Gastro-: History
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Subjects: Others

Gastro- is a common English-language prefix derived from the ancient Greek γαστήρ gastēr ("stomach").

  • γαστήρ
  • stomach
  • gastro

1. Food

  • Gastronomy refer the study of relationship between culture and food. It is often erroneously thought that the term is synonymous with the culinary arts, but in fact this is only a small part of this discipline. Gastronomy is interdisciplinary, related to the fine arts, social sciences, and natural sciences.
  • A gastropub is a British term for a public house ("pub") which specializes in high-quality food a step above the more basic "pub grub." The name is derived from gastronomy and was coined in 1991 when David Eyre and Mike Belben opened a pub called The Eagle in Clerkenwell, London. They placed an emphasis on the quality of food served, though The Eagle was not the first pub to offer good food. Gastropubs usually have an atmosphere which is relaxed and a focus on offering a particular cuisine prepared as well as it is in the best restaurants. Staying true to the format requires a menu that complements the assortment of beers and wines the gastropub offers.

2. Human Anatomy and Medicine

  • Gastroenterology or gastrology is the scientific study of the digestive system and digestive diseases.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease ("acid reflux") is a common disease of the digestive system in which gastric acid, bile, and/or pancreatic juice flow into the distal esophagus, causing pain (mostly heartburn) and tissue damage.
  • Gastrocaine is an antacid often taken as a prophylaxis to prevent gastrointestinal disruption. It is often prescribed with Diclofenac during attacks; Diclofenac reduces inflammation as gastrocaine will prevent the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug from causing stomach upsets.
  • The gastrocnemius muscle is a powerful superficial muscle in the back part of the lower human leg (the calf). It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing and walking. It forms the Achilles tendon with the soleus muscle and some scientists consider both to be the triceps surae, a single muscle.
  • The gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen. It supplies blood to the pylorus, a distal part of the stomach, and the proximal part of the duodenum. It arises from the common hepatic artery and terminates in a bifurcation, when it splits into the right gastro-omental artery and the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
  • Gastroduodenostomy is a surgical procedure in which a new connection between the stomach and the duodenum is made. The surgery is usually performed on patients with stomach cancer or a malfunctioning pyloric valve.
  • Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, marked by fever, diarrhea, and/or vomiting caused by an infectious viral, bacterial, or parasitic pathogen. It usually is of acute onset, normally lasting less than ten days, and is self-limiting. Sometimes it is referred to simply as "gastro." It is often referred to as the "stomach flu," though it is not related to influenza. If the inflammation is limited to the stomach, the term gastritis is used, and if the small bowel alone is affected, term enteritis is used.
  • Gastroenterostomy is a surgical procedure in which a new connection between the stomach and the jejunum is made. The operation can sometimes be performed at the same time as a partial gastrectomy. Gastroenterostomy was in the past performed to treat peptic ulcers, but today is usually carried out to enable food to pass directly to the small intestine, bypassing a damaged duodenum. The procedure is becoming less common, due to advances in the treatment of ulcers as well as new drugs.
  • The gastroepiploic arteries are arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery arises when the gastroduodenal artery bifurcates. The left gastroepiploic artery arises from the splenic artery. The gastroepiploic arteries anastomose to one another on the greater curvature of the stomach.
  • The gastrointestinal tract or gastrointestinal system is the part of the digestive system that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste:
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding is any hemorrhage (loss of blood) in the gastrointestinal tract, from the pharynx to the rectum. It has diverse causes, and a medical history, as well as physical examination, generally distinguishes between the main forms. The degree of bleeding can range from nearly undetectable to acute, massive, life-threatening bleeding. Upper endoscopy or colonoscopy are generally considered appropriate to identify the source of bleeding. It may refer to upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis) or lower gastrointestinal bleeding (melena, hematochezia), as well as arteriovenous malformation).
    • Gastrointestinal cancer is cancer in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. it may refer to gastrointestinal stromal tumors, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, or anal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a rare non-epithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, diagnostically separate from more common forms of bowel cancer and comprising 1 to 3 percent of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Seventy percent occur in the stomach, 20 percent in the small intestine and less than 10 percent in the esophagus. Small tumors are generally benign, especially when cell division rate is slow, but large tumors disseminate to the liver, omentum and peritoneal cavity. They rarely occur in other abdominal organs.
    • Gastrointestinal inhibitory peptide or gastric inhibitory peptide is a hormone secreted by the K-cells of the duodenum in the gastrointestinal tract. Formerly, it was believed to neutralize stomach acid to protect the small intestine from damage and reduce the rate at which food is transferred through the stomach. However, it was discovered that these effects are only achieved with higher-than normal levels of the hormone, and that these results occur naturally in the body through a similar hormone, secretin. It is now believed that the function of the gastrointestinal inhibitory peptide is to induce insulin secretion after glucose is detected in the small intestine. Because of this discovery, gastrointestinal inhibitory peptide is now called glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.
  • Gastroparesis
  • Gastroptosis
  • Gastroschisis
  • Gastroscope
  • Gastroscopy (also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper endoscopy
  • Gastrostomy
  • Gastrostomy tube

3. Paleontology

  • A gastrolith

4. Technology

  • A gastrobot is a food-power robot.

5. Zoology

  • Gastropoda is the largest class of mollusks, with between 60,000 and 75,000 species. Its members are termed gastropods, gasteropods, or univalves. The class comprises snails and slugs as well as a vast number of marine and freshwater species. They typically have a well-defined head with two or four sensory tentacles, and a ventral foot. They are distinguished by torsion, a process where the body coils to one side during development.
  • Gastrotheca (marsupial frogs) is a genus of frogs in the family Hylidae, found in Central and South America.
  • Gastrotricha is a phylum of microscopic animals, found in freshwater and marine environments. Its members are termed gastrotrichs. They are bilaterally symmetric, with a complete gut. The body is covered with cilia, especially about the mouth, and has two terminal projections that serve as adhesive tubes. Like many microscopic animals, locomotion is primarily powered by hydrostatics, and they reproduce entirely by parthenogenesis. Originally gastrotrichs were thought to have a pseudocoel, but this was an artifact created by preservation methods, and they are now known to be acoelomate. Genetic testings demonstrates close relation to flatworms. About 450 species are known, with an average life span of about three days.
  • Gastrovascular cavity
  • Gastrorchis
  • Gastropholis

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