BIM is defined as the“digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility”. It is the process of producing and maintaining project related information throughout the different phases of the building life cycle. The information not only constitutes geometric properties of the building elements, but also extends to include any customized information related to the building. There are various uses for BIMs, which include 3D visualization, 4D scheduling, quantity take-off, etc. Although the use of BIM functionalities is an active field of research, exploiting the advantages of BIM in the deconstruction stage remains limited.
Several research efforts  have proposed a decision support system based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The tool they developed helps in deciding between the different demolition techniques based on economic, environmental, technical, and social criteria. The three strategies to choose from include progressive demolition, which is the controlled removal of sections of the structure; deconstruction or dismantling a structure, which is usually carried out in reverse order of construction; and finally, the deliberate collapse mechanism or what is known as mechanical demolition. The latter strategies are then assessed quantitively against the overall costs, where selling salvaged elements recovered in both the first and second strategies are deducted from the costs incurred. Moreover, Anumba et al.  continued toward an explanation of different demolition techniques for the contractor to choose from. This was followed a presentation of the criteria needed for the selection of the optimum demolition technique. These criteria included time constraints, financial constraints, environmental considerations, and recycling considerations. However, the results were not formulated into a decision-making model. Instead, the author provided guidelines on selecting the most convenient strategy based on the mentioned criteria.
BIM is revolutionizing the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. BIM is defined as the  “digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility”. It is the process of producing and maintaining project related information throughout the different phases of the building life cycle . The information not only constitutes geometric properties of the building elements, but also extends to include any customized information related to the building. There are various uses for BIMs, which include 3D visualization, 4D scheduling, quantity take-off, etc. Although the use of BIM functionalities is an active field of research, exploiting the advantages of BIM in the deconstruction stage remains limited . The development of BIM-based tools exploiting the domain of waste minimization in the construction industry can be classified into three groups. The first focuses on assessing the de-constructability of buildings or to what extent they are designed for disassembly (DFD) and circular economy . The second focuses on construction waste minimization , while the third is concerned with the waste associated with the demolition or renovation of buildings and evaluating different deconstruction options .
The work of Akbarnezhad et al.  involved the development of a BIM-based plug-in to assess different deconstruction strategies. The operational flow of processes relied on customized deconstruction-related attributes. These attributes are then attached to its corresponding BIM object. Then, the proposed tool analyzes the data entered and depicts the suitable overall deconstruction strategy that achieves the optimum solution in terms of costs, energy use, and carbon footprint. This BIM-based framework included the environmental aspects in the decision-making criteria. These aspects were not only related to on-site activities, but also extended to include the transportation logistics. For instance, the carbon emissions caused by the transportation trucks hauling the salvaged materials to the recycling or disposal facilities were included in the assessment criteria. It is worth noting that recycling facilities process different varieties of construction materials .
Many research efforts have highlighted the importance of synergies between BIM and lean concepts . The exploitation of both BIM and lean relies on the proper understanding of their theoretical processes. This integration is expected to yield more benefits to the construction industry than just the implementation of each one of them independently . Since BIM and lean principles can be adopted separately, there is a need to prove that the integration should yield better results. Several initiatives have been dedicated to this approach, an example of which is integrated project delivery (IPD), and another is virtual design and construction (VDC). As for IPD, it mandates the project participants be involved in decision making as early as possible in the project. Additionally, IPD forms of contracts are designed for “collaborative project delivery”. In other words, it is a framework within which the owner, designers, and contractors are required to work together. In other words, there is no more room for the individual gains in the project by one entity, instead, the revenue gained by all project participants is tied by the project success . Accordingly, new forms of contracts have been introduced to the construction market based on the IPD approach, an example of which are those forms of contracts issued by the American Institute of Architects (AIA). One of these forms is the AIA Document E202-2008. This document provides a framework for the adoption of BIM in IPD projects. This comprehensive framework based on BIM protocols, the level of development, and model elements is proof that BIM can yield extra benefits when applied in a collaborative environment . Finally, IPD is an approach that adopts lean principles and encourages the use of BIM tools and processes.