Biochar as an additive has been used in different research to mitigate the emissions resulting from composting processes [94,100,120,132,133]
. This additive has been used as a sole material or mixed with other additives 
. Noteworthy, under almost all studied conditions, promising results were obtained, despite the lack of clarity regarding its mechanism on promoting nitrogen assimilation and nitrification [5,90,102,135]
. The change in nitrogen functional groups on the biochar surface was evidence for adsorption and microbial transformation of NH3
. As indicated in several works, the biochar promoted microbial activity during the composting process, as it increases the nitrogen source and decreases toxicity of free NH3
on the microbial activity 
; hence, a high respiration rate as well as a fast decomposition of organic matter were recorded [135,137,138]
. Additionally, this was associated with an increase in the temperature and NO3
concentration along with a decrease in the pH and NH4+
. Emissions of NH3
and nitrogen losses were reduced by 64% and 52%, respectively, when biochar was mixed with poultry litters 
. Similar results were observed when cornstalk biochar was used where cumulative NH3
emissions were reduced by 24.8% 
. The presence of the biochar boosted the activity of nitrifiers due to its high sorption capacity for gases and the high cation exchange capacity. According to Zhou et al. 
, adding modified biochar could significantly reduce NH3
emissions by increasing the number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), inhibiting urease activity, and decreasing the abundance of nitrogen functional genes such as narG and nirS, facilitating the conversion of NH+4
-N into NO−3
-N and decreasing nitrogen loss. These conditions were responsible for promoting N2
O reduction up to 59.8% 
. The effects of bamboo charcoal (BC) and bamboo vinegar (BV) on lowering NH3
O emissions during aerobic composting (Wheat straw and pig manure) revealed that both BC and BV enhanced nitrogen conversion and compost quality, with the combination BC + BV treatment achieving the greatest results. The BC, BV, and BC + BV treatments decreased NH3
emissions by 14.35%, 17.90%, and 29.83%, respectively, and the N2
O emissions by 44.83%, 55.96%, and 74.53%. BC and BV reduced the NH3
O emissions during composting 
. Similarly, Biochar (BC) and bean dregs’ (BD) effects on nitrifiers and denitrifiers, as well as contributions to NH3
O emissions, were investigated by Yang et al. 
. When comparing the BD + BC treatment to the BD treatment, the highest value of NH3
O emission was reduced by 32.92% and 46.61%, respectively. The number and structure of nitrogen functional genes were shown to be closely related to the synthesis of NH3
O in the study. In this case, it was discovered that BD + BC enhanced the abundance of the AOB amoA gene, resulting in a reduction in NH3
emission. The presence of nirS was more closely linked to the presence of N2
O. When compared to the BD treatment, the abundance of nirS in the BD + BC treatment was reduced by 18.93%, lowering N2
O emissions after composting. Furthermore, the nosZ-type gene was the most functional denitrification bacterial community to influence N2
O emissions. 
. Noteworthy, when biochar is to be used, it is important to keep in mind that its characteristics have a major role on its efficiency.
Composting is a favorable technology to treat organic waste, but gaseous emissions are an issue of major concern for its development. Among them, GHG emissions are an important problem as they are responsible for the global warming effect. Carbon dioxide is not often considered, as it is considered biogenic. However, methane and nitrous oxide, related to anaerobic and anoxic conditions, must be accounted for when analyzing any composting process. Another important point is the release in the form of gaseous emissions of a vast family of compounds such as VOCs. These gases can be harmful, possess negative impacts, and, especially, are responsible for unpleasant odors. The origin of these gases is double (they can come from the substrate or be biologically or even chemically formed during the process) and they need the development of mitigation strategies based on relatively consolidated technologies (such as biofiltration) or new approaches, such as the use of materials as biochar. However, there is still a lack of reliable and full-scale data from composting emissions to have consistent mitigation strategies.
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