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Cao, X.; Wu, J.; Zhong, G.; Wu, J.; Chen, X. Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55642 (accessed on 20 April 2024).
Cao X, Wu J, Zhong G, Wu J, Chen X. Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55642. Accessed April 20, 2024.
Cao, Xiaodie, Jiali Wu, Guisheng Zhong, Jiajun Wu, Xinhui Chen. "Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55642 (accessed April 20, 2024).
Cao, X., Wu, J., Zhong, G., Wu, J., & Chen, X. (2024, February 28). Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/55642
Cao, Xiaodie, et al. "Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 February, 2024.
Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening
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With the rapid development of the advanced manufacturing industry, equipment requirements are becoming increasingly stringent. Since metallic materials often present failure problems resulting from wear due to extreme service conditions, researchers have developed various methods to improve their properties. Laser shock peening (LSP) is a highly efficacious mechanical surface modification technique utilized to enhance the microstructure of the near-surface layer of metallic materials, which improves mechanical properties such as wear resistance and solves failure problems.

laser shock peening wear resistance

1. Introduction

Metallic materials play a vital role in numerous applications, ranging from the aerospace and automotive industries to the power generation and manufacturing sectors [1]. As these materials are subjected to harsh operating conditions, such as high temperatures, corrosive environments, and mechanical stress, their mechanical properties, in particular wear resistance, become paramount to ensuring optimal performance and longevity. Therefore, there is a growing need to research and utilize effective techniques to enhance the mechanical properties of metallic components [2].
A variety of technological processes are available to improve the mechanical properties of metallic material surfaces [3], e.g., cold and hot rolling [4], shot peening [5], laser shock peening (LSP), etc. LSP has gained significant attention as a surface modification technique capable of enhancing wear resistance in metallic materials [3]. LSP involves the application of intense laser pulses to a material’s surface, generating high-pressure shock waves that induce beneficial residual stress and microstructural changes [6], where the former can significantly enhance mechanical performance, leading to improved wear resistance and a longer fatigue life [7]. Peyre et al. [8] provided a detailed overview of the current trends in physics, mechanics, and applications related to LSP. This technique enhances mechanical behavior by imparting beneficial deep compressive residual stress to metallic alloys, thereby increasing the service life of the treated specimens and preventing crack growth, wear, and stress corrosion cracking. Clauer et al. [9], in a research study on LSP, found that the use of this technique imparted a residual stress of 0.5 to 1 mm or more to the layer below the metal surface and increased the fatigue life of metallic parts. Therefore, LSP has been recognized as an effective technique for addressing wear failure in advanced manufacturing industries.
On the other hand, surface wear can occur due to microcracks or localized plastic deformation in the material resulting from the movement of surfaces in relation to one another [10]. The relationship between friction and the wear of metal surfaces is well established, with the surface properties of hardness and surface roughness, mechanical properties, and hardening behavior playing crucial roles [11]. For instance, in the research study conducted by Mikhin et al. [12], it was revealed that the friction coefficient decreased with surface microhardness. Similarly, Liu et al. [13] demonstrated that the friction coefficient varied significantly based on factors such as the shape, size, and surface hardness of the worn particles. This suggests that improving the surface properties of metallic materials could potentially reduce friction on their surfaces. LSP has been proven to be a highly effective method for enhancing surface properties. In a comprehensive review by Montross et al. [14], the authors highlighted the considerable modification of the mechanical behaviors of metals that can be achieved using LSP. The swift expansion of laser-generated plasma creates a shock wave that travels through the material, resulting in deformation and increased compressive residual stress near the surface exposed to the laser [15]. It has been confirmed that LSP has the ability to enhance surface hardness, fatigue strength, wear resistance, and anti-corrosion ability in diverse metals, such as titanium alloys, magnesium alloys, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, etc. [16][17][18][19].

2. Fundamentals of Laser Shock Peening

The fundamental mechanisms underlying LSP involve complex physical phenomena, including shock wave generation, the material’s response to high-pressure loading, and the subsequent microstructural changes induced by the process [20]. Residual compressive stress, texture change, lattice distortion, dislocations, and grain refinement are imparted to the metal subsurface layer with LSP to enhance material hardness and wear resistance [21][22][23]. At the base of LSP are the laser action mechanism, heat conduction theory, residual stress theory, material phase change theory, and mechanical behavior theory. Briefly, the laser-induced strengthening process improves material performance through the generation of compressive stress and microstructural modifications, resulting in improved resistance to wear, deformation, and failure.

2.1. Principles of LSP

The LSP process involves directing a high-energy pulsed laser beam toward the material’s surface, leading to rapid localized heating and subsequent rapid cooling [24]. Prior to being subjected to LSP, the surface of the material is coated with an absorbent protective layer (e.g., black paint, black tape, or aluminum foil) [2]. Subsequently, it is overlaid with a confining layer, such as running water or optical glass, the primary objective of which is to enhance the pulsed laser energy absorption efficiency of the metallic material or alloy while safeguarding its surface against laser thermal ablation. A high-power laser beam (109 W/cm2) with a short pulse width (10~30 ns) can pass through the transparent confinement layer and then interact with the metallic surface [25]. The coating on the metal surface absorbs the laser energy, which causes a sharp increase in the temperature of the material almost simultaneously. As a result of explosive vaporization, the vapor particles within the absorbing protective layer concurrently generate a substantial amount of dense plasma with high temperature (>104 K) and high pressure (>1 GPa) [26]. As the plasma keeps absorbing laser energy, it rapidly expands and eventually bursts, generating a high-pressure shock wave (in the GPa order), which acts on the metal surface and propagates beyond it, inside the material [27].
The laser beam, characterized by a short pulse duration and high power density, penetrates the transparent boundary layer and interacts with the surface of the metallic material [28]. As a consequence of the surface being subjected to the impact of a laser-induced plasma shock wave, uniaxial stress forms in the direction of wave propagation. This, in turn, leads to plastic deformation in the LSP-affected region [29]. Once the laser-induced plasma shock wave dissipates (typically within tens of nanoseconds), the plastic deformation becomes constrained by the surrounding material. Consequently, biaxial compressive residual stress forms in a region parallel to the LSP-treated surface [30]. When materials are subjected to laser treatment, the irradiated region experiences thermal expansion. Nevertheless, upon immediate termination of laser irradiation, the material swiftly undergoes cooling and reverts back to its initial dimensions. These rapid thermal expansion and subsequent cooling processes induce significant stress and strain within the material, which potentially surpasses its elastic limit, causing plastic deformation. The process of LSP-induced plastic deformation of the material surface, can lead to the development of a desirable gradient compressive microstructure, beneficial compressive residual stress, and optimal properties within the near-surface layer.

2.2. Laser-Induced Plasma Shock Waves

According to the principle of LSP, the diffusion of laser-induced plasma shock waves in metallic materials can trigger a dynamic response with a high strain rate near the material surface [24], reinforcing this layer. Hence, the plasma shock waves generated by using a pulsed laser play a leading role in material hardening. In this part, researchers explore the theoretical model and formation process of laser-induced plasma shock waves. Plasma shock waves induced by using a laser undergo a process of formation, amplification, and decay. Their formation is a result of the chasing effect caused by compression waves, while their decay is induced by the tensile effect caused by sparse waves [30], and their amplification and attenuation arise from the intersection of compressed and rarefied waves. Laser beams with high energy density are used to induce focused ionization and electronic excitation in the target medium. These excited electrons then collide with other atoms or molecules, triggering a cascading sequence of additional ionization and excitation. As this progresses, the free electrons are accelerated due to the strength of the laser field, ultimately leading to the formation of plasma. The electrons and ions within the plasma undergo stimulation and merging processes, leading to the emission of additional energy. This phenomenon, referred to as plasma amplification, occurs due to the laser fields’ ability to initiate the accumulation and augmentation of energy [31], resulting in a localized heating effect and expansion of the plasma. These events induce fluctuations in the density and refractive index of the formed plasma, subsequently affecting the transmission of laser light. In addition, the plasma undergoes various processes, including the combination of free electrons and ions and radiation combination, resulting in energy loss and decay. The equations of the theoretical model are as follows [30]:
u t + u u x + 1 ρ p x = 0
p t + u p x + ρ C 2 u x = 0
The Hugoniot acoustic speed behind the shock wave front can be determined with the following equations:
C 2 = d p d ρ
C = v 2 γ 1 γ + 1 2 γ U v 2 v U 2 + 8 γ γ + 1 2 1
where C represents the Hugoniot acoustic speed; U and v represent the speed of the shock wave and the acoustic speed at ambient temperature, respectively; and γ represents the specific heat ratio.
Without considering the phenomenon of shock wave reflection, the shock wave front can be described by the following equation [30]:
d p d x = p x + 1 U p t
where x represents the position of the shock wave front; ρ represents the mass density; and dp/dx and ∂p/∂x represent the shock amplitude variation and the pressure gradient right behind the shock wave front, respectively.
d u d x = u x + 1 U u t
The equations of the presented theoretical model are useful in research on the evolution dynamics, utility, and applicability of laser-induced plasma shock waves [30]. As detailed above, in the first phase of this phenomenon, when a high-power-density pulsed laser beam is directed toward a solid target, the affected region absorbs the laser energy, melts, and evaporates, resulting in the formation of plasma. The high heat pressure exerted by the latter causes an explosion, which, in turn, generates a shock wave in the surrounding air. The plasma shock wave rapidly increases within the pulse duration prior to decaying into a local sound wave. Furthermore, the laser energy is released from the explosion source in an energy-altering shock wave, whose prolonged duration is useful in practical applications. In summary, the laser-induced plasma shock wave phenomenon involves the utilization of a pulsed laser to subject a substance to shock, resulting in the generation of plasma; this process is facilitated by the laser beams’ desirable attributes of high energy density and short pulse width, through which they rapidly increase the temperature of the substance and induce ionization, thereby causing the transformation of its constituent atoms or molecules into a plasma state.
In LSP technology, the confining and absorbing layers serve as the fundamental operational variables and play a key role in guaranteeing plasma pressure exceeding the order of GPa [7]. Generally, glycerol and glass are applied in applications involving medium-to-high temperature or insulation demands by virtue of their insulating properties and high melting points. Currently, running water, glass, quartz, and glycerol are the main materials used for the confining layers in LSP, where glass is more suitable for processing small-scale samples in laboratory settings; running water, for large-scale LSP procedures at room temperature; and glycerol, for large-scale, high-temperature LSP processing.

2.3. Development of LSP

Since its conception, LSP has undergone a comprehensive journey, from initial research on laser-induced melting and evaporation on the material surface to widespread application across various sectors, including military, industry, materials science, and advanced manufacturing. As the demand for improved material surface properties and enhanced functionality continues to increase, LSP is emerging as a promising surface enhancement process aimed at increasing the fatigue life of metallic components [7]. Extensive research has been conducted on this topic. For instance, Montross et al. [15]. examined the importance of residual stress monitoring in the development of laser peening [32]. They described laser peening as a new surface treatment for metals, whereby cold working is used to create compressive residual stress close to the surface. Chi et al. [16] demonstrated that by using LSP, it is possible to convert residual tensile stress into compressive stress in the LAM Ti17 alloy, which greatly improves surface hardness through grain refinement and work hardening. Yang et al. [32] reported that LSP is considered a replacement technology to SP for imparting compressive residual stress to metallic alloys to improve their fatigue, wear, and corrosion resistance. Hence, LSP is emerging as a competitive alternative technology to traditional treatments to improve the fatigue life and wear resistance of metals for multiple important applications.
LSP offers noticeable technical advantages in strengthening the surface of metallic materials. In their work, Shin et al. [33] summarized some major developments in laser-based manufacturing material processing and introduced important technological issues associated with laser-based manufacturing. Among the commonly used industrial procedures covered are laser additive manufacturing, laser-assisted machining, laser micromachining, laser forming, laser surface texturing, laser welding, and laser shock peening. Processes using laser shock applications, such as LSP or laser stripping, require a deep understanding of both the mechanical and thermal loadings applied. LSP is a competitive surface-strengthening technology for post-weld treatment. In their work, Wan et al. [34] treated tungsten inert gas-welded alloy 600 joints by using LSP to enhance their mechanical properties. New experimental measurements of plasma pressure release with respect to its initial dimension were reported by Rondepierre et al. [35]; findings related to more precise plasma profiles, such as theirs, are expected to contribute to a better understanding of laser–matter interactions for laser shock applications. Zhou et al. [36] investigated the lodging of pre-coated nanopowders into the near-surface layer of IN718 SPF superalloy material by using LSP-induced GPa pressure to enhance surface hardness. Wang et al. [37] investigated the microhardness of LC-treated 30CrMnSiNi2A high-strength steel after LSP treatment, which resulted in being 25% higher than that of the substrate. In their work, Tong et al. [38] utilized the LSP technique to modify the residual stress state and microstructure of Cr-Mn-Fe-Co-Ni HEA surface layers fabricated by using laser-directed energy deposition; they found a variation in the surface residual stress state from tensile residual stress to compressive residual stress in the LSP-treated specimens, and they observed the closing of pores in the surface layers due to severe plastic deformation (SPD). In addition, it was reported that LSP led to the formation of gradient microstructures in the depth direction, which increased the strength and ductility of the LSP-treated specimens [39]. According to research by Lim et al. [40], the wear volume of 2205 duplex stainless steel material was reduced by up to 39% when LSP was used. Therefore, LSP is considered a feasible solution to reduce abrasive degradation.
In summary, LSP is a surface treatment method used to strengthen and improve the dependability of metallic parts [41]. At present, LSP technology is widely used for improving the surface properties of metallic materials as a means of improving their wear resistance, anti-corrosion properties, and fatigue life.

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