249–273. "The results show that with simple controls for agricultural employment and demographic structure, comparable measures of the living arrangements of the aged show little systematic difference between nineteenth-century Northwest Europe and North America and twentieth-century developing countries. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that Northwest Europeans and North Americans had an exceptional historical pattern of preference for nuclear families." 
  26. David Kaminsky (2015), "Introduction: The New Old Europe Sound", British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 25, Routledge 
  27. Karol Estrada; Albert Hofman; Dorret Boomsma (2009), "A genome-wide association study of northwestern Europeans involves the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the etiology of human height variation", Human Molecular Genetics, Oxford University Press 
  28. Pengfei Qin (2015), "Quantitating and Dating Recent Gene Flow between European and East Asian Populations", Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, "We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations." 
  29. Paul Butel (2014). "The Atlantic and the growth of the naval powers: The seventeenth century". The Atlantic. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-0415756389. "Rather, in the New World as in Africa, the north-western Europeans would demonstrate new ambitions to dominate trade and to set up their own areas of colonization ... Another Atlantic took form in the seventeenth century with the colonization and peopling of North America, from French Canada to the English colonies on the mainland." 
  30. P Bernardini; N Fiering (2001). "The Jewish Moment". The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800. Berghahn Books. p. 503. ISBN 978-1571814302. "In the New World, however, the Northwest Europeans were able to duplicate the Iberian policy of founding settlement colonies. As in Spanish America, the settlers in British, French, and Dutch North America were mainly interested in subsistence farming and interregional trade ... In addition to trade and settlement, the Northwest Europeans also developed a plantation zone, situated in the southeast of North America" 
  31. Hubert Charbonneau; Cole Harris (1998). "Resettling the St Lawrence Valley, 1608-1760". Concise Historical Atlas of Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0802042033. "Agricultural Capability: (for the mixed agriculture practised by northwestern Europeans)" 
  32. Cole Harris (1977). "The Simplification of Europe Overseas". Annals of the American Association of Geographers (Volume 67 ed.). Taylor & Francis. pp. 469–483. "The structure of northwestern European societies overseas had more to do with the nature of access to land in colonial settings than with the particular backgrounds of emigrating Europeans. The crucial European inheritance -a strong sense of the nuclear family supported by a desire for the private control of land-was common to most northwestern Europeans. When these assumptions were introduced to areas where land was cheap and markets were poor, as in early Canada , South Africa, and New England, remarkably homogeneous and egalitarian rural societies of subsistent farmers emerged quickly.)"
  33. "The Question of Race in ancient Egypt". University College London. 2003. 
  34. John Douglas Belshaw (2016). "The Transatlantic Age". Canadian History: Post Confederation. BCcampus Open Education. "The model of imperialism that the Iberians introduced took advantage of existing populations and grafted onto it ... This model influenced the northwestern Europeans but it was one that they could not follow utterly. As we shall see in subsequent chapters, the English relied on emigration to (re)populate the territories they claimed. France was reluctant to do the same and it lacked the resources and the will to build much more than a replacement society along the St. Lawrence and a few outposts in Acadia and Louisiana." 
  35. Stephen K. Sanderson (2015). Modern Societies: A Comparative Perspective. Routledge. ISBN 978-1612056685. "Canada and Australia were, like the United States, settler colonies that hived off from Britain. Frontier areas were occupied almost entirely by northwest Europeans, and other European ethnies immigrated later." 
  36. Thomas Borstelmann (2016). "Inside Every Foreigner: How Americans Understand Others". Diplomatic History (Volume 40 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1–18. "Benjamin Franklin’s warning that colonial Pennsylvania was becoming “a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them and will never adopt our Language or Customs any more than they can acquire our Complexion.” But just as the idea of Germans having a different complexion than other northwestern European Americans came to seem peculiar, so, too, did mainstream public attitudes about race and discrimination" 
  37. A. J. Jaffe (1992). The First Immigrants from Asia: A Population History of the North American Indians. Springer Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 978-0306439520. "For example, we know that in New York City two centuries ago, the people were largely of northwestern European origin. ... We know that the vital rates have changed over these two centuries. But have the original northwestern European people changed their behavior?"
  38. Jesse O. McKee (2000). "Humanity On The Move". Ethnicity in Contemporary America: A Geographical Appraisal. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 20. ISBN 978-0742500341. "Table 1.1 Immigration Periods ... 1821-1880 Northwest European Wave. Heavily Irish, German, British, French, and other northwest Europeans, together with a complement from Canada, China and the West Indies." 
  39. Vincent N. Parrillo (2012). Diversity in America. Routledge. ISBN 978-1612052540. 
  40. Paul Spickard (2007). "The Great Wave, 1870-1930". Almost All Aliens: Immigration, Race, and Colonialism in American History and Identity: Race, Colonialism, and Immigration in American History and Identity. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0415935937. "Although many histories of immigration describe this period from the 1870s to the 1920s as one when the sources of migrants shifted from Northwest Europe to Southern and Eastern Europe - “Old Immigration” versus the “New Immigration,” Northwest Europeans continued to come and stay in very large numbers." 
  41. A. S. Whiteley (1932). "The Peopling of the Prairie Provinces of Canada". American Journal of Sociology (Volume 38 ed.). University of Chicago Press. pp. 240–252. "The Prairie born constituted the largest single element in the population in 1926 and with those from other provinces comprised 62.75 per cent of the total. With respect to "origin," about one-half of those from Central, South, and East Europe and less than one-fourth of those from Northwest European stocks were foreign born." 
  42. Raymond B. Blake; Jeffrey A. Keshen; Norman J. Knowles; Barbara J. Messamore (2017). "Development and Dissonance, 1896-1914". Conflict and Compromise: Post-Confederation Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1442635579. "Althought changed by immigration, Canada's population remained overwhelmingly white, Anglo, French and Western European. The 1901 census indicated that Canada was 96.2 per cent Caucasian. Most Canadians expressed a clear preference for white, Protestant British and Ameican newcomers, viewing them as easiest to assimilate, followed by northwest Europeans and Scandinavians." 
  43. "Introduction", Introduction - Princeton University, Princeton University Press, p. 6-9,, "1914 ... Now, within Anglo-America and under the impress of an increasingly racialized nativism, there arose terms denoting a common northwest European consciousness, such as “American race stock”and “old stock.” ... Groups such as the Americanization Committee of Germantown drew on the language of racialized nativism to cast their members—including those of German background—as northwest Europeans who shared the common racial “stock” of “our forefathers.” ... During the 1940s ... Chicago ’s working-class and Catholic Germans thereby helped to create a common ground that necessarily influenced the identities of their Irish and new immigrant collaborators. Similarly, when middle-class Germans took refuge in a racial nationalism, they cooperated with other northwest Europeans and echoed the behavior of such other “Nordic” groups as Norwegian Americans." 
  44. Audley George Reid (2002). "Immigration and Urban Demographics: Internal and External Migrants in Chicago and Toronto". Distinct paths: Race and Public Housing in postwar Toronto and Chicago. University of Florida. "Northwestern Europeans were the majority group as well among immigrants to Canada. However, the demographic shift away from northwestern Europe as an immigrant source occurred earlier in the United States in comparison to Canada and the degree of this shift was noticeably greater. The period from 1901 to 1920 saw northwestern Europe decline to 41% ... By contrast, as late as 1921 the Canadian immigrant population continued to be dominated by northwestern Europeans in general, British immigrants particularly." 
  45. Beret E. Strong (2008). Seeking The Light: The Lives of Phillips and Ruth Lee Thygeson, Pioneers in the Prevention of Blindness. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786436736. "Unfortunately, in the American version of the eugenics argument, articulated by Madison Grant in his 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race, the gene pool of descendants of northwestern Europeans was considered strong and worthy, while the southern and eastern Europeans were considered a threat to the gene pool and a source of overpopulation." 
  46. Susan R. Burgess; Kathryn C. Leeman (2016). CQ Press Guide to Radical Politics in the United States. CQ Press. ISBN 978-1452292274. "At the same time, eugenics was gaining populariy, and scholars such as Lothrop Stoddard and Madison Grant were publishing books on the superiority of northwestern Europeans and the potential problems caused by the increased immigration of other groups to the United States" 
  47. Elspeth Reeve (October 9, 2016). "Alt-right trolls are getting 23andme genetic tests to 'prove' their whiteness". Vice Media. "In the 19th and early 20th centuries, American eugenicists worried that immigrants of “inferior stock” from Southern and Eastern Europe would dilute the old stock of Northwestern Europeans, and argued for sterilization." 
  48. David Hollinger (May 24, 2019). "When the government used bad science to restrict immigration". The Washington Post. "Okrent enlivens his narrative with vivid portraits of Aldrich, Lodge and other prominent figures active in the campaign to avoid the “race suicide” said to follow from allowing the northwestern European population of the United States to be overwhelmed by ostensibly inferior groups." 
  49. Jacky Turner (2010). "Eugenics, Commerce and Control in Human and Animal Reproduction". Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1844075898. "The 1924 Immigration Act in effect restricted the immigration of people other than north-western Europeans." 
  50. Martin Marger (2014). "15". Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 445. ISBN 978-1285749693. "In their national attitudinal study, Berry, Kalin, and Taylor (1977) found that respondents in general reacted very favorably to English and French Canadians ... Specifically, northwestern Europeans were judged most favorably, central and southern European groups next, and nonwhite groups least favorably, except for Japanese." 
  51. Catarina D. Campbell; Evan E. Eichler (2011), "Population-Genetic Properties of Differentiated Human Copy-Number Polymorphisms", American Journal of Human Genetics (Volume 88 ed.), Cell Press, p. 317–332, "The samples studied are cohorts of Northwestern European Americans from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain collection (CEU), Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI), Han Chinese from Beijing (CHB), Japanese from Tokyo (JPT), and Maasai from Kinyawa, Kenya (MKK) (Table 1)." 
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