Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2044 2024-03-16 08:23:01 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 2044 2024-03-19 08:15:45 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Irin, I.J.; Hasanuzzaman, M. Types and General Role of Organic Amendments. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56355 (accessed on 19 April 2024).
Irin IJ, Hasanuzzaman M. Types and General Role of Organic Amendments. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56355. Accessed April 19, 2024.
Irin, Israt Jahan, Mirza Hasanuzzaman. "Types and General Role of Organic Amendments" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56355 (accessed April 19, 2024).
Irin, I.J., & Hasanuzzaman, M. (2024, March 16). Types and General Role of Organic Amendments. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/56355
Irin, Israt Jahan and Mirza Hasanuzzaman. "Types and General Role of Organic Amendments." Encyclopedia. Web. 16 March, 2024.
Types and General Role of Organic Amendments
Edit

Salinity and metal stress are significant abiotic factors that negatively influence plant growth and development. These factors lead to diminished agricultural yields on a global scale. Organic amendments have emerged as a potential solution for mitigating the adverse effects of salinity and metal stress on plants. When plants experience these stresses, they produce reactive oxygen species, which can impair protein synthesis and damage cellular membranes. Organic amendments, including biochar, vermicompost, green manure, and farmyard manure, have been shown to facilitate soil nitrogen uptake, an essential component for protein synthesis, and enhance various plant processes such as metabolism, protein accumulation, and antioxidant activities. Researchers have observed that the application of organic amendments improves plant stress tolerance, plant growth, and yield.

salinity and metal stress organic amendments biochar compost vermicompost green manure duckweed poultry manure press mud

1. Introduction

Salinity and metal stress are pressing concerns that pose significant threats to soil microbial communities, soil fertility, food security, biodiversity, and the sustainability of agriculture [1][2]. Climate change and global warming contribute to rising sea levels, which, in turn, result in new areas becoming saline and barren each year. In addition, human activities such as the use of sewage water for irrigation, industrial operations, mining, and the overuse of pesticides further contribute to the toxicity of soils [3]. These anthropogenic and geogenic actions are responsible for the accumulation of salts and toxic metals like arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), posing risks to both plants and the environment [4][5]. Although some metals are harmless or even beneficial at low concentrations, they become toxic as their levels increase [1].
Organic amendments (OAs), such as Sesbania rostrata biomass, vermicompost (VC), compost, biochar (BC), and poultry and farmyard manures (FYMs), provide an alternative approach to alleviate these abiotic stresses [6][7][8]. These high-nitrogen organic amendments contribute to the improvement of soil quality and promote plant growth by reducing the bioaccumulation and translocation of metal stress under salinity [9]. Additionally, they have the added benefit of enhancing soil health by increasing nutrient availability, reducing the uptake of harmful metals, and strengthening antioxidant defenses in plants. According to multiple studies, OAs significantly contribute to the improvement of soil health, increase nutrient uptake, enhance the stability of cellular membranes in plants, and also decrease the bioavailability of pollutants [10]. This results in increased biomass production in soils affected by salinity and metal contamination. Organic amendments act by increasing the content of soil organic matter, which, in turn, stimulates the activity of soil microorganisms [11][12]. These microorganisms convert nutrients into forms that are readily available for plant uptake. Moreover, OAs have a positive impact on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, thereby enhancing soil health, crop yield, and quality [13][14][15][16]. Furthermore, phytoextraction of metals by using different plants like Brassica rapa, Cannabinus sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays is also found effective to remove metal pollution from soil [17]. Given these benefits, it is crucial for researchers and agriculturalists to adopt a more comprehensive approach to improve soil fertility and bolster plant defenses against abiotic stresses. Several studies have already validated that the application of OAs is an environmentally sound, economically viable, and agronomically effective technique [18].
Organic amendments positively amend degraded soil structures and enhance soil productivity and quality. Originating from both plants and animals, their types are illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Types of different organic amendments.

2. Biochar

Biochar, a carbon © rich byproduct of biomass pyrolysis, contains various amounts of C, hydrogen (H), sulfur (S), oxygen (O2), N, and minerals. Although almost 70% of its composition is C, the rest depends on the feedstock used to make it. It has recently been recognized for its beneficial economic and environmental impacts on soil and crop productivity. Biochar amends pH, increases CEC, sequesters C, enhances P availability [19], improves soil aeration and porosity [20][21], and enhances soil fertility [22][23][24][25]. Additionally, by promoting the rhizosphere’s biological environment with biochar, soil enzyme activity and microbial growth are enhanced [26]. It also assists in nutrient retention in soil micropores and supports easy plant nutrient assimilation [27]. Salinity is mitigated by replacing Na+ from exchangeable soil sites, reducing Na+ adsorption ratios, and alleviating oxidative stress from NaCl. Researchers have also found that the presence of oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates in BC improves soil productivity. Furthermore, biochar’s strong adsorption capacity, particularly in bamboo charcoal, makes it an ideal nutrient preserver and stabilizer for HMs, notably Pb and Cd in polluted soils [28][29][30][31]. Biochar’s effects on degraded soil and crops are demonstrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Effect of biochar on soil and crops under salinity.

3. Compost

Compost is rich in OM and essential plant nutrients like N, P, and K, fulfilling deficiencies found in saline-affected soils. It also decreases the sodium absorption ratio by increasing Ca2+ in the soil solution. Furthermore, compost enhances SOM by binding soil particles into aggregates, thus improving soil air circulation and infiltration, increasing the available micronutrients, and promoting plant and microbial growth [32][33][34]. As compost alters soil properties [35], it elevates soil fertility for crop production. Moreover, it mitigates oxidative stress, boosts chl content and photosynthesis rates, and promotes crop growth [36][37]. Ahmed et al. [38] advocate for using affordable water hyacinth compost to amend degraded saline-sodic soils and improve crop yields. Composting livestock dung can quickly transform it into a biofertilizer, eliminating harmful chemicals, HMs, pathogens, and antibiotics [39][40].

4. Vermicompost

Produced by using earthworms to convert organic waste into nutrient-rich compost, VC has various plant nutrients. It acts as a biosorbent, reducing the negative impacts of salinity [41] and harmful ions like Pb, Cd, nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) [42]. In the composting process, earthworms elevate the mineralization and humification rates in soil, increasing soil pore space, water infiltration rates, and water retention, which increase microbial populations and organic C content and promote growth, yield, and fruit quality [43]. Researchers have identified that VC has more nutrients than regular compost, enhancing soil fertility in multiple ways. It bolsters SOM and exchangeable minerals like K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in soil, reducing EC. Additionally, VC improves plant physiological factors, reducing harmful effects like oxidative stress and enhancing plant growth [44][45]. It also immobilizes soil HMs like Cd and diminishes their phytoavailability [46], subsequently increasing grain yields by supplying essential plant hormones [47]. The effects of VC on soil and crops are depicted in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Effect of vermicompost on soil and crops under salinity.

5. Green Manure

Various green manuring crops are employed to enhance soil fertility [48] and reclaim soil salinity [11][49]. Sesbania, a leguminous plant, is effectively utilized as green manure (GM). It mitigates soil salinity by drawing out excess salt and harnessing it through its biomass, simultaneously improving soil structure and nutrient availability (Figure 4). This leads to optimized crop growth. Decomposed GM crops elevate soil CO2 concentration, aiding CaCO3 dissolution and hastening the removal of exchangeable Na+ ions from saline soils [50][51]. Sesbania and sunhemp demonstrate significant potential for reducing soil Na+ and ameliorating soil salinity. Choudhary et al. [52] found that incorporating GM decreases soil pH in saline-sodic soils due to its acidifying effect, which, in turn, boosts the available soil and plant minerals. Organic materials not only ameliorate conditions but also augment the physical attributes of the soil, nutrient availability, and the SOM status in degraded soils. Sesbania, given its ample biomass and nodulation, is a widely preferred OA. It enriches the soil with N, P, K, and OAs, enhancing the C:N ratio, Ca2+ status, and salinity mitigation [53]. Decomposed GM acts as a slow-release fertilizer, benefiting subsequent crops [54]. Shirale et al. [11] posited GM as a potential gypsum substitute, attributing to its incremental salinity reclamation capabilities and bolstering of biological N fixation and C sequestration. Mustard species, utilized as GM, improve soil fertility due to their rhizosphere activity and phytoremediation potential [55]. Various GM crops, including mustard, phacelia, and borage, have been reported to boost soil respiration and diminish bioaccessible metal amounts, thereby reducing ecotoxicity [56]. Bruning et al. [57] hypothesize that legumes, despite their high salinity levels, can serve as GM due to their growth and atmospheric N fixation abilities.
Figure 4. Effect of green manuring crops on soil and crops under salinity.

6. Duckweed and Water Hyacinth

Over recent decades, phytotechnologies, which utilize plants for pollutant removal, have gained prominence. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants possess remarkable metal-sorption capabilities [58]. Duckweed (DW, Lemna), an aquatic member of the Lemnaceae family, is enriched with trace minerals, K, and P, and vital sources of vitamins A and B, proteins, fats, amino acids, and starch. Infusing soil with duckweed biomass increases the uptake of nutrients like N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn, subsequently boosting crop production. Duckweed extracts have been employed as biostimulants for olive plant growth [59]. Notably, duckweed can withstand pollutants such as ammonia and HMs, marking its potential as a purifier for agricultural and industrial wastewater [60]. However, some research indicates that DW efficacy in HM (Ni, Cd) pollutant removal diminishes under salt stress [61]. Contrarily, others have demonstrated DW’s capability to accumulate boron in environments with salinity under 100 mM, significantly improving osmotic stress resistance [47]. Water hyacinth, a rapidly proliferating aquatic plant, owes its growth to nutrient content. Activated C derived from water hyacinth has applications in salinity reduction through mineral absorption [62]. Both Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor effectively remove HM ions, such as As, from water [63].

7. Poultry Manure

Poultry manure serves as an organic material for enhancing soil fertility because it is rich in both macro- and micronutrients. Organic N-rich poultry manure (PM) is commonly utilized to amend and enhance fertility in saline soil. As found by numerous researchers, such as Leithy et al. [13], PM ameliorates the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils and mitigates the toxic impacts of salinity across various plant species. Additionally, PM has been shown to decrease certain trace metal concentrations in soil.

8. Farmyard Manure

Farmyard manure (FYM) is a composted blend of cow dung, cow urine, litter, and other dairy byproducts. It is a reservoir of nutrients, including N, P, and trace elements, all of which enhance soil fertility and soil quality, along with the stable humic substance [64]. As an integral source of soil C, it bolsters the activities of soil flora and fauna and effectively reduces EC and pH in saline-sodic soils. Singh and Agrawal [65] emphasize that FYM is invaluable for elevating soil fertility and diminishing soil metal contamination. Its solo use or in conjunction with N, P, and K (inorganic fertilizers) can mitigate the phytoavailability of HMs in the soil. This results in maintaining plant vitality and bolstering growth and yield, especially at contaminated agricultural sites. Chicken and cow manures, when added to polluted soil, drastically cut down the phytoavailability of Cd while amplifying the growth and yield of sweet basil [9]. Rani et al. [66] underscored that FYM, in combination with cow dung and pig manure, can alleviate soil metal stress and markedly reduce Ni by forming resilient metal complexes with organic manure. Among the modifications to reduce chromium toxicity, FYM has been the most effective.

9. Press Mud

Press mud, a byproduct of the sugar industry, is esteemed for augmenting SOM, cultivating a conducive environment for microbial communities, and, ultimately, boosting soil fertility and crop yield [67][68][69]. Beyond being a vital nutrient source, press mud also magnifies plant nutrient uptake through roots, fortifies membrane integrity, and enhances osmoprotectant processes [70]. Additionally, press mud is rich in hydroxyl ions, pivotal for metal adsorption and the diminishment of toxic metal bioavailability [69][71]. The manifold benefits of press mud on soil and crops, especially under salinity conditions, are illustrated in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Effect of press mud on soil and crops under salinity.

10. Others

The lion’s share of humic compounds, notably humic acid, represent the most biologically vivacious components of soil and compost [72]. Incorporating humic substances leads to an elevation in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and OC content, released P, controlled N loss, reduced metal mobility, and improved crop growth [73]. Sewage sludge is embraced as an OA due to its ample concentrations of N, P, and K. Typically, urban sludge is benign relative to its industrial counterpart. Steel slag, an industrial residue rich in Ca, Si, Fe, and P [74], holds promise for remediating HM pollution. Historically, steel slag, along with BC application, significantly improved growth performances, reduced the oxidative stresses of okra, and mitigated the adverse effects of As stress [75]. Its inclusion diminished the accessible amount of Cd in tainted soils [76], consequently cutting down soil Cd concentration from root to shoot and enhancing rice growth and the soluble protein concentration of black gram [42][67].

References

  1. Wang, M.; Zhao, S.; Wang, L.; Chen, S.; Li, S.; Lei, X.; Sun, X.; Qin, L. Salt stress-induced changes in microbial community structures and metabolic processes result in increased soil cadmium availability. Sci. Total Environ. 2021, 782, 147125.
  2. Nosek, M.; Kaczmarczyk, A.; Jędrzejczyk, R.J.; Supel, P.; Kaszycki, P.; Miszalski, Z. Expression of Genes Involved in Heavy Metal Trafficking in Plants Exposed to Salinity Stress and Elevated Cd Concentrations. Plants 2020, 9, 475.
  3. Ahmad, I.; Akhtar, M.J.; Zahir, Z.A.; Mitter, B. Organic amendments: Effects on cereals growth and cadmium remediation. Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2014, 12, 2919–2928.
  4. Alvarez, A.; Saez, J.M.; Davila Costa, J.S.; Colin, V.L.; Fuentes, M.S.; Cuozzo, S.A.; Benimeli, C.S.; Polti, M.A.; Amoroso, M.J. Actinobacteria: Current research and perspectives for bioremediation of pesticides and heavy metals. Chemosphere 2017, 166, 41–62.
  5. Askari, M.S.; Alamdari, P.; Chahardoli, S.; Afshari, A. Quantification of heavy metal pollution for environmental assessment of soil condition. Environ. Monit Assess 2020, 192, 162.
  6. Ali, I.; Yuan, P.; Ullah, S.; Iqbal, A.; Zhao, Q.; Liang, H.; Khan, A.; Zhang, H.; Wu, X.; Ei, S.; et al. Biochar amendment and nitrogen fertilizer contribute to the changes in soil properties and microbial communities in a paddy field. Front. Microbiol. 2022, 13, 834751.
  7. Mulugeta, A.; Getahun, G. Effect of organic amendments on soil fertility and environmental quality. J. Plant Sci. 2020, 8, 112–119.
  8. Hoque, M.N.; Imran, S.; Hannan, A.; Paul, N.C.; Mahamud, M.A.; Chakrobortty, J.; Sarker, P.; Irin, I.J.; Brestic, M.; Rhaman, M.S. Organic Amendments for Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants: A Review. Life 2022, 12, 1632.
  9. Saleem, A.; Ur Rahim, H.; Khan, U.; Irfan, M.; Akbar, W.A.; Akbar, Z.; Alatalo, J.M. Organic materials amendments can improve NPK availability and maize growth by reducing heavy metals stress in calcareous soil. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2024, 21, 2533–2546.
  10. Ali, K.; Arif, M.; Shah, F.; Shehzad, A.; Munsif, F.; Mian, I.A.; Mian, A.A. Improvement in maize (Zea mays L.) growth and quality through integrated use of biochar. Pak. J. Bot. 2017, 49, 85–94.
  11. Shirale, A.O.; Kharche, V.K.; Wakode, R.R.; Meena, B.P.; Das, H.; Gore, R.P. Influence of gypsum and organic amendments on soil properties and crop productivity in degraded black soils of central India. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal. 2018, 49, 2418–2428.
  12. Agbede, T.M.; Oyewumi, A. Benefits of biochar, poultry manure and biochar–poultry manure for improvement of soil properties and sweet potato productivity in degraded tropical agricultural soils. Resour. Environ. Sustain. 2022, 27, 100051.
  13. Celestina, C.; Hunt, J.R.; Sale, P.W.; Franks, A.E. Attribution of crop yield responses to application of organic amendments: A critical review. Soil Till. Res. 2019, 186, 135–145.
  14. Jaiswal, B.; Singh, S.; Agrawal, S.B. Improvements in Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties at Natural Saline and Non-Saline Sites Under Different Management Practices. Environ. Manag. 2022, 69, 1005–1019.
  15. Chahal, S.S.; Choudhary, O.P.; Mavi, M.S. Organic amendments decomposability influences microbial activity in saline soils. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 2017, 63, 1875–1888.
  16. Leogrande, R.; Vitti, C. Use of organic amendments to reclaim saline and sodic soils: A review. Arid. Land Res. Manag. 2019, 33, 1–21.
  17. Meers, E.; Ruttens, A.; Hopgood, M.; Lesage, E.; Tack, F.M. Potential of Brassic rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils. Chemosphere 2005, 61, 561–572.
  18. Nephali, L.; Piater, L.A.; Dubery, I.A.; Patterson, V.; Huyser, J.; Burgess, K.; Tugizimana, F. Biostimulants for Plant Growth and Mitigation of Abiotic Stresses: A Metabolomics Perspective. Metabolites 2020, 10, 505.
  19. Major, J.; Rondon, M.; Molina, D.; Riha, S.J.; Lehmann, J. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil. 2010, 333, 117–128.
  20. Bouqbis, L.; Daoud, S.; Koyro, H.W.; Kammann, C.I.; Ainlhout, L.F.Z.; Harrouni, M.C. Biochar from argan shells: Production and characterization. Int. J. Recyc. Org. Waste Agric. 2016, 5, 361–365.
  21. Rasa, K.; Heikkinen, J.; Hannula, M.; Arstila, K.; Kulju, S.; Hyväluoma, J. How and why does willow biochar increase a clay soil water retention capacity. Biomas. Bioener. 2018, 119, 346–353.
  22. Isimikalu, T.O.; Olaniyan, J.O.; Affinnih, K.O.; Abdulmumin, O.; Adede, A.C.; Jibril, A.H.; Atteh, E.; Yusuf, S. Rice husk biochar and inorganic fertilizer amendment combination improved the yield of upland rice in typical soils of Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Int. J. Recycl. Org. Waste Agric. 2022, 12, 412–456.
  23. Majumder, S.; Neogi, S.; Dutta, T.; Powel, M.A.; Banik, P. Th impact of biochar on soil carbon sequestration: Meta- analytical approach to evaluating environmental and economic advantages. J. Environ. Manag. 2019, 250, 109466.
  24. Mandal, S.; Pu, S.; Adhikari, S.; Ma, H.; Kim, D.H.; Bai, Y.; Hou, D. Progress and future prospects in biochar composites: Application and reflection in the soil environment. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 51, 219–271.
  25. Yadav, V.; Karak, T.; Singh, S.; Singh, A.K.; Khare, P. Benefits of biochar over other organic amendments: Responses for plant productivity (Pelargonium graveolens L.) and nitrogen and phosphorus losses. Ind. Crops Prod. 2019, 131, 96–105.
  26. Dahlawi, S.; Naeem, A.; Rengel, Z.; Naidu, R. Biochar application for the remediation of salt-affected soils: Challenges and opportunities. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 625, 320–335.
  27. Kocsis, T.; Kotroczó, Z.; Kardos, L.; Biró, B. Optimization of increasing biochar doses with soil–plant–microbial functioning and nutrient uptake of maize. Environ. Technol. Innov. 2020, 20, 101191.
  28. Alam, M.; Zawar, H.; Anwarzeb, K.; Muhammad, A.K.; Abdur, R.; Muhammad, A.; Muhammad, A.S.; Asim, M. The effects of organic amendments on heavy metals bioavailability in mine impacted soil and associated human health risk. Sci. Hort. 2020, 262, 109067.
  29. Gul, S.; Naz, A.; Fareed, I.; Irshad, M. Reducing Heavy Metals Extraction from Contaminated Soils Using Organic and Inorganic Amendments—A Review. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2015, 24, 1423–1426.
  30. Hannan, F.; Islam, F.; Huang, Q.; Farooq, M.A.; Ayyaz, A.; Fang, R.; Ali, B.; Xie, X.; Zhou, W. Interactive effects of biochar and mussel shell activated concoctions on immobilization of nickel and their amelioration on the growth of rapeseed in contaminated aged soil. Chemosphere 2021, 282, 130897.
  31. Lwin, C.S.; Seo, B.H.; Kim, H.U.; Owens, G.; Kim, K.R. Application of soil amendments to contaminated soils for heavy metal immobilization and improved soil quality—A critical review. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2018, 64, 156–167.
  32. Elbagory, M. Reducing the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress by Utilizing Compost Tea and Effective Microorganisms to Enhance the Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plants. Agronomy 2023, 13, 823.
  33. Guo, X.-X.; Liu, H.-T.; Zhang, J. The role of biochar in organic waste composting and soil improvement: A review. Waste Manag. 2020, 102, 884–899.
  34. Manirakiza, N.; Şeker, C. Effects of compost and biochar amendments on soil fertility and crop growth in a calcareous soil. J. Plant Nutr. 2020, 43, 3002–3019.
  35. Khatun, M.; Shuvo, M.A.R.; Salam, M.T.B.; Rahman, S.M.H. Effect of organic amendments on soil salinity and the growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Sci. Today 2019, 6, 106–111.
  36. Oo, A.N.; Iwai, C.B.; Saenjan, P. Soil properties and maize growth in saline and nonsaline soils using cassava-industrial waste compost and vermicompost with and without earthworms. Land Degrad. Dev. 2015, 26, 300–310.
  37. Savy, D.; Cozzolino, V.; Vinci, G.; Verrillo, M.; Aliberti, A.; Maggio, A.; Barone, A.; Piccolo, A. Fertilization with compost mitigates salt stress in tomato by affecting plant metabolomics and nutritional profiles. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric. 2022, 9, 104.
  38. Ahmed, K.; Sajib, A.I.; Naseem, A.R.; Qadir, G.; Nawaz, M.Q.; Khalid, M.; Warraich, I.A.; Arif, M. Use of hyacinth compost in salt-affected soils. Pak. J. Agric. Res. 2021, 33, 720–728.
  39. Cui, H.; Ou, Y.; Wang, L.; Yan, B.; Li, Y.; Bao, M. Critical passivation mechanisms on heavy metals during aerobic composting with different grain-size zeolite. J. Hazard. Mater. 2021, 406, 124313.
  40. Wang, W.; Man, Z.; Li, X.; Chen, R.; You, Z.; Pan, T.; Dai, X.; Xiao, H.; Liu, F. Response mechanism and rapid detection of phenotypic information in rice root under heavy metal stress. J. Hazard. Mater. 2023, 449, 131010.
  41. Tammam, A.D.; Shehata, M.R.A.M.; Pessarakli, M.; El-Aggan, W.H. Vermicompost and its role in alleviation of salt stress in plants—I. Impact of vermicompost on growth and nutrient uptake of salt-stressed plants. J. Plant. Nutr. 2023, 46, 1446–1457.
  42. He, H.; Tam, N.F.Y.; Yao, A.; Qiu, R.; Li, W.C.; Ye, Z. Growth and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa) in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils amended with steel slag. Chemosphere 2017, 9, 69.
  43. Wang, X.X.; Zhao, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, L. Vermicompost improves tomato yield and quality and the biochemical properties of soils with different tomato planting history in a greenhouse study. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 1978.
  44. Hafez, E.M.; Omara, A.E.; Alhumaydhi, F.A.; El-Esawi, M.A. Minimizing hazard impacts of soil salinity and water stress on wheat plants by soil application of vermicompost and biochar. Physiol. Plant. 2020, 172, 587–602.
  45. Liu, M.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Xie, Y. Vermicompost and humic fertilizer improve coastal saline soil by regulating soil aggregates and the bacterial community. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 2019, 65, 281–293.
  46. Chavez, E.; He, Z.L.; Stoffella, P.J.; Mylavarapu, R.; Li, Y.; Baligar, V.C. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2016, 23, 17571–17580.
  47. Ciura, J.; Kruk, J. Phytohormones as targets for improving plant productivity and stress tolerance. J. Plant Physiol. 2018, 229, 32–40.
  48. Irin, I.J.; Biswas, P.K. Residual Effect of Green Manure on Soil Properties in Green Manure-Transplant Aman-Mustard Cropping Pattern. Indian J. Agric. Res. 2023, 57, 67–72.
  49. Irin, I.J.; Hoque, M.N.; Hannan, A.; Alam, M.M. Green manure for soil salinity reclamation—A comprehensive review. J. Agric. Food Envirn. 2022, 3, 5–14.
  50. Mubarak, A.R.; Nortclif, S. Calcium carbonate solubilization through H-proton release from some legumes grownin calcareous saline sodic soils. Land Degrad. Dev. 2010, 21, 24–31.
  51. Yazdanpanah, N. CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipalsolid waste and plant residue. Solid Earth. 2016, 7, 105–114.
  52. Choudhary, O.P.; Ghuman, B.S.; Thuy, N.; Buresh, R.J. Effects of long-term use of sodic water irrigation, amendments and crop residues on soil properties and crop yields in rice–wheat cropping system in a calcareous soil. Field Crops Res. 2011, 121, 363–372.
  53. Parwar, S.K.; Kumbhar, G.A.; Dighe, P.K. Comparative study of crop residue, green manuring and gypsum on chemical properties and yield of cotton in salt affected oils of purna valley. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2020, 9, 442–445.
  54. Irin, I.J.; Biswas, P.K.; Ullah, M.J.; Roy, T.S. Effect of in situ green manuring crops and chemical fertilizer on yield of T. Aman rice and mustard. Asian J. Crop Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2020, 2, 68–79.
  55. Kim, K.R.; Owens, G.; Kwon, S.I. Influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: A rhizobox study. J. Environ. Sci. 2010, 22, 98–105.
  56. Foucault, Y.; Lévêque, T.; Xiong, T.; Schreck, E.; Austruy, A.; Shahid, F.; Dumat, C. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 2013, 93, 1430–1435.
  57. Bruning, B.; Van, L.R.; Broekman, R.; Vos, A.D.; González, A.P.; Rozema, Z. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: Implications for the use of green manures in saline environments. AoB Plants 2015, 7, 10.
  58. Dhir, B. Use of aquatic plants in removing heavy metals from wastewater. Int. J. Environ. Eng. 2010, 2, 185–201.
  59. Regni, L.; Del Buono, D.; Miras-Moreno, B.; Senizza, B.; Lucini, L.; Trevisan, M.; Morelli Venturi, D.; Costantino, F.; Proietti, P. Bio stimulant Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in the Olive Tree. Agriculture 2021, 11, 1299.
  60. Zhou, Y.; Stepanenko, A.; Kishchenko, O.; Xu, J.; Borisjuk, N. Duckweeds for Phytoremediation of Polluted Water. Plants 2023, 12, 589.
  61. Leblebici, Z.; Aksoy, A.; Duman, F. Influence of salinity on the growth and heavy metal accumulation capacity of Spirodela polyrrhiza (Lemnaceae). Turk. J. Biol. 2011, 35, 215–220.
  62. TU, S.; Subash, A. Desalination of sea water using water hyacinth activated carbon. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 2022, 9, 309–313.
  63. Guzmán, E.T.R.; Gutiérrez, L.R.R.; Allende, M.J.M.; Acevedo, Z.I.G.; Gutiérrez, M.T.O. Physicochemical properties of non-living water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor) and their influence on the As (V) adsorption processes. Chem. Ecol. 2013, 29, 459–475.
  64. Mockeviciene, I.; Repsiene, R.; Amaleviciute-Volunge, K.; Karcauskiene, D.; Slepetiene, A.; Lepane, V. Effect of long-term application of organic fertilizers on improving organic matter quality in acid soil. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 2022, 68, 1192–1204.
  65. Singh, A.; Agrawal, M. Management of heavy metal contaminated soil by using organic and inorganic fertilizers: Effect on plant performance. IIOAB J. 2011, 2, 22–30.
  66. Rani, N.; Singh, D.; Sikka, R. Effect of applied chromium and amendments on dry matter yield and uptake in maize-Indian mustard rotation in soils irrigated with sewage and tubewell waters. Agric. Res. J. 2018, 55, 677.
  67. Chattha, M.U.; Arif, W.; Khan, I.; Soufan, W.; Bilal Chattha, M.; Hassan, M.U.; Ullah, N.; Sabagh, A.E.; Qari, S.H. Mitigation of Cadmium Induced Oxidative Stress by Using Organic Amendments to Improve the Growth and Yield of Mash Beans . Agronomy 2021, 11, 2152.
  68. Kumar, S.; Meena, R.; Jinger, D.; Jatav, H.S.; Banjara, T. Use of press mud compost for improving crop productivity and soil health. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 2017, 5, 384–389.
  69. Nawaz, M.; Chattha, M.; Ahmad, R.; Munir, H.; Usman, M. Assessment of compost as nutrient supplement for spring planted sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 2017, 27, 283–293.
  70. Khan, I.; Muhammad, A.; Chattha, M.U.; Skalicky, M.; Bilal, C.M.; Ahsin, A.M. Mitigation of salinity induced oxidative damage, growth and yield reduction in fine rice by sugarcane press-mud application. Front. Plant Sci. 2022, 13, 865.
  71. Mahmood, T. Phytoextraction of heavy metals-the process and scope for remediation of contaminated soils. Soil Environ. 2010, 29, 91–109.
  72. Eissa, M.A. Impact of compost on metals Phyto stabilization potential of two halophytes species. Int. J. Phytoremediation 2015, 17, 662–668.
  73. Liu, M.; Tan, X.; Zheng, M.; Yu, D.; Lin, A.; Liu, J.; Wang, C.; Gao, Z.; Cui, J. Modified biochar/humic substance/fertiliser compound soil conditioner for highly efficient improvement of soil fertility and heavy metals remediation in acidic soils. J. Environ. Manag. 2023, 325, 116614.
  74. Navarro, C.; Díaz, M.; Villa-García, M.A. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 5383–5388.
  75. Kapoor, R.T.; Hasanuzzaman, M. Unlocking the potential of co-application of steel slag and biochar in mitigation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant and glyoxalase system in Abelmoschus esculentus L. Chemosphere 2024, 17, 141232.
  76. Saki, P.; Mafigholami, R.; Takdastan, A. Removal of cadmium from industrial. wastewater by steel slag. Jundishapur J. Health Sci. 2013, 5, 23–34.
More
Information
Subjects: Agronomy
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : ,
View Times: 51
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 19 Mar 2024
1000/1000