Clinical Features of Device-Associated Infections
Contributors:

The uses of implantable medical devices are safer and more common since sterilization methods and techniques were established a century ago; however, device-associated infections (DAIs) are still frequent and becoming a leading complication as the number of medical device implantations keeps increasing.

  • Biomaterials
  • Antibacterial surface
  • Implantable medical devices
  • Titanium
  • Biocompatibility

1. Introduction

It was estimated that over 500,000 types of medical devices, such as dental implants, vascular graft/endograft, orthopedic prosthetics, catheters, etc., are currently marketing globally for medical applications [1]. Every year, there are about 10,000,000 dental implants and more than 1,000,000 cardiovascular electronic devices inserted around the world [2][3]. It has been estimated that 100 million urinary catheters are sold worldwide each year [4]. As the population of the aged increases, procedures for implantable medical devices are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years. In the United States of America (USA), the primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is going to grow by 85%, to 1.26 million procedures by 2030 [5]. In Germany, by 2040, the total number of TKA is expected to increase by 45% to over 244,000 procedures; and the incidence rate of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is projected to increase to 437 per 100,000 inhabitants [6]. In the United Kingdom, the volume of hip and knee joint replacement is expected to increase by almost 40% by 2060 [7]. Bacterial infections are one of the most frequent and severe complications associated with the clinical application of implantable medical devices [1]. It was reported that device-associated infections (DAIs), including ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central-catheter-associated bloodstream infection), accounted for approximately 26% of all healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the USA [8]. The annual number of HAIs in European Union countries is about 3.2 million, including 37,000 registered mortalities [9]. The financial burden for the treatment of a DAI is also extraordinarily high. For instance, the average revision costs in the USA for infected hip and knee arthroplasty were approximately USD 80 and 60 thousand, respectively [10]. Additionally, by 2030, the estimated combined annual hospital costs related to arthroplasty infection will rise to USD 1.85 billion in the USA alone [11]. This urges the world to develop instructive prevention and treatment strategies for DAIs.
Accordingly, fundamental research on the development of various antibacterial surfaces has dramatically increased in recent years. Screening for “antibacterial surface” or “antibacterial coating” in the topic of the articles included in the Web of Science (www.webofscience.com; accessed on 14 February 2022) can hit more than 50,000 records between the years 1996 and 2021. Around 80% of these records were published during the last decade (between 2012 and 2021), and over 67% of them were published during the last five years (between 2017 and 2021), identifying a boom in developing antibacterial surfaces or coatings. Developing antibacterial surfaces for implantable medical devices also is currently a hot direction among the Chinese communities focusing on biomaterials science and engineering. Typical designs published in the first half of 2022 include copper-bearing titanium [12], surface charge and wettability control in lysozyme [13], light-activatable carbon monoxide gas generation by triiron dodecacarbonyl loaded polydopamine [14], clickable peptide engineered surface [15], calcium-doped titanium targeting blood protein adsorption [16], puncture and ROS (reactive oxygen species) release by nanorod zinc oxide patterns [17], light-stimulated ROS generation by rare-earth elements-doped titanium dioxide coating [18], on-demand antibiotics release by responsive polymers [19][20], and bacteriophage-modified alginate hydrogels [21]. This trend demonstrates that the academic community has already realized the urgency of solving the DAI problem, whereas only a limited number of these innovations have entered clinical applications or clinical studies around the world. A very small number of registered records concerning antibacterial surfaces were found in ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed on 22 May 2022) by searching for “device infection” in the “Condition or disease” field. As shown in Table 1, silver in metallic or ionic forms is the most popular active ingredient in developing antibacterial medical devices. Currently, a handful of antibacterial surfaces have been branded for clinical uses, which are commonly silver-based and normally custom-made (available on request). These include Acticoat using magnetron sputtering synthesized nanosilver coatings for wound care [22]MUTARS prosthesis reducing infections by electroplating a metallic-silver surface, METS prosthesis acting against pathogenic bacteria by absorption of ionic silver to anodized titanium implants [23]PorAg prosthesis taking advantage of a controlled electrochemical reaction (do not directly release silver ions) in a titanium-silver alloy for disinfection [23], and PROtect nails administrating gentamicin for prevention of infections in complex open fractures [24]. These commercial promotions have set examples for the development of antibacterial surfaces for implantable medical devices; however, it is still a challenge to improve the quality and efficiency of translational research over those “antibacterial surface” or “antibacterial coating” reports.
Table 1. Antibacterial surface registered for clinical studies *.

This entry is adapted from 10.3390/jfb13030086

References

  1. Arciola, C.R.; Campoccia, D.; Montanaro, L. Implant infections: Adhesion, biofilm formation and immune evasion. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2018, 16, 397–409.
  2. Andersen, O.Z.; Offermanns, V.; Sillassen, M.; Almtoft, K.P.; Andersen, I.H.; Sørensen, S.; Jeppesen, C.S.; Kraft, D.C.E.; Bøttiger, J.; Rasse, M.; et al. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of strontium from surface functionalized titanium implants. Biomaterials 2013, 34, 5883–5890.
  3. Mond, H.G.; Proclemer, A. The 11th world survey of cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Calendar year 2009-a World Society of Arrhythmia’s project. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 2011, 34, 1013–1027.
  4. Saint, S.; Wiese, J.; Amory, J.K.; Bernstein, M.L.; Patel, U.D.; Zemencuk, J.K.; Bernstein, S.J.; Lipsky, B.A.; Hofer, T.P. Are physicians aware of which of their patients have indwelling urinary catheters. Am. J. Med. 2000, 109, 476–480.
  5. Sloan, M.; Premkumar, A.; Sheth, N.P. Projected volume of primary total joint arthroplasty in the U.S., 2014 to 2030. J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am. 2018, 100, 1455–1460.
  6. Rupp, M.; Lau, E.; Kurtz, S.M.; Alt, V. Projections of primary TKA and THA in Germany from 2016 through 2040. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2020, 478, 1622–1633.
  7. Matharu, G.S.; Culliford, D.J.; Blom, A.W.; Judge, A. Projections for primary hip and knee replacement surgery up to the year 2060: An analysis based on data from the national joint registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 2021, 104, 443–448.
  8. Magill, S.S.; Edwards, J.R.; Bamberg, W.; Beldavs, Z.G.; Dumyati, G.; Kainer, M.A.; Lynfield, R.; Maloney, M.; McAllister-Hollod, L.; Nadle, J.; et al. Emerging infections program healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use prevalence survey team. multistate point-prevalence survey of health care-associated infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 2014, 370, 1198–1208.
  9. Dadi, N.C.T.; Radochová, B.; Vargová, J.; Bujdáková, H. Impact of healthcare-associated infections connected to medical devices-an update. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2332.
  10. Chang, C.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lin, Y.C.; Wang, Y.C.; Chang, C.J.; Hsieh, P.H. Increased periprosthetic hip and knee infection projected from 2014 to 2035 in Taiwan. J. Infect. Public Health 2020, 13, 1768–1773.
  11. Premkumar, A.; Kolin, D.A.; Farley, K.X.; Wilson, J.M.; McLawhorn, A.S.; Cross, M.B.; Sculco, P.K. Projected economic burden of periprosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee in the United States. J. Arthroplast. 2021, 36, 1484–1489.
  12. Zhang, S.; Yu, Y.; Wang, H.; Ren, L.; Yang, K. Study on mechanical behavior of Cu-bearing antibacterial titanium alloy implant. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2022, 125, 104926.
  13. Chen, T.; Wang, Y.; Xie, J.; Qu, X.; Liu, C. Lysozyme amyloid fibril-integrated PEG injectable hydrogel adhesive with improved antiswelling and antibacterial capabilities. Biomacromolecules 2022, 23, 1376–1391.
  14. Yuan, Z.; Wu, J.; Fu, Z.; Meng, S.; Dai, L.; Cai, K. Polydopamine-Mediated Interfacial Functionalization of Implants for Accelerating Infected Bone Repair through Light-Activatable Antibiosis and Carbon Monoxide Gas Regulated Macrophage Polarization. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2022, 2200374.
  15. Mou, X.; Zhang, H.; Qiu, H.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, K.; Huang, N.; Santos, H.A.; Yang, Z. Mussel-inspired and bioclickable peptide engineered surface to combat thrombosis and infection. Research 2022, 2022, 9780879.
  16. Cao, H.; Dauben, T.J.; Helbing, C.; Jia, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, M.; Müller, L.; Gu, S.; Zhang, X.; Qin, H.; et al. The antimicrobial effect of calcium-doped titanium is activated by fibrinogen adsorption. Mater. Horiz. 2022.
  17. Ye, J.; Li, B.; Li, M.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, S.; Han, Y. Formation of a ZnO nanorods-patterned coating with strong bactericidal capability and quantitative evaluation of the contribution of nanorods-derived puncture and ROS-derived killing. Bioact Mater 2022, 11, 181–191.
  18. Zhang, G.; Wu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Shi, J.; Lv, J.; Fang, Y.; Shen, Z.; Lv, Z.; Li, P.; Yao, X.; et al. A multifunctional antibacterial coating on bone implants for osteosarcoma therapy and enhanced osteointegration. A multifunctional antibacterial coating on bone implants for osteosarcoma therapy and enhanced osteointegration. Chem. Eng. J. 2022, 428, 131155.
  19. Yang, L.; Wang, C.; Li, L.; Zhu, F.; Ren, X.; Huang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Li, Y. Bioinspired integration of naturally occurring molecules towards universal and smart antibacterial coatings. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2022, 32, 2108749.
  20. Li, W.; Hua, G.; Cai, J.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Fu, B.; Ren, L. Multi-stimulus responsive multilayer coating for treatment of device-associated infections. J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13, 24.
  21. Shiue, S.; Syu, F.; Lin, H. Two types of bacteriophage-modified alginate hydrogels as antibacterial coatings for implants. Two types of bacteriophage-modified alginate hydrogels as antibacterial coatings for implants. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2022, 134, 104353.
  22. Tredget, E.E.; Shankowsky, H.A.; Groenveld, A.; Burrell, R. A matched-pair, randomized study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Acticoat silver-coated dressing for the treatment of burn wounds. J. Burn Care Rehabil. 1998, 19, 531–537.
  23. Fiore, M.; Sambri, A.; Zucchini, R.; Giannini, C.; Donati, D.M.; De Paolis, M. Silver-coated megaprosthesis in prevention and treatment of peri-prosthetic infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis about efficacy and toxicity in primary and revision surgery. Eur. J. Orthop. Surg. Traumatol. 2021, 31, 201–220.
  24. Metsemakers, W.J.; Reul, M.; Nijs, S. The use of gentamicin-coated nails in complex open tibia fracture and revision cases: A retrospective analysis of a single centre case series and review of the literature. Injury 2015, 46, 2433–2437.
  25. Takakura, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Kumai, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Ohgushi, H. Ankle arthroplasty using three generations of metal and ceramic prostheses. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2004, 424, 130–136.
  26. El-Sayed, D.; Nouvong, A. Infection protocols for implants. Clin. Podiat.r Med. Surg. 2019, 36, 627–649.
  27. Merola, M.; Affatato, S. Materials for hip prostheses: A review of wear and loading considerations. Materials 2019, 12, 495.
  28. Henderson, R.A.; Austin, M.S. Management of periprosthetic joint infection: The more we learn, the less we know. J. Arthroplast. 2017, 32, 2056–2059.
  29. Mihalko, W.M.; Haider, H.; Kurtz, S.; Marcolongo, M.; Urish, K. New materials for hip and knee joint replacement: What’s hip and what’s in kneed? J. Orthop. Res. 2020, 38, 1436–1444.
  30. Perry, D.; Frame, J.D. The history and development of breast implants. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 2020, 10, 478–482.
  31. Hall, B.R.; Billue, K.L.; Sanders, S.E.; Meyer, B.R.; Johnson, P.J. Salmonella infection of breast implant associated with traveler’s diarrhea: A case report. JPRAS Open 2018, 18, 59–64.
  32. Franchelli, S.; Pesce, M.; Savaia, S.; Marchese, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baldelli, I.; De Maria, A. Clinical and microbiological characterization of late breast implant infections after reconstructive breast cancer surgery. Surg. Infect. 2015, 16, 636–644.
  33. Chakfé, N.; Diener, H.; Lejay, A.; Assadian, O.; Berard, X.; Caillon, J.; Fourneau, I.; Glaudemans, A.W.J.M.; Koncar, I.; Lindholt, J.; et al. Editor’s Choice—European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2020 Clinical practice guidelines on the management of vascular graft and endograft infections. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2020, 59, 339–384.
  34. Viola, G.M.; Darouiche, R.O. Cardiovascular implantable device infections. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 13, 333–342.
  35. Zheng, Q.; Tang, Q.; Wang, Z.L.; Li, Z. Self-powered cardiovascular electronic devices and systems. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 2021, 18, 7–21.
  36. Zerbo, S.; Perrone, G.; Bilotta, C.; Adelfio, V.; Malta, G.; Di Pasquale, P.; Maresi, E.; Argo, A. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infection and new insights about correlation between pro-inflammatory markers and heart failure: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 8, 602275.
  37. Tarakji, K.G.; Chan, E.J.; Cantillon, D.J.; Doonan, A.L.; Hu, T.; Schmitt, S.; Fraser, T.G.; Kim, A.; Gordon, S.M.; Wilkoff, B.L. Cardiac implantable electronic device infections: Presentation, management, and patient outcomes. Heart Rhythm. 2010, 7, 1043–1047.
  38. Korkerdsup, T.; Ngarmukos, T.; Sungkanuparph, S.; Phuphuakrat, A. Cardiac implantable electronic device infection in the cardiac referral center in Thailand: Incidence, microbiology, risk factors, and outcomes. J. Arrhythm. 2018, 34, 632–639.
  39. Stöver, T.; Lenarz, T. Biomaterials in cochlear implants. GMS Curr. Top. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2009, 8, Doc10.
  40. Lodhi, F.; Coelho, D.H. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial cochlear implant infection: An emerging pathogen. Cochlear Implant. Int. 2015, 16, 237–240.
  41. Sharma, S.; Gupta, A.; Bhatia, K.; Lahiri, A.K.; Singh, S. Salvaging cochlear implant after wound infection: Well worth a try. Cochlear Implant. Int. 2017, 18, 230–234.
  42. Tawfik, K.O.; Golub, J.S.; Roland, J.T.; Samy, R.N. Recurrent cochlear implant infection treated with exteriorization and partial mastoid obliteration. Cochlear Implant. Int. 2016, 17, 58–61.
  43. Vaid, N.; Vaid, S.; Manikoth, M. Case report-Biofilm infection of a cochlear implant. Cochlear Implant. Int. 2013, 14, 117–120.
  44. Zarrintaj, P.; Saeb, M.R.; Ramakrishna, S.; Mozafari, M. Biomaterials selection for neuroprosthetics. Curr. Opin. Biomed. Eng. 2018, 6, 99–109.
  45. Shenai, M.B.; Falconer, R.; Rogers, S. A cupriavidus pauculus infection in a patient with a deep brain stimulation implant. Cureus 2019, 11, e6104.
  46. Wei, Z.; Gordon, C.R.; Bergey, G.K.; Sacks, J.M.; Anderson, W.S. Implant site infection and bone flap osteomyelitis associated with the neuropace responsive neurostimulation system. World Neurosurg. 2016, 88, 687.e1–687.e6.
  47. Lawrence, E.L.; Turner, I.G. Materials for urinary catheters: A review of their history and development in the UK. Med. Eng. Phys. 2005, 27, 443–453.
  48. Huang, W.C.; Wann, S.R.; Lin, S.L.; Kunin, C.M.; Kung, M.H.; Lin, C.H.; Hsu, C.W.; Liu, C.P.; Lee, S.S.; Liu, Y.C.; et al. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units can be reduced by prompting physicians to remove unnecessary catheters. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2004, 25, 974–978.
  49. Lo, E.; Nicolle, L.E.; Coffin, S.E.; Gould, C.; Maragakis, L.L.; Meddings, J.; Pegues, D.A.; Pettis, A.M.; Saint, S.; Yokoe, D.S. Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2014, 35, 464–479.
  50. Luzum, M.; Sebolt, J.; Chopra, V. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection, clostridioides difficile colitis, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Med. Clin. North Am. 2020, 104, 663–679.
  51. Li, F.; Song, M.; Xu, L.; Deng, B.; Zhu, S.; Li, X. Risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection among hospitalized patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J. Adv. Nurs. 2019, 75, 517–527.
  52. Shuman, E.K.; Chenoweth, C.E. Urinary catheter-associated infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 2018, 32, 885–897.
  53. Del Bigio, M.R. Biological reactions to cerebrospinal fluid shunt devices: A review of the cellular pathology. Neurosurgery 1998, 42, 319–326.
  54. Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Device-associated infections in Canadian acute-care hospitals from 2009 to 2018. Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 2020, 46, 387–397.
  55. Shibamura-Fujiogi, M.; Ormsby, J.; Breibart, M.; Warf, B.; Priebe, G.P.; Soriano, S.G.; Sandora, T.J.; Yuki, K. Risk factors for pediatric surgical site infection following neurosurgical procedures for hydrocephalus: A retrospective single-center cohort study. BMC Anesthesiol. 2021, 21, 124.
  56. Benachinmardi, K.K.; Ravikumar, R.; Indiradevi, B. Role of biofilm in cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections: A study at tertiary neurocare center from South India. J. Neurosci. Rural. Pract. 2017, 8, 335–341.
  57. Fernández-Méndez, R.; Richards, H.K.; Seeley, H.M.; Pickard, J.D.; Joannides, A.J. UKSR collaborators, Current epidemiology of cerebrospinal fluid shunt surgery in the UK and Ireland (2004–2013). J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 2019, 90, 747–754.
  58. Deshmukh, R.M.; Kulkarni, S.S. A review on biomaterials in orthopedic bone plate application. International J. Curr. Eng. Technol. 2015, 5, 2587–2591.
  59. Toro-Aguilera, Á.; Zuriarrain, S.W.; Masdeu, M.G.; Sayol, R.R.; Billi, A.M.; Carrera, I.; de Caso, J. Risk factors for infection in fixation of distal tibia fractures. Injury 2021, 52 (Suppl. 4), S104–S108.
  60. Guillaume, B. Dental implants: A review. Morphologie 2016, 100, 189–198.
  61. Neely, A.L.; Maalhagh-Fard, A. Successful management of early peri-implant infection and bone loss using a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Clin. Adv. Periodontics 2018, 8, 5–10.
  62. Patton, D.; Kiewiet, N.; Brage, M. Infected total ankle arthroplasty: Risk factors and treatment options. Foot Ankle Int. 2015, 36, 626–634.
  63. Gbejuade, H.O.; Lovering, A.M.; Webb, J.C. The role of microbial biofilms in prosthetic joint infections. Acta Orthop. 2015, 86, 147–158.
  64. Bayston, R.; Lari, J. A study of the sources of infection in colonised shunts. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 1974, 16, 16–22.
  65. Reynolds-Campbell, G.; Nicholson, A.; Thoms-Rodriguez, C.A. Oral bacterial infections: Diagnosis and management. Dent. Clin. N. Am. 2017, 61, 305–318.
  66. Masters, E.A.; Ricciardi, B.F.; de Mesy Bentley, K.L.; Moriarty, T.F.; Schwarz, E.M.; Muthukrishnan, G. Skeletal infections: Microbial pathogenesis, immunity and clinical management. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2022, 20, 385–400.
  67. Bain, C.J.; Odili, J. Late infection of an alloplastic chin implant masquerading as squamous cell carcinoma. J. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg. 2012, 65, e151–e152.
  68. Chang, J.; Lee, G.W. Late hematogenous bacterial infections of breast implants: Two case reports of unique bacterial infections. Ann. Plast. Surg. 2011, 67, 14–16.
  69. Beidas, O.E.; Rabb, C.H.; Sawan, K.T.; Tan, B.K. The pseudomeningocoele that wasn’t: Case report of an adult who presented with a late infection of an implant. J. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg. 2011, 64, 1228–1231.
  70. Vichitvejpaisal, P.; Dalvin, L.A.; Lally, S.E.; Shields, C.L. Delayed implant infection with Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes) 30 years after silicone sheet orbital floor implant. Orbit 2020, 39, 139–142.
  71. Coden, D.J.; Hornblass, A. Propionibacterium acnes orbital abscess. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1990, 108, 481.
  72. Hannouille, J.; Belgrado, J.P.; Vankerchove, S.; Vandermeeren, L. Breast implant infection with pasteurella canis: First case-report. JPRAS Open 2019, 21, 86–88.
  73. Oses, M.; Ordás, C.M.; Feliz, C.; Del Val, J.; Ayerbe, J.; García-Ruiz, P.J. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs as a risk factor for delayed DBS implant infection. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 2018, 55, 143–144.
  74. Young, P.; Riga, A.; Brunelli, J. Nocardia nova infection of tibia tenodesis implant after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in an immunocompetent patient. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. Glob. Res. Rev. 2020, 4, e19.00167.
  75. Paziuk, T.; Levicoff, E.; Tan, T.; Good, R. Periprosthetic joint infection with listeria monocytogenes: A case report. JBJS Case Connect 2020, 10, e1900489.
  76. Madden, G.R.; Poulter, M.D.; Crawford, M.P.; Wilson, D.S.; Donowitz, G.R. Case report: Anaerobiospirillum prosthetic joint infection in a heart transplant recipient. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 2019, 20, 301.
  77. Haimes, M.A.; Nelms, N.J. Total knee bartonella henselae infection: An unusual manifestation of cat scratch disease: A case report. JBJS Case Connect 2019, 9, e0081.
  78. Posti, J.P.; Piitulainen, J.M.; Hupa, L.; Fagerlund, S.; Frantzén, J.; Aitasalo, K.M.J.; Vuorinen, V.; Serlo, W.; Syrjänen, S.; Vallittu, P.K. A glass fiber-reinforced composite—bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2016, 55, 191–200.
  79. Wahl, P.; Sprecher, C.M.; Brüning, C.; Meier, C.; Milz, S.; Gautier, E.; Moriarty, T.F. Successful bony integration of a porous tantalum implant despite longlasting and ongoing infection: Histologic workup of an explanted shoulder prosthesis. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 2018, 106, 2924–2931.
  80. Hurdle, J.G.; O’Neill, A.J.; Chopra, I.; Lee, R.E. Targeting bacterial membrane function: An underexploited mechanism for treating persistent infections. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2011, 9, 62–75.
  81. Dowd, S.E.; Sun, Y.; Secor, P.R.; Rhoads, D.D.; Wolcott, B.M.; James, G.A.; Wolcott, R.D. Survey of bacterial diversity in chronic wounds using pyrosequencing, DGGE, and full ribosome shotgun sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 2008, 8, 43.
  82. Ryan, K.J.; Ahmad, N.; Alspaugh, J.A.; Drew, W.L. Sherris Medical Microbiology, 7th ed.; McGraw-Hill Education: New York, NY, USA, 2018; pp. 381–735.
  83. Männik, J.; Driessen, R.; Galajda, P.; Keymer, J.E.; Dekker, C. Bacterial growth and motility in sub-micron constrictions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 14861–14866.
  84. Pianetti, A.; Battistelli, M.; Citterio, B.; Parlani, C.; Falcieri, E.; Bruscolini, F. Morphological changes of Aeromonas hydrophila in response to osmotic stress. Micron 2009, 40, 426–433.
  85. Vargas-Alfredo, N.; Santos-Coquillat, A.; Martínez-Campos, E.; Dorronsoro, A.; Cortajarena, A.L.; Del Campo, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, J. Highly efficient antibacterial surfaces based on bacterial/cell size selective microporous supports. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 44270–44280.
  86. Costa, F.; Carvalho, I.F.; Montelaro, R.C.; Gomes, P.; Cristina, M.; Martins, L. Covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) onto biomaterial surfaces. Acta Biomater. 2011, 7, 1431–1440.
  87. Lister, J. On a new method of treating compound fracture, abscess, etc.: With observations on the conditions of suppuration. Lancet 1867, 89, 326–329.
  88. Durand, G.A.; Raoult, D.; Dubourg, G. Antibiotic discovery: History, methods and perspectives. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2019, 53, 371–382.
  89. Bryson, D.J.; Morris, D.L.J.; Shivji, F.S.; Rollins, K.R.; Snape, S.; Ollivere, B.J. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery: Difficult decisions in an era of evolving antibiotic resistance. Bone Joint J. 2016, 98, 1014–1019.
  90. Li, B.; Webster, T.J. Bacteria antibiotic resistance: New challenges and opportunities for implant-associated orthopedic infections. J. Orthop. Res. 2018, 36, 22–32.
  91. Makabenta, J.M.V.; Nabawy, A.; Li, C.H.; Schmidt-Malan, S.; Patel, R.; Rotello, V.M. Nanomaterial-based therapeutics for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2021, 19, 23–36.
  92. Vasiliadis, A.V.; Poutoglidou, F.; Chatziravdeli, V.; Metaxiotis, D.; Beletsiotis, A. Acute periprosthetic hip joint infection caused by multidrug-resistant acinetobacter baumannii: Is debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and implant retention a viable treatment option? Cureus 2021, 13, e13090.
  93. Okada, A.; Shoda, M.; Tabata, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Shoin, W.; Okano, T.; Yoshie, K.; Kato, K.; Motoki, H.; Kuwahara, K. Simultaneous infection of abandoned leads and newly implanted leadless cardiac pacemaker: Why did this occur? J. Cardiol. Cases 2020, 23, 35–37.
  94. Jhaveri, V.V.; Singhal, D.; Riedel, S.; Rowley, C.F.; Nathavitharana, R.R. Surgical cure of clarithromycin resistant Mycobacterium chelonae breast implant infection: A case report and review of the literature. J. Clin. Tuberc. Other Mycobact. Dis. 2020, 21, 100183.
  95. El-Zein, R.S.; Stelzer, M.; Hatanelas, J.; Goodlive, T.W.; Amin, A.K. A ghost left behind after transvenous lead extraction: A finding to be feared. Am. J. Case Rep. 2020, 21, e924243.
  96. Palacios, L.; de Nova, A.A.; Pardo, M.G. Conservative multimodal management of osteosynthesis material in surgical wounds with polymicrobial superinfection, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clinical case. Rev. Española Cirugía Ortopédica Traumatol. (Engl. Ed.) 2020, 64, 125–129.
  97. Hwang, S.O.; Chang, L.S. Salvage of an exposed cranial prosthetic implant using a transposition flap with an indwelling antibiotic irrigation system. Arch. Craniofac. Surg. 2020, 21, 73–76.
  98. Fukushima, S.; Komune, N.; Kamizono, K.; Matsumoto, N.; Takaiwa, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kadota, H. Use of negative pressure wound therapy to treat a cochlear implant infection around the auricle: A case report. J. Wound Care 2020, 29, 568–571.
  99. Bajaj, T.; Karapetians, A.; Karapetians, N.; Duong, H.; Heidari, A. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis presenting as neutrophilic meningoencephalitis. AME Case Rep. 2020, 4, 4.
  100. Hisanaga, K.; Kadota, H.; Fukushima, S.; Inatomi, Y.; Shimamoto, R.; Kamizono, K.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, S. Toxic shock syndrome caused by staphylococcal infection after breast implant surgery: A case report and literature review. Ann. Plast. Surg. 2019, 83, 359–362.
  101. Meleca, J.B.; Bryson, P.C. Delayed laryngeal implant infection and laryngocutaneous fistula after medialization laryngoplasty. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 2019, 40, 462–464.
  102. Siebenbürger, G.; Grabein, B.; Schenck, T.; Kammerlander, C.; Böcker, W.; Zeckey, C. Eradication of acinetobacter baumannii/enterobacter cloacae complex in an open proximal tibial fracture and closed drop foot correction with a multidisciplinary approach using the taylor spatial frame®: A case report. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2019, 24, 2.
  103. Nozoe, M.; Yoshida, D.; Nagatomo, D.; Suematsu, N.; Kubota, T.; Okabe, M.; Yamamoto, Y. Successful percutaneous retrieval of a micra transcatheter pacing system at 8 weeks after implantation. J. Arrhythm. 2018, 34, 653–655.
  104. Bonacker, J.; Darowski, M.; Haar, P.; Westphal, T.; Bergschmidt, P. Periprosthetic tibial fracture with nonunion and ascending prosthetic joint infection: A case report of an individual treatment strategy. J. Orthop. Case Rep. 2018, 8, 3–8.
  105. Rico-Nieto, A.; Moreno-Ramos, F.; Fernández-Baillo, N. Lumbar arthrodesis infection by multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, successfully treated with implant retention and ceftazidime/avibactam. Rev. Española Cirugía Ortopédica Traumatol. (Engl. Ed.) 2018, 62, 471–473.
  106. Vaidya, G.N.; Deam, A.G. Simultaneous suction debulking of lead vegetation prior to percutaneous lead extraction. J. Cardiol. Cases. 2018, 18, 17–19.
  107. Sebastian, S.; Malhotra, R.; Pande, A.; Gautam, D.; Xess, I.; Dhawan, B. Staged reimplantation of a total hip prosthesis after co-infection with candida tropicalis and staphylococcus haemolyticus: A case report. Mycopathologia 2018, 183, 579–584.
  108. Mahalingam, P.; Topiwalla, T.T.; Ganesan, G. Drug-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis following dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Indian J. Ophthalmol. 2017, 65, 634–636.
  109. Gharacholou, S.M.; Dworak, M.; Dababneh, A.S.; Palraj, R.V.; Roskos, M.C.; Chapman, S.C. Acute infection of viabahn stent graft in the popliteal artery. J. Vasc. Surg. Cases Innov. Tech. 2017, 3, 69–73.
  110. Takizawa, T.; Tsutsumimoto, T.; Yui, M.; Misawa, H. Surgical site infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis after spinal instrumentation surgery. Spine 2017, 42, 525–530.
  111. Savage, V.J.; Chopra, I.; O’Neill, A.J. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2013, 57, 1968–1970.
  112. Naylor, N.R.; Atun, R.; Zhu, N.; Kulasabanathan, K.; Silva, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Knight, G.M.; Robotham, J.V. Estimating the burden of antimicrobial resistance: A systematic literature review. Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 2018, 7, 58.
  113. Zilberman, M.; Elsner, J.J. Antibiotic-eluting medical devices for various applications. J. Control Release 2008, 130, 202–215.
  114. Freischmidt, H.; Armbruster, J.; Reiter, G.; Grützner, P.A.; Helbig, L.; Guehring, T. Individualized techniques of implant coating with an antibiotic-loaded, hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate bone graft substitute. Ther. Clin. Risk Manag. 2020, 16, 689–694.
  115. Campoccia, D.; Montanaro, L.; Speziale, P.; Arciola, C.R. Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials and the risks for the spread of antibiotic resistance following their prophylactic and therapeutic clinical use. Biomaterials 2010, 31, 6363–6377.
  116. Cao, H.; Qin, H.; Li, Y.; Jandt, K.D. The action-networks of nanosilver: Bridging the gap between material and biology. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2021, 26, e2100619.
  117. Percival, S.L.; Bowler, P.G.; Russell, D. Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care. J. Hosp. Infect. 2005, 60, 1–7.
  118. Panáček, A.; Kvítek, L.; Smékalová, M.; Večeřová, R.; Kolář, M.; Röderová, M.; Dyčka, F.; Šebela, M.; Prucek, R.; Tomanec, O.; et al. Bacterial resistance to silver nanoparticles and how to overcome it. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2018, 13, 65–71.
  119. Nadeem, S.F.; Gohar, U.F.; Tahir, S.F.; Mukhtar, H.; Pornpukdeewattana, S.; Nukthamna, P.; Moula Ali, A.M.; Bavisetty, S.C.B.; Massa, S. Antimicrobial resistance: More than 70 years of war between humans and bacteria. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2020, 46, 578–599.
  120. Ciofu, O.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P.Ø.; Høiby, N. Tolerance and resistance of microbial biofilms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2022.
  121. Wu, X.X.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, T.; Li, W.X.; Li, Z.L.; Hu, H.J.; Zhu, S.R.; Chen, W.Z.; Zhou, C.S.; Jiang, G.B. Long-term antibacterial composite via alginate aerogel sustained release of antibiotics and Cu used for bone tissue bacteria infection. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 167, 1211–1220.
  122. Mukai, M.; Uchida, K.; Sugo, K.; Nakasu, M.; Nakajima, T.; Takata, K.; Takaso, M.; Urabe, K. Long-term antibacterial activity of vancomycin from calcium phosphate cement in vivo. Biomed. Mater. Eng. 2022, 33, 41–50.
  123. Cheng, Y.; Mei, S.; Kong, X.; Liu, X.; Gao, B.; Chen, B.; Wu, J. Long-term antibacterial activity of a composite coating on titanium for dental implant application. J. Biomater. Appl. 2021, 35, 643–654.
  124. Tsutsumi, H.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Shimabukuro, M.; Manaka, T.; Chen, P.; Ashida, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Katayama, H.; Hanaw, T. Investigation of the long-term antibacterial properties of titanium by two-step micro-arc oxidation treatment. Coatings 2021, 11, 798.
  125. Liu, F.; Cheng, X.; Xiao, L.; Wang, Q.; Yan, K.; Su, Z.; Wang, L.; Ma, C.; Wang, Y. Inside-outside Ag nanoparticles-loaded polylactic acid electrospun fiber for long-term antibacterial and bone regeneration. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 167, 1338–1348.
  126. Tao, S.; Yang, X.; Liao, L.; Yang, J.; Liang, K.; Zeng, S.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, M.; Li, J. A novel anticaries agent, honokiol-loaded poly(amido amine) dendrimer, for simultaneous long-term antibacterial treatment and remineralization of demineralized enamel. Dent. Mater. 2021, 37, 1337–1349.
  127. Jia, J.; Duan, S.; Zhou, X.; Sun, L.; Qin, C.; Li, M.; Ge, F. Long-term antibacterial film nanocomposite incorporated with patchouli essential oil prepared by supercritical co 2 cyclic impregnation for wound dressing. Molecules 2021, 26, 5005.
  128. Kitagawa, H.; Kitagawa, R.; Tsuboi, R.; Hirose, N.; Thongthai, P.; Sakai, H.; Ueda, M.; Ono, S.; Sasaki, J.; Ooya, T.; et al. Development of endodontic sealers containing antimicrobial-loaded polymer particles with long-term antibacterial effects. Dent. Mater. 2021, 37, 1248–1259.
  129. Wan, R.; Chu, S.; Wang, X.; Lei, L.; Tang, H.; Hu, G.; Dong, L.; Li, D.; Gu, H. Study on the osteogenesis of rat mesenchymal stem cells and the long-term antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the surface of silver-rich TiN/Ag modified titanium alloy. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 2020, 108, 3008–3021.
  130. Liang, T.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Liu, Y.; Qiao, L.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, R.; Li, G.; Zhang, R.; Xiang, J.; et al. Copper-doped 3D porous coating developed on Ti-6Al-4V alloys and its in vitro long-term antibacterial ability. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2020, 509, 144717.
  131. Zhang, F.; Zhou, M.; Gu, W.; Shen, Z.; Ma, X.; Lu, F.; Yang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Gou, Z. Zinc-/copper-substituted dicalcium silicate cement: Advanced biomaterials with enhanced osteogenesis and long-term antibacterial properties. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2020, 8, 1060–1070.
  132. Yu, H.; Chen, X.; Cai, J.; Ye, D.; Wu, Y.; Liu, P. Dual controlled release nanomicelle-in-nanofiber system for long-term antibacterial medical dressings. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 2019, 30, 64–76.
  133. Daud, N.M.; Masri, N.A.; Malek, N.A.N.N.; Razak, S.I.A.; Saidin, S. Long-term antibacterial and stable chlorhexidine-polydopamine coating on stainless steel 316L. Prog. Org. Coat. 2018, 122, 147–153.
  134. Shivaram, A.; Bose, S.; Bandyopadhyay, A. Understanding long-term silver release from surface modified porous titanium implants. Acta Biomater. 2017, 58, 550–560.
  135. Zhao, R.; Lv, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, M.; Kong, W.; Wang, L.; Song, S.; Fan, C.; Jia, L.; Qiu, S.; et al. Stable nanocomposite based on pegylated and silver nanoparticles loaded graphene oxide for long-term antibacterial activity. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 15328–15341.
  136. Wang, G.; Feng, H.; Jin, W.; Gao, A.; Peng, X.; Li, W.; Wu, H.; Li, Z.; Chu, P.K. Long-term antibacterial characteristics and cytocompatibility of titania nanotubes loaded with Au nanoparticles without photocatalytic effects. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2017, 414, 230–237.
  137. Uhm, S.; Kwon, J.; Song, D.; Lee, E.; Jeong, W.; Oh, S.; Kim, K.; Choi, E.H.; Kim, K. Long-Term antibacterial performance and bioactivity of plasma-engineered Ag-NPs/TiO2. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2016, 12, 1890–1906.
  138. Qin, H.; Cao, H.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, C.; Cheng, T.; Wang, Q.; Peng, X.; Cheng, M.; Wang, J.; Jin, G.; et al. In vitro and in vivo anti-biofilm effects of silver nanoparticles immobilized on titanium. Biomaterials 2014, 35, 9114–9125.
  139. Li, M.; Neoh, K.G.; Xu, L.Q.; Wang, R.; Kang, E.; Lau, T.; Olszyna, D.P.; Chiong, E. Surface modification of silicone for biomedical applications requiring long-term antibacterial, antifouling, and hemocompatible properties. Langmuir 2012, 28, 16408–16422.
  140. Urabe, K.; Naruse, K.; Hattori, H.; Hirano, M.; Uchida, K.; Onuma, K.; Park, H.J.; Itoman, M. In vitro comparison of elution characteristics of vancomycin from calcium phosphate cement and polymethylmethacrylate. J. Orthop. Sci. 2009, 14, 784–793.
  141. Uchida, K.; Sugo, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakawaki, M.; Takano, S.; Nagura, N.; Takaso, M.; Urabe, K. In vivo release of vancomycin from calcium phosphate cement. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018, 2018, 4560647.
  142. Bandyopadhyay, A.; Shivaram, A.; Tarafder, S.; Sahasrabudhe, H.; Banerjee, D.; Bose, S. In vivo response of laser processed porous titanium implants for load-bearing implants. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2017, 45, 249–260.
  143. Cao, H.; Liu, X.; Meng, F.; Chu, P.K. Biological actions of silver nanoparticles embedded in titanium controlled by micro-galvanic effects. Biomaterials 2011, 32, 693–705.
  144. Ono, S.; Imai, R.; Ida, Y.; Shibata, D.; Komiya, T.; Matsumura, H. Increased wound pH as an indicator of local wound infection in second degree burns. Burns 2015, 41, 820–824.
  145. Sawyer, R.G.; Spengler, M.D.; Adams, R.B.; Pruett, T.L. The peritoneal environment during infection. The effect of monomicrobial and polymicrobial bacteria on pO2 and pH. Ann. Surg. 1991, 213, 253–260.
  146. Stassen, W.N.; McCullough, A.J.; Bacon, B.R.; Gutnik, S.H.; Wadiwala, I.M.; McLaren, C.; Kalhan, S.C.; Tavill, A.S. Immediate diagnostic criteria for bacterial infection of ascitic fluid. Evaluation of ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, pH, and lactate concentration, alone and in combination. Gastroenterology 1986, 90, 1247–1254.
  147. Del Campo, A.; Echeverría, C.; Martín, M.S.; Cuervo-Rodríguez, R.; Fernández-García, M.; Muñoz-Bonilla, A. Porous microstructured surfaces with ph-triggered antibacterial properties. Macromol. Biosci. 2019, 19, 1900127.
  148. Wei, T.; Yu, Q.; Zhan, W.; Chen, H. A smart antibacterial surface for the on-demand killing and releasing of bacteria. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2016, 5, 449–456.
  149. Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Long, S.; Zhang, G.; Wang, X. Smart and in-situ formation electrospun fibrous membrane for the control of antimicrobial efficacy. Smart Mater. Med. 2021, 2, 87–95.
  150. Pinho, E.; Machado, S.; Soares, G. Smart hydrogel for the ph-selective drug delivery of antimicrobial compounds. Macromol. Symp. 2019, 385, 1800182.
  151. Ramos, M.L.P.; González, J.A.; Fabian, L.; Pérez, C.J.; Villanueva, M.E.; Copello, G.J. Sustainable and smart keratin hydrogel with pH-sensitive swelling and enhanced mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. 2017, 78, 619–626.
  152. Villanueva, M.E.; Cuestas, M.L.; Pérez, C.J.; Dall Orto, V.C.; Copello, G.J. Smart release of antimicrobial ZnO nanoplates from a pH-responsive keratin hydrogel. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 2019, 536, 372–380.
  153. Tao, B.; Deng, Y.; Song, L.; Ma, W.; Qian, Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, L.; Chen, M.; Yang, X.; et al. BMP2-loaded titania nanotubes coating with pH-responsive multilayers for bacterial infections inhibition and osteogenic activity improvement. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2019, 177, 242–252.
  154. Phoungtawee, P.; Seidi, F.; Treetong, A.; Warin, C.; Klamchuen, A.; Crespy, D. Polymers with hemiaminal ether linkages for ph-responsive antibacterial materials. ACS Macro. Lett. 2021, 10, 365–369.
  155. De Silva, C.C.; Israni, N.; Zanwar, A.; Jagtap, A.; Leophairatana, P.; Koberstein, J.T.; Modak, S.M. “Smart” polymer enhances the efficacy of topical antimicrobial agents. Burns 2019, 45, 1418–1429.
  156. Hu, C.; Long, L.; Cao, J.; Zhang, S.; Wang, Y. Dual-crosslinked mussel-inspired smart hydrogels with enhanced antibacterial and angiogenic properties for chronic infected diabetic wound treatment via pH-responsive quick cargo release. Chem. Eng. 2021, 411, 128564.
  157. Quartinello, F.; Tallian, C.; Auer, J.; Schön, H.; Vielnascher, R.; Weinberger, S.; Wieland, K.; Weihs, A.M.; Herrero-Rollett, A.; Lendl, B.; et al. Smart textiles in wound care: Functionalization of cotton/PET blends with antimicrobial nanocapsules. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2019, 7, 6592–6603.
  158. Kaila, V.R.I.; Wikström, M. Architecture of bacterial respiratory chains. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2021, 19, 319–330.
  159. Reguera, G.; McCarthy, K.D.; Mehta, T.; Nicoll, J.S.; Tuominen, M.T.; Lovley, D.R. Extracellular electron transfer via microbial nanowires. Nature 2005, 435, 1098–1101.
  160. Harris, H.W.; El-Naggar, M.Y.; Bretschger, O.; Ward, M.J.; Romine, M.F.; Obraztsova, A.Y.; Nealson, K.H. Electrokinesis is a microbial behavior that requires extracellular electron transport. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 326–331.
  161. Kato, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Watanabe, K. Microbial interspecies electron transfer via electric currents through conductive minerals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, 10042–10046.
  162. Light, S.H.; Méheust, R.; Ferrell, J.L.; Cho, J.; Deng, D.; Agostoni, M.; Iavarone, A.T.; Banfield, J.F.; D’Orazio, S.E.F.; Portnoy, D.A. Extracellular electron transfer powers flavinylated extracellular reductases in Gram-positive bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2019, 116, 26892–26899.
  163. Shi, L.; Dong, H.; Reguera, G.; Beyenal, H.; Lu, A.; Liu, J.; Yu, H.; Fredrickson, J.K. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2016, 14, 651–662.
  164. Pankratova, G.; Hederstedt, L.; Gorton, L. Extracellular electron transfer features of Gram-positive bacteria. Anal. Chim. Acta 2019, 1076, 32–47.
  165. Cao, H.; Qiao, Y.; Liu, X.; Lu, T.; Cui, T.; Meng, F.; Chu, P.K. Electron storage mediated dark antibacterial action of bound silver nanoparticles: Smaller is not always better. Acta. Biomater. 2013, 9, 5100–5110.
  166. Cao, H.; Qiao, Y.; Meng, F.; Liu, X. Spacing-dependent antimicrobial efficacy of immobilized silver nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 743–748.
  167. Wang, M.; Cao, H.; Meng, F.; Zhao, X.; Ping, Y.; Lü, X.; Liu, X. Schottky barrier dependent antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles. Mater. Lett. 2016, 179, 1–4.
  168. Cao, H.; Meng, F.; Liu, X. Antimicrobial activity of tantalum oxide coatings decorated with Ag nanoparticles. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2016, 34, 04C102.
  169. Yang, M.; Liu, H.; Qiu, C.; Iatsunskyi, I.; Coy, E.; Moya, S.; Wang, Z.; Wu, W.; Zhao, X.; Wang, G. Electron transfer correlated antibacterial activity of biocompatible graphene Nanosheets-TiO2 coatings. Carbon 2020, 166, 350–360.
  170. Li, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, D.; Guo, G.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Zhang, X.; Liu, X. Band gap engineering of titania film through cobalt regulation for oxidative damage of bacterial respiration and viability. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 27475–27490.
  171. Wang, R.; Zhou, T.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.; Long, F.; Liu, L. Bilayer microstructure of antibacterial TiO2 coating on Ti6Al4V fabricated via micro-arc oxidation in W-containing electrolytes. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2021, 413, 127094.
  172. Ray, P.C.; Khan, S.A.; Singh, A.K.; Senapati, D.; Fan, Z. Nanomaterials for targeted detection and photothermal killing of bacteria. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 3193–3209.
  173. Qu, Y.; Wei, T.; Zhao, J.; Jiang, S.; Yang, P.; Yu, Q.; Chen, H. Regenerable smart antibacterial surfaces: Full removal of killed bacteria via a sequential degradable layer. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2018, 6, 3946–3955.
  174. Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Qu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Huang, C.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chen, H. Smart, photothermally activated, antibacterial surfaces with thermally triggered bacteria-releasing properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 21283–21291.
More
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!
Top