Grain quality involves the appearance, nutritional, and safety attributes of grains. With the improvement of people’s living standards, problems pertaining to the quality of grains have received greater attention. Modern quality detection techniques feature unique advantages including rapidness, non-destructiveness, accuracy, and efficiency in detecting grain quality. This review summarizes research progress of these techniques in detection of quality indices of grains. Particularly, the review focuses on detection techniques based on physical properties including acoustic, optical, thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties, and those simulating sensory analysis such as electronic noses, electronic tongues, and electronic eyes. According to the current technological development and application, the challenges and prospects of these techniques are demonstrated.