Gas-Emissions from Permafrost in Russian-Arctic: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.
Subjects: Geology

The active emission of gas (mainly methane) from terrestrial and subsea permafrost in the Russian Arctic has been confirmed by ample evidence. A generalization and some systematization of gas manifestations recorded in the Russian Arctic is carried out. The published data on most typical gas emission cases have been summarized in a table and illustrated by a map. All events of onshore and shelf gas release are divided into natural and man-caused and the natural ones are further classified as venting from lakes or explosive emissions in dryland conditions that produce craters on the surface. a description of the observed man-caused gas manifestations associated with the drilling of geotechnical and production wells in the Arctic region is given.

  • Russian Arctic
  • Permafrost
  • Gas Emissions

1. Introduction 

The significant increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, especially methane, in the Arctic regions is among the major causes of climate change and related environmental risks [1][2]. Warming in the Arctic induces degradation of permafrost and the ensuing dissociation of intra- and subpermafrost gas hydrates that maintain voluminous methane fluxes to the atmosphere [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Most natural methane emission occurs in water-logged depressed landforms, such as dried thaw lakes locally called khasyreys, or poorly flowing river arms and thermokarst sinkholes turned into lakes and swamps, etc. [7][8][9][10]. Active gas emission from the Arctic permafrost was observed during gas surveys of the near-surface atmosphere [8][11], the active layer, and water bodies [10][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Crater features on the surface record explosive emission of deep methane [20][21][22][23][24][25][26].

The evidence of more or less intense gas release reported since the onset of petroleum exploration includes ejection of cuttings and mud, and even expulsion of drilling tools, from boreholes, drilling fluid degassing, etc. [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Gas shows of this kind were observed in northern West Siberia, Taymyr Peninsula, northern Yakutia, and northern Chukchi Peninsula.

Gas releases from both terrestrial and subsea permafrost, and numerous cases have been observed in the Arctic shelf for two recent decades. They are gas seeps and pockmarks found in the Barents and Kara Seas, nonpoint methane emissions in the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, local methane plumes in the East Siberian Sea, as well as gas blows while sampling from bottom sediments. Gas venting from shelf sediments has been attributed to the dissociation of gas hydrates in paleopermafrost [35][36][37][38]. The relation of methane venting from bottom sediments with gas hydrates on the Russian Arctic shelf has received no direct proof though, in the absence of test boreholes [39][40], but it was recently reported regarding the continental slope of the Russian Arctic in Chukchi Sea [41], and from other Arctic areas (Spitsbergen, Beaufort Sea, etc.) [42][43].

2. Gas Emissions in the Russian Arctic

Purposeful studies of gas emissions in the Russian Arctic began about 60 years ago when the Urengoy (1966), Yamburg (1969), Bovanenkovo (1971), and other large gas fields were discovered in northern West Siberia. Many exploration and development people engaged in building infrastructure facilities and roads, drilling, and laying pipelines witnessed gas release from shallow monolith permafrost. It was the spontaneous blowout or prolonged release of combustible gas from geotechnical boreholes, or natural emission from Arctic Seas and lakes, which attracted the attention of geoscientists.

The reported cases can be conventionally divided into emissions from terrestrial and subsea (shelf) permafrost according to the place and into natural and anthropogenic according to the origin. Natural gas release on the land often occurs in river valleys, lakes, or swamps, or leaves traces as craters discovered in recent decades during exploration in the West Siberian Arctic.

Having reviewed the available relevant publications, we compiled a table showing the location, signatures, and possible gas sources for major known cases of gas release (Table 1) and illustrated it with a map of gas emission sites in the Russian Arctic (Figure 1). Note that gas generation in the active layer is beyond the consideration in this study.

Figure 1. Map of gas emission sites in the Russian Arctic.

Table 1. Known gas emission sites in the Russian Arctic.



No. in map




Possible gas sources






Yamal Peninsula, Lake Neyto

Gas plumes on water surface, mudflows, holes in ice

Deep gas from Neyto field



Yamal Peninsula, Сrater Lake

Craters and parapets on lake bottom, mudflows

Possibly, deep gas-water fluids



Yamal Peninsula, group of lakes south of Bovanenkovo field

Blue water, holes in ice, mudflows

Active emission, possibly, deep gas



Gydan Peninsula, a lake 4 km from Merkuto lake on the left bank of Yuribey River

A crater encircled by a parapet

Prolonged ascending flow, possibly, deep gas



Yamal Peninsula, 54 km northeast of Arctic field, Otkrytie Lake

Large craters (up to 40 m in diameter on lake bottom)

Deep gas, possibly, from Cenomanian gas reservoirs




Yamal Peninsula, 30 km south of Bovanenkovo field

A large crater (up to 40 m in diameter and ~70 m deep), encircled with a well-pronounced parapet; ground dispersed to a distance of 120 m

Possibly, intrapermafrost gas



Gydan Peninsula, 100 km northwest of Antipayuta Village

A crater, 10–13 m in diameter and ~15 m deep; no parapet

Possibly, intrapermafrost gas



Yamal Peninsula, floodplain of Erkuta-Yakha River

A crater, 10–12 m in diameter and ~20 m deep, with a preserved fragment of a 2–3 m high mound and ground dispersed to a distance of 100 m

Biogenic gas in a talik and

deep gas



Yamal Peninsula, 33 km northwest of Seyakha, Myudriyakha River

Fire gas explosion that produced a 50 m deep 50 × 70 m crater in a river, with dispersed blocks of permafrost and ice-rich soil, up to 150 m3

Possibly, deep gas






Gydan Peninsula, north of Deryabino field, bank of Mongoche River

Fire gas explosion that produced a 20 m deep crater, with dispersed large fragments of rock

Possibly, deep gas




Drilling in permafrost

North Yakutia, Anabar-Khatanga interfluve

Gas shows at depths of 70–120 m

Intrapermafrost gas



Yamal Peninsula, Yuribey River

Gas shows at depths of 10–50 m

Intrapermafrost gas



Taz Peninsula, Zapolyarny field

Gas shows at depths of 50–120 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates



Taz Peninsula, Yamburg field

Gas shows at depths of 45–55 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates



Yamal Peninsula, Kharasavey field

Gas shows at depths of 10–210 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates



Yamal Peninsula, South-Tambey field

Gas shows at depths of 40–60 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates



Gydan Peninsula, Pelyatka field

Gas shows at depths of 20–30 m

Intrapermafrost gas



Gydan Peninsula, Salman (Utrenneye) field

Gas shows at depths of 50–150 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates



Yamal Peninsula, Bovanenkovo field

Gas shows at depths of 20–130 m

Intrapermafrost gas, possibly relict gas hydrates





Ascending flows and seeps

Laptev Sea, Yana Delta


Deep gas



East Siberian Sea, Bennett Island

Gas plumes, up to 1000 km long

Possibly, deep gas



Laptev Sea, between Semyonovsky Island and Lena Delta

Gas seeps

Possibly, deep gas



Laptev Sea, Ivashkina Lagoon

About 20 gas seeps; high concentration of methane in air

Deep gas



Laptev Sea,

Kotelny Island

Gas seeps

Possibly, deep gas



Laptev Sea shelf, New Siberian Islands

A cluster of gas seeps at 50–90 m sea depths

Possibly, deep gas



Laptev Sea (between 76.5° and 77.5° N; 121–132° E)

More than 700 gas seeps, up to 1.3 km in diameter

Possibly, deep gas



Chukchi Sea, Herald Canyon and Wrangel Island

About 90 gas seeps at 50–95 m sea depths

Deep gas



Kara Sea, near Marre-Salle polar station

Gas seep at 6 m sea depths: 2 m in height and 15 m in width

Biogenic gas



Kara Sea, Universitetskaya structure

Gas seeps from a depth of 80 m and pingo-like features

Deep gas


Man made


Drilling in subsea permafrost

Pechora Sea, Kara Gates

10 m high gas fountain from a borehole at sub-bottom depth 50 m

Deep gas



Pechora Sea, Vaygach Island

10 m high gas fountain from a borehole at sub-bottom depth 50 m, with an ebullition zone up to 200 m in diameter on the sea surface

Gas from subsea permafrost



Kara Sea, Baydaratskaya Bay

Gas show from sub-bottom depth 10–50 m

Possibly, deep gas



Kara Sea, Leningrad field

Gas show from a 200 m deep borehole

Possibly, deep gas



Laptev Sea, Lena Delta

Gas show from a borehole at 9 m depth

Gas from permafrost



Laptev Sea, Buor-Khaya Gulf

Gas show from a 13–16 m deep borehole

Gas from permafrost



Laptev Sea, Mamontov Klyk Cape

Gas show from boreholes up to 80 m deep

Gas from permafrost


3. Discussion

The suggested inventory of the available data on gas emissions in the Russian Arctic collected for about 50 years follows a previous overview by Are of 1998 [53] which summarized the evidence available at that time. Are [53] characterized the forms and signatures of gas fluid venting in different areas of the Arctic controlled by the specificity of the gas sources. We provide more recent evidence and present the data in a table and in a map (Table 1; Figure 1), arranged according to the location of emission sites (in lakes, on the land, or on the shelf), with the indication of specific signatures and possible sources of gas. This synthesis can provide a basis for the prediction of natural and man-caused gas release hazards for areas of observed methane emissions in the Arctic region.

Gas venting from Arctic lakes has the following signatures (for the described major cases, without considering ongoing methane generation in lake sediments):

− Greenish-blue transparent water, often with a visible lake bottom;

− Craters and similar features on the lake bottom;

− More or less strongly eroded parapet or rock fragments around craters as evidence of explosive emission;

− Mudflows in clear water associated with the release of a gas-water mixture through muddy bottom sediments;

− Ebullition;

− Bubbles of various shapes entrapped in ice;

− Ice holes persistent over the winter season, through which gas fluids vent to the air.

The review of published evidence on deep gas-emission craters (Figure 1), along with our field and laboratory data [26], allows a number of inferences:

− In the witnessed cases, gas release was accompanied by explosions and fire;

− All gas analyses showed the presence of methane;

− Many of the gas-emission events were preceded by heaving that produced meters high mounds;

− All discovered craters were round in shape but differed in size and depth, up to tens of m;

− In all cases, rocks around the craters contained ground or pore ice evident in the crater walls or in the ejected fragments;

− Most of the craters were encircled by parapets of ejected rock and soil; rock fragments were dispersed to distances of 100 m or farther around;

− Most of the craters became filled with water and transformed into lakes in two or three years after the emission event.

Gas release from geotechnical or producing boreholes in the Arctic region (especially in northern West Siberia) has the following common features:

− Gas most often releases from shallow permafrost at depths from 10–20 m to 150 m;

− Gas flux ranges from seeping to explosions at rates of hundreds to thousands of m3/d;

− Gas emission can last from a few minutes to a month or longer;

− Most of the emission events are known from oil and gas fields in northern West Siberia (Yamal, Taz, and Gydan Peninsulas);

− Gas released from rocks of different lithologies, but most often from sandy-loam and sandy horizons with low salinity;

− Gas emission occurs from ice-rich permafrost;

− Gas mostly consists of methane and smaller amounts of nitrogen and carbon dioxide;

− The carbon isotope composition of gas indicates its biogenic origin (−65 to −75‰ PDB δ13C);

− Intrapermafrost gas can exist in a free or hydrate form; the presence of free gas is limited by the amount of pore ice while gas hydrates can remain stable within a certain range of pressures and temperatures (hydrate stability zone); metastable relict hydrates that formed under favorable conditions in the past can survive due to self-preservation [33][81][82][83].

The available data on gas emissions in the Russian Arctic shelf show that

− High methane concentrations in surface waters of the Arctic shelf may have different causes, among which degradation of subsea permafrost, dissociation of intra- or subpermafrost gas hydrates, and formation of gas-permeable taliks [3][5][38][73];

− Methane in most of the gas seeps is of deep-seated (thermogenic) origin;

− Water column transfer of methane occurs by diffusive and ebullition mechanisms; gas migration in bubbles produces seeps and plumes; gas vents to the atmosphere if bubbles reach sizes at least 3–4 mm;

− Gas emission can arise when drilling strips intra- or subpermafrost gas accumulations or can result from the destabilization of gas hydrates;

− Pockmarks or plow marks are implicit indicators of gas venting on the Arctic shelf.

4. Conclusions

We have synthesized the available extensive published evidence on gas emissions in the continental and shelf areas of the Russian Arctic and presented the data in a table and in a map (Table 1; Figure 1). The table shows the location, signatures, and possible sources of gas emission, with reference to relevant publications. Gas emission can be natural or anthropogenic; natural venting is possible in lakes and can be explosive, with the formation of craters. The characterized natural gas emission events have implications for gas transport mechanisms in terrestrial and subsea permafrost. Anthropogenic emission cases, which are most often related to drilling, differ in stripping depth of the gas-saturated permafrost, as well as in characteristics and duration of events.Although the tabulated and mapped gas emission data are limited to the most active, large, and well-documented cases, the overview provides an idea of the extent and main trends of the process.

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/geosciences10100383


  1. Shakhova, N.; Semiletov, I.; Chuvilin, E. Understanding the permafrost-hydrate system and associated methane releases in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Geosciences 2019, 9, 251, doi:10.3390/geosciences9060251.
  2. Sergienko, V.I.; Lobkovskii, L.I.; Semiletov, I.P.; Dudarev, O.V.; Dmitrievskii, N.N.; Shakhova, N.E.; Romanovskii, N.N.; Kosmach, D.A.; Nikol’skii, D.N.; Nikiforov, S.L.; et al. The Degradation of Submarine Permafrost and the Destruction of Hydrates on the Shelf of East Arctic Seas as a Potential Cause of the Methane Catastrophe: Some Results of Integrated Studies in 2011. Dokl. Earth Sci. 2012, 446, 1132–1137, doi:10.1134/S1028334X12080144.
  3. Romanovskii, N.N.; Hubberten, H.-W.; Gavrilov, A.V.; Eliseeva, A.A.; Tipenko, G.S. Offshore Permafrost and Gas Hydrate Stability Zone on the Shelf of East Siberian Seas. Geo-Marine Lett. 2005, 25, 167–182, doi:10.1007/s00367-004-0198-6.
  4. Dean, J.F.; Middelburg, J.J.; Röckmann, T.; Aerts, R.; Blauw, L.G.; Egger, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; de Jong, A.E.E.; Meisel, O.H.; Rasigraf, O.; et al. Methane feedbacks to the global climate system in a warmer world. Rev. Geophys. 2018, 56, 207–250, doi:10.1002/2017RG000559.
  5. Semenov, P.; Portnov, A.; Krylov, A.; Egorov, A.; Vanshtein, B. Geochemical Evidence for Seabed Fluid Flow Linked to the Subsea Permafrost Outer Border in the South Kara Sea. Chemie Erde 2019, 125509, doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2019.04.005.
  6. Serov, P.; Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Semenov, P.; Ilatovskaya, P. Methane Release from Pingo-like Features across the South Kara Sea Shelf, an Area of Thawing Offshore Permafrost. J. Geophys. Res. F Earth Surf. 2015, 120, 1515–1529, doi:10.1002/2015JF003467.
  7. Kuzin, I.L.; Lyubina, Yu. N.; Reinin, I.V. Gas production in West Siberian lakes and its relation to oil and gas fields. In Tectonic Criteria for Petroleum Exploration (Remote-Sensing Evidence); VNIGRI: Leningrad, ‎Russia, 1990; pp. 117–127. (In Russian)
  8. Glotov, V.E.; Glotova, L.P. Natural sources of atmospheric methane in Circumpacific region of cryolithozone (North-East of Russia). Bull. Samara Sci. Center Russ. Acad. Sci. 2015, 17, 26–32.
  9. Sizov, O.V. Remote sensing of gas emission consequences in northern West Siberia. Geomatika 2015, 1, 53–68.
  10. Bogoyavlensky, V.I.; Sizov, O.S.; Mazharov, A.V.; Bogoyavlensky, I.V.; Nikonov, R.A. Remote sensing of terrestrial gas emission in the Arctic: Yamal Peninsula. Arkt. Ekol. Ekon. 2016, 3, 4–15.
  11. Streletskaya, I.D.; Vasiliev, A.A.; Oblogov, G.E.; Streletskiy, D.A. Methane content in ground ice and sediments of the Kara Sea coast. Geosciences 2018, 8, 434, doi:10.3390/geosciences8120434.
  12. Kuzin, I.L. On the priority in the studies of land gas shows in Western Siberia. Sov. Geol. Geophys. 1990, 31, 142–144.
  13. Kuzin, I.L. On the nature of anomalous lakes: Indicators of hydrocarbons in deep sediments. In Assessment of Reservoir Petroleum Potential in West Siberia; VNIGRI: St. Petersburg, Russia, 1992; pp. 129–137. (In Russian)
  14. Kuzin, I.L. The extent of natural gas emission in West Siberia. Izvestiya RGO 1999, 131, 24–35.
  15. Rivkin, F.M. Gas contents in shallow permafrost. In Geocryological Conditions of the Kharasavey and Krusenstern Gas Condensate Fields (Yamal Peninsula); VNIIEgeosystem: Moscow, Russia, 2003; pp. 133–146. (In Russian)
  16. Desyatkin, A.R.; Fedorov, P.P.; Nikolaev, A.N.; Borisov, B.Z.; Desyatkin, R.V. Methane emission during floods in thermokarst lakes of Central Yakutia. Vestnik NEFU 2016, 2, 5–14.
  17. Badu, Y.B. Gas shows and the nature of cryolithogenesis in marine sediments of the Yamal Peninsula. Earth Cryosphere 2017, XXI, 42–54, doi:10.21782/KZ1560-7496-2017-5(42-54).
  18. Savichev, A.; Leibman, M.; Kadnikov, V.; Kallistova, A.; Pimenov, N.; Ravin, N.; Dvornikov, Y.; Khomutov, A. Microbiological study of Yamal lakes: A key to understanding the evolution of gas emission craters. Geosciences 2018, 8, 478, doi:10.3390/geosciences8120478.
  19. Dvornikov, Y.A.; Leibman, M.O.; Khomutov, A.V.; Kizyakov, A.I.; Semenov, P.B.; Bussmann, I.; Babkin, E.M.; Heim, B.; Portnov, A.; Babkina, E.A.; et al. Gas‐emission craters of the Yamal and Gydan peninsulas: A proposed mechanism for lake genesis and development of permafrost landscapes. Permafr. Periglac. Process. 2019, 30, 146–162, doi:10.1002/ppp.2014.
  20. Vlasov, A.N.; Khimenkov, A.N.; Volkov-Bogorodskiy, D.B.; Levin, Yu.K. Natural explosive processes in permafrost. Dostizheniya Nauki Tekhniki 2017, 3, 41–56, doi:10.21455/std2017.3-4.
  21. Kizyakov, A.; Khomutov, A.; Zimin, M.; Khairullin, R.; Babkina, E.; Dvornikov, Y.; Leibman, M. Microrelief associated with gas emission craters: Remote-sensing and field-based study. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 677, doi:10.3390/rs10050677.
  22. Buldovicz, S.N.; Khilimonyuk, V.Z.; Bychkov, A.Y.; Ospennikov, E.N.; Vorobyev, S.A.; Gunar, A.Y.; Gorshkov, E.I.; Chuvilin, E.M.; Cherbunina, M.Y.; Kotov, P.I.; et al. Cryovolcanism on the earth: Origin of a spectacular crater in the Yamal Peninsula (Russia). Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-31858-9.
  23. Vorobyev, S.; Bychkov, A.; Khilimonyuk, V.; Buldovicz, S.; Ospennikov, E.; Chuvilin, E. Formation of the Yamal crater in northern West Siberia: Evidence from geochemistry. Geosciences 2019, 9, 515, doi:10.3390/geosciences9120515.
  24. Bogoyavlensky, V.I.; Bogoyavlensky, I.V.; Sizov, O.S.; Nikonov, R.A.; Kargina, T.N. Earth degassing in the Arctic: Comprehensive studies of the distribution of frost mounds and thermokarst lakes with gas blowout craters on the Yamal peninsula. Arctic Ecol. Econ. 2019, 4, 52–68, doi:10.25283/2223-4594-2019-4-52-68.
  25. Khimenkov, A.N.; Sergeev, D.O.; Vlasov, A.N.; Volkov-Bogorodsky, D.B. Explosive processes in the permafrost zone as a new type of geocryological hazard. Geoecology. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol. Geocryol. 2019, 6, 30–41, doi:10.31857/S0869-78092019630-41.
  26. Chuvilin, E.; Stanilovskaya, J.; Titovsky, A.; Sinitsky, A.; Sokolova, N.; Bukhanov, B.; Spasennykh, M.; Cheremisin, A.; Grebenkin, S.; Davletshina, D.; et al. A Gas-Emission Crater in the Erkuta River Valley, Yamal Peninsula: Characteristics and Potential Formation Model. Geosciences 2020, 10, 170, doi:10.3390/geosciences10050170.
  27. Chuvilin, E.M.; Yakushev, V.S.; Perlova, E.V.; Kondakov, V.V. Gas component of permafrost within the Bovanenkovo gas condensate field (Yamal Peninsula). Doklady Earth Sci. 1999, 369, 522–524.
  28. Yakushev, V.S.; Chuvilin, E.M. Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 2000, 31, 189–197.
  29. Bondarev, V.L.; Mirotvorskiy, M.Y.; Zvereva, V.B.; Oblekov, G.I.; Shaydullin, R.M.; Gudzenko, V.T. Above-Cenomanian sediments in the Yamal Peninsula: Gas contents and chemical compositions (a case study of the Bovanenkovo oil-and-gas-condensate field). Geol. Geofiz. Razrab. Neftyanykh Gazov. Mestorozhdenii 2008, 5, 22–34. ISSN 2413-5011.
  30. Yakushev, V.S. Natural Gas and Gas Hydrates in Permafrost; VNIIGAZ: Moscow, Russia, 2009; 192p. ISBN 978-5-89754-048-8. (In Russian)
  31. Kraev, G.; Schulze, E.-D.; Kholodov, A.; Chuvilin, E.; Rivkina, E. Cryogenic displacement and accumulation of biogenic methane in frozen soils. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 105, doi:10.3390/atmos8060105.
  32. Kraev, G.; Rivkina, E.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Belonosov, A.; van Huissteden, J.; Kholodov, A.; Smirnov, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Tshebaeva, K.; Zamolodchikov, D. Methane in gas shows from boreholes in epigenetic permafrost of Siberian Arctic. Geosciences 2019, 9, 67, doi:10.3390/geosciences9020067.
  33. Chuvilin, E.; Bukhanov, B.; Davletshina, D.; Grebenkin, S.; Istomin, V. Dissociation and self-preservation of gas hydrates in permafrost. Geosciences, 2018, 8, 431, doi:10.3390/geosciences8120431.
  34. Obzhirov, A.; Shakirov, R.; Salyuk, A.; Suess, E.; Biebow, N.; Salomatin, A. relations between methane venting, geological structure and seismo-tectonics in the Okhotsk sea. Geo-Marine Lett. 2004, 24, 135–139, doi:10.1007/s00367-004-0175-0.
  35. Shakhova, N.; Semiletov, I.; Leifer, I.; Salyuk, A.; Rekant, P.; Kosmach, D. Geochemical and geophysical evidence of methane release over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 2010, 115, C08007, doi:10.1029/2009JC005602, 2010C080071of14.
  36. Shakhova, N.; Semiletov, I.; Salyuk, A.; Yusupov, V.; Kosmach, D.; Gustafsson, Ö. Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Science 2010, 327, 1246–1250, doi:10.1126/science.1182221.
  37. Burwicz, E.; Rüpke, L.; Wallmann, K. Estimation of the global amount of submarine gas hydrates formed via microbial methane formation based on numerical reaction-transport modeling and a novel parameterization of Holocene sedimentation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2011, 75, 4562–4576, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.05.029.
  38. Romanovskii, N.N.; Eliseeva, A.A.; Gavrilov, A.V.; Tipenko, G.S.; Hubberten, Х. The long-term dynamics of the permafrost and gas hydrate stability zone on rifts of the East Siberian Arctic shelf ((Report 2). Kriosf. Zemli 2006, 10, 29–38.
  39. Anisimov, O.A.; Borzenkova, I.I.; Lavrov, S.A.; Strelchenko, Y.G. The current dynamics of the submarine permafrost and methane emission on the shelf of the eastern arctic seas. Ice Snow 2012, 52, 97–105.
  40. Anisimov, O.A.; Zaboikina, Y.G.; Kokorev, V.A.; Yurganov, L.N. Possible causes of methane release from the East Arctic seas shelf. Ice Snow 2014, 54, 69–81.
  41. Kim, Y.-G.; Kim, S.; Lee, D.-H.; Lee, Y.M.; Kim, H.J.; Kang, S.-G.; Jin, Y.K. Occurrence of Active Gas Hydrate Mounds in the Southwestern Slope of the Chukchi Plateau, Arctic Ocean. Episodes 2020, 43, 811–823, doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2020/020053.
  42. Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Dallimore, S.R.; Blasco, S.M.; Lorenson, T.D.; Melling, H.; McLaughlin, F.A. Origin of pingo-like features on the Beaufort Sea shelf and their possible relationship to decomposing methane gas hydrates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2007, 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL027977.
  43. Rajan, A.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S. Acoustic evidence for a gas migration and release system in Arctic glaciated continental margins offshore NW-Svalbard. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2012, 32, 36–49, doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.12.008.
  44. Bogoyavlensky, V.I. Oil and gas shows on land and offshore areas of the Arctic and the world ocean. Bureniye i Neft’ 2015, 6, 4–10. Available online: (accessed on 22 September 2020).
  45. Bogoyavlensky, V.I.; Erokhin, G.N.; Nikonov, R.A.; Bogoyavlensky, I.V.; Bryksin, V.M. Study of catastrophic gas blowout zones in the Arctic based on passive microseismic monitoring (on the example of Lake Otkrytiye). Arctic Ecol. Econ. 2020, 1, 93–104, doi:10.25283/2223-4594-2020-1-93-104.
  46. Leibman, M.O.; Plekhanov, A.V. Yamal gas emission crater: Results of preliminary survey. KholodOk 2014, 2, 9–15.
  47. Leibman, M.O.; Kizyakov, A.I.; Plekhanov, A.V.; Streletskaya, I.D. New permafrost feature—deep crater in Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia, as a response to local climate fluctuations. Geogr. Environ. Sustain. 2014, 7, 68–80.
  48. Kizyakov, А.I.; Sonyushkin, A.V.; Leibman, М.О.; Zimin, M.V. Geomorphological conditions of the gas-emission crater and its dynamics in central Yamal. Earth's Cryosphere 2015, 19, 15–25.
  49. Olenchenko, V.V.; Sinitsky, A.I.; Antonov, E.Y.; Eltsov, I.N.; Kushnarenko, O.N.; Plotnikov, A.E.; Potapov, V.V.; Epov, M.I. Results of geophysical researches of the area of new geological formation “Yamal crater”. Earth's Cryosphere 2015, 19, 94–106.
  50. Kizyakov, A.I.; Zimin, M.V.; Sonyushkin, A.V.; Dvornikov, Y.A.; Khomutov, A.V.; Leibman, M.O. Comparison of gas emission crater geomorphodynamics on Yamal and Gydan peninsulas (Russia), based on repeat very‐high‐resolution stereopairs. Remote Sens. (Basel) 2017, 9, 1023, doi:10.3390/rs9101023.
  51. Kalinko, M.K. Geological History and Petroleum Potential of the Khataigekoy Basin; Gostoptekhizdat: Leningrad, ‎Russia, 1959; 358p. (In Russian)
  52. Mamzelev, А.Р.; Are, F.E. Geological-engineering conditions of Yamal peninsula along designing railroad. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, China, 5–9 July 1993; South China University of Technology Press: Guangzhou China 1993; Volume 1, pp. 436–442.
  53. Are, F.E. Emission of deep gas into the atmosphere. Kriosfera Zemli 1998, II, 42–50.
  54. Melnikov, P.I., Melnikov, V.P., Tsarev, V.P., Degtiarev, B.V.,Mizulina, N.B., Popov, A.P., Berezniakov, A.I., Svetchnikov,A.M. Generation of hydrocarbons in the permafrost. Izv. AN SSSR Ser. Geol. 1989, 2, pp. 118–128. (In Russian)
  55. Badu, Y.B. The cryolithic structure of the ground. In The Cryosphere of Petroleum Fields, Yamal Peninsula: In 3 volumes. Vol. 1. The Kharasavey Field; Nedra: St. Petersburg, Russia, 2006; pp. 85–111. (In Russian)
  56. Chuvilin, E.M.; Perlova, E.V.; Baranov, Yu.B.; Kondakov, V.V.; Osokin, A.B.; Yakushev, V.S. Structure and Properties of Permafrost in the Southern Bovanenkovo Gas-Condensate Field; GEOS: Moscow, Russia, 2007; 137p. (In Russian)
  57. Kondakov, V.V.; Kusova, O.F.; Kondakov, M.V. Geocryological conditions of the northeastern Yamal Peninsula. In: Proc. IV Conf. of Russian Permafrost Scientists; University Book: Moscow, Russia, 2011; pp. 89–94. (In Russian)
  58. Bolshakov, Y.Y.; Kultikov, A.M. Analysis of gas emission while drilling in the Bovanenkovo and Kharasavey fields. In Transactions, Institute of North Development Problems, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences; Tyumen, Russia, 1989, 74p; N2 16-88. (In Russian)
  59. Kondakov, V.V.; Galyavich, A.S. Comprehensive studies of permafrost sediments with an assessment of their water and gas saturation. In Proceedings of the Problems of Cryology of the Earth: Abstracts. Conf., Pushchino, Russia, 20–24 April 1998; 105p. (In Russian)
  60. Chuvilin, E.M.; Yakushev, V.S.; Perlova, E.V. Gas and gas hydrates in the permafrost of Bovanenkovo gas field, Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Polarforschung 2000, 68, 215–219.
  61. Ivanov, M.S. Modern permafrost coastal Deltaic sediments of the Yana basin. Voprosy Geografii Yakutii 1969, 5, 138–147.
  62. Masurenkov, Y.P.; Slezin, Y.B.; Sobisevich, A.L. Gas plumes near the Bennett island. Izvestiya RAN Sr. Geogr. 2015, 3, 86–95 (In Russian)
  63. Rekant, P.V.; Tumskaya, V.E.; Gusev, E.A.; Schwenk, T.; Spiess, F.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Kassens, H. Distribution and features of subsea permafrost in the Semenovskaya and Vasilievskaya banks (Laptev Sea), from seismoacoustic profiling data. In Laptev Sea and Adjacent Arctic Seas: Current State and History; Moscow State University: Moscow, Russia, 2009; pp. 292–308. ISBN 9785211057166. (In Russian)
  64. Shakhova, N.E.; Semiletov, I.P.; Salyuk, A.N.; Belcheva, N.N.; Kosmach, D.A. Methane anomalies in the near-water atmospheric layer above the shelf of the East Siberian Arctic Sea. Doklady Earth Sci. 2007, 415, 764–768.
  65. Shakhova, N.; Semiletov, I.; Leifer, I.; Sergienko, V.; Salyuk, A.; Kosmach, D.; Chernykh, D.; Stubbs, C.; Nicolsky, D.; Tumskoy, V.; et al. Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Nat. Geosci. 2014, 7, 64–70, doi:10.1038/ngeo2007.
  66. Shakhova, N.; Semiletov, I.; Sergienko, V.; Lobkovsky, L.; Yusupov, V.; Salyuk, A.; Salomatin, A.; Chernykh, D.; Kosmach, D.; Panteleev, G.; et al. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf: Towards further assessment of permafrost-related methane fluxes and role of sea ice. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 2015, 373, 2014045, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0451.
  67. Shakhova, N.E.; Sergienko, V.I.; Semiletov, I.P. The contribution of the East Siberian Shelf to the modern methane cycle. Her. Russ. Acad. Sci. 2009, 79, 237–246, doi:10.1134/S101933160903006X.
  68. Baranov, B.; Galkin, S.; Vedenin, A.; Dozorova, K.; Gebruk, A.; Flint, M. Methane seeps on the outer shelf of the Laptev Sea: Characteristic features, structural control, and benthic fauna. Geo-Marine Lett. 2020, 40, 541–557, doi:10.1007/s00367-020-00655-7.
  69. Samarkin, V.; Semiletov, I.P.; Finke, N.; Shakhova, N.E.; Joye, S.B. Methane carbon stable isotope signatures in waters and sediments of the Laptev Sea Shelf. In American Geophysical Union; San Francisco, CA, USA, 3–7 December 2012; p. B21D-0411.
  70. Weidner, E.; Weber, T.C.; Mayer, L.; Jakobsson, M.; Chernykh, D.; Semiletov, I. A wideband acoustic method for direct assessment of bubble-mediated methane flux. Cont. Shelf Res. 2019, 173, 104–115, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2018.12.005.
  71. Matveeva, T.; Savvichev, A.S.; Semenova, A.; Logvina, E.; Kolesnik, A.N.; Bosin, A.A. Source, Origin, and Spatial Distribution of Shallow Sediment Methane in the Chukchi Sea. Oceanography 2015, 28, 202–217, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.66.
  72. Matveeva, T.V.; Semenova, A.A.; Shchur, N.A.; Logvina, E.A.; Nazarova, O.V. Prospects of Gas Hydrate Presence in the Chukchi Sea. J. Min. Inst. 2017, 226, 387–396, doi:10.25515/pmi.2017.4.387.
  73. Portnov, A.; Smith, A.J.; Mienert, J.; Cherkashov, G.; Rekant, P.; Semenov, P.; Serov, P.; Vanshtein, B. Offshore Permafrost Decay and Massive Seabed Methane Escape in Water Depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea Shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2013, 40, 3962–3967, doi:10.1002/grl.50735.
  74. Firsov, Y.G.; Ivanov, M.V.; Koloskov, E.N. A new stage in bathymetric studies of the Russian Arctic waters: A case study of the Kara Sea. Bull. Admiral Makarov State Univ. Mar. River Fleet 2014, 6, 115–124. (In Russian)
  75. Koloskov, E.N.; Firsov, Y.G. The use of modern hydrographic technologies for the study of bottom topography and gas occurrence in the Russian Arctic seas. Bull. Admiral Makarov State Univ. Mar. River Fleet 2015, 3, 54–62. (In Russian)
  76. Bondarev, V.N.; Rokos, S.I.; Kostin, D.A.; Dlugach, A.G.; Polyakova, N.A. Underpermafrost accumulations of gas in the upper part of the sedimentary cover of the Pechora Sea. Russ. Geol. Geophys. 2002, 43, 545–556.
  77. Rokos, S.I. Engineering-geological features of shallow overpressure zones in reservoirs of the Pechora and southern Kara shelf. Inzhenernaya Geol. 2008, 4, 22–28.
  78. Bogoyavlensky, V.I. Natural and technogenic threats in fossil fuels production in the Earth’s cryolithosphere. Russ. Min. Ind. 2020, 1, 97–118, doi:10.30686/1609-9192-2020-1-97-118.
  79. Grigoriev, M.N. Permafrost degradation East Siberian Arctic seas: Evidence from field campaigns of 2014–2016. Probl. Arktiki Antarkt. 2018, 1, 89–96.
  80. Safronov, A.F.; Shits, E.Y.; Grigor’ev, M.N.; Semenov, M.E. Formation of gas hydrate deposits in the Siberian Arctic Shelf. Russ. Geol. Geophys. 2010, 51, 83–87, doi:10.1016/j.rgg.2009.12.006.
  81. Yakushev, V.S.; Perlova, E.V.; Makhonina, N.A.; Chuvilin, E.M.; Kozlova, E.V. Gas hydrates in deposits on continents and islands. Ross. Khimicheskiy Zhurnal 2003, 3, 80–90.
  82. Yershov, E.D.; Lebedenko, Y.P.; Chuvilin, E.M.; Istomin, V.A.; Yakushev, V.S. Features of gas hydrate occurrence in permafrost. Dokl. USSR Acad. Sci. 1991, 321, 788–791.
  83. Dallimore, S.R.; Chuvilin, E.M.; Yakushev, V.S. Field and laboratory characterization of intrapermafrost gas hydrates, Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T., Canada. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Natural Gas Hydrates, Toulouse, France, 24–29 June 1996; р. 525–531.
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!
Video Production Service