Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 2687 2024-02-23 10:03:51 |
2 format -24 word(s) 2663 2024-02-26 03:32:46 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Bevilacqua, A.; Campaniello, D.; Speranza, B.; Racioppo, A.; Sinigaglia, M.; Corbo, M.R. Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 20 April 2024).
Bevilacqua A, Campaniello D, Speranza B, Racioppo A, Sinigaglia M, Corbo MR. Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 20, 2024.
Bevilacqua, Antonio, Daniela Campaniello, Barbara Speranza, Angela Racioppo, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo. "Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 20, 2024).
Bevilacqua, A., Campaniello, D., Speranza, B., Racioppo, A., Sinigaglia, M., & Corbo, M.R. (2024, February 23). Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects. In Encyclopedia.
Bevilacqua, Antonio, et al. "Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects." Encyclopedia. Web. 23 February, 2024.
Prebiotics and on Their Health Effects

Prebiotic compounds were originally defined as “a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health”; however, a significant modulation of the definition was carried out in the consensus panel of The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), and the last definition states that “prebiotics are substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”. 

prebiotics health outcomes human pathologies

1. Colorectal Cancer

Prebiotics could modify and positively affect the intestinal microbiota in patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC). Inulin alone and in combination with GOS increased the production of SCFA [1][2][3], which probably determined a reduction (49.9%) in the number of colon polyps [2].
COS (chitosan depolymerised oligomers) had a positive influence on CRC, through an increase of Akkermansia (butyrate-producing microorganism) and Cladosporium spp. and a reduction in Escherichia, Shigella, Enterococcus, or Turicibacter levels [4].
Ohara et al. [5] observed the synergistic effect between FOS and B. longum which led to an increase in SCFA content and a suppressive effect on Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (ETBF) and on putrefactive bacteria.
In addition, marked anti-cancer properties were shown also by complex matrices with prebiotic action, such as Acacia gum with Lpb. plantarum [6], Yacon (known as the potato of diabetics) [7], seeds of Jabuticaba (an exotic fruit tree native to Brazil also known as grape tree) with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus [8], jujube polysaccharides [9] and polysaccharides isolated from Nostoc commune Vaucher [10].

2. Psychological and Neurological Conditions

2.1. Cognitive Functions

Several researchers reported a possible effect of prebiotic compounds on stress and cognitive functions. Berding et al. [11] studied the effects of the consumption of vegetables, fermented foods, and prebiotics in adult subjects through Cohen’s scale and found a reduction in perceived stress, while Mysonhimer et al. [12] only found a positive reading of Bifidobacterium spp. after the consumption of FOS without a clear connection with mental health.
Prebiotics could also affect cognitive functions. For example, Azuma et al. [13] studied the effect of a beverage containing inulin on Japanese women or men (50–80 years) and assessed biochemical and immunological parameters, the quali-quantitative composition of the microbiota of fecal samples, the cognitive functions through Cognitrax (a computer-based battery of cognitive function tests), and quality of life on eight scales (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health); the results revealed the improvement in the scores of three domains of cognitive functions (attention, flexibility, and executive functions), probably linked to an increase in bifidobacteria and to a slight modulation of some inflammatory markers.
A possible effect on attention and on some other cognitive functions (including flexibility) was also found by Berding et al. [14], who studied the effect of polydextrose. These authors concluded that the improvement in the cognitive functions could be the result of the modulation of Ruminococcus 5, which in turn could be responsible for the decrease in some inflammatory markers.

2.2. Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

Prebiotics could also play a role on stress, anxiety, and depression, probably linked to a reduction in perceived stress [14], as a result of the modulation of Bifidobacterium spp. or of other taxa of gut microbiota [12].
Leo et al. [15] used α-lactalbumin (ALAC, a seroprotein with high biological value) combined with sodium butyrate (NaB), a postbiotic, to evaluate the effects on anxiety and depression on mice. This combination resulted in a valuable aid against depressive phenomena and anxious states by relieving symptoms and by reducing intestinal inflammation; in fact, the administration of both compounds resulted in behavioral improvements (improved sociability and memory and reduction in repetitive behavior) and increased motility [15]. According to the authors, ALAC would act on the intestinal composition and NaB would show a direct effect on the brain; moreover, NaB is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (hdaci) playing a role in neurodegenerative and neurological developmental diseases including epilepsy.
The role of prebiotics on depression is controversial, although preliminary data suggest the existence of possible correlation, as hypothesized by Tarutani et al. [16], who reported an improvement in the self-efficacy scores after the consumption of galactosylsucrose in patients with depressive episodes.

2.3. Autism

nother effect resulting from the use of GOS combined with Limosilactobacillus reuteri and B. longum was a higher survival of probiotic strains, suggesting that GOS exerts a protective effect [17].
A restriction diet (free of gluten and casein, responsible for inflammation phenomena), associated with the intake of B-GOS, was administered to autistic children with positive effects on sociality and behavior. In addition, the prebiotic acted as a growth stimulator of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an anaerobic butyrate-producing microorganism in the human colon [18].

2.4. Schizophrenia and Parkinson

Prebiotics were also studied as active components in controlled trials on patients affected by schizophrenia and Parkinson. The data should be carefully confirmed and corroborated by other studies, due to the complexity of these pathologies and to the high number of variables playing a role, but there are some promising results, which suggest the possibility of using prebiotics as co-adjuvants to ameliorate the symptoms.
In particular, the consumption of raw materials with prebiotics (green leafy vegetables, high-fiber fruit, whole grains) improved the general cardio-metabolic profile in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders [19], while inulin, resistant starch, resistant maltodextrin, and rice bran played an active role in reducing the markers of inflammation (plasma zonulin and stool calprotectin), positively affected gut microbiota composition with an increase in SCFA, had a clinical impact leading to reduced severity of motor and non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms and improved gastrointestinal function [20].

3. Intestinal Diseases

3.1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

About 25 years ago, Kennedy et al. [21] demonstrated the effectiveness of inulin in relieving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through a study conducted on mice with colitis provoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS); the daily oral administration of the prebiotic led to an increase in indigenous lactobacilli in the cecum and to a reduction in the pH of the colon. Moreover, the mucosal inflammation and histological damage scores were reduced as well as a lower degree of mucosal damage was observed [21]. Several years later, Koleva et al. [22] combined inulin with FOS to feed transgenic rats and observed a reduction in intestinal inflammation and increased levels of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. They also found a decrease in mucosal proinflammatory cytokines.
Similar effects were observed by using resveratrol, in mice with DSS-induced colitis [23]; in fact, increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were observed, along with lower amounts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae.
Other human studies showed the ability of inulin and FOS in combination with Bifidobacterium to reduce inflammation and TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) and IL-1a (Interleukine-1a) [24].
Valcheva et al. [25] fed 25 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with 7.5 or 15 g/day of fructans for 9 weeks. Patients in the high-dose group showed a significant increase in colon butyrate production and improvement of colitis. Moreover, inulin and FOS improved clinical symptoms and Bifidobacterium population even in patients with Crohn’s disease who were exposed to these prebiotics for four weeks [26].
Lindsay et al. [27] studied the effects of FOS in patients with Crohn’s disease: 15 g of FOS were administered for 3 weeks in 10 patients. FOS supplementation reduced the HBI score (HBI, index assessing the degree of disease activity), increased fecal Bifidobacterium concentrations, and increased the percentage of IL-10-positive dendritic cells (DCs).

3.2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

GOS, oligosaccharides, inulin, and fructans are the main prebiotics often involved in ameliorating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, although the results are controversial [28][29]. Azpiroz et al. [30] described the influence of prebiotics on anxiety level of IBS individuals and concluded that FOS significantly reduced anxiety scores and increased fecal bifidobacteria. Wilson et al. [31] concluded that prebiotics did not lead to an improvement in the symptoms of the disease but rather favored the increase in bifidobacteria. However, when 44 patients received GOS as prebiotic, not only was an increase in the number of bifidobacteria observed, but also some symptoms, such as flatulence, abdominal pain, and discomfort resulted improved [32].

3.3. Enteric Syndrome

Prebiotics positively affect enteric syndrome, a severe congenital enteropathy, characterized by intractable diarrhea in the first month of life, associated with growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, hair abnormalities and, in some cases, immune system disorders and intrauterine growth restriction [33]. It could be treated with antibiotics, but as reported by Ayala-Monter et al. [34], their improper use can cause bacterial resistance; thus, prebiotics and probiotics appear to be valid alternatives.
Each prebiotic compound can stimulate the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gut. For inulin, significant increase in the percentage of basophils, improvement in the body’s immune response, and significant reduction in diarrheal phenomena were also observed, while catechins showed a marked ability to stimulate SCFA production [33][35]. A synbiotic action of inulin + Lcb. casei, compared to the sample treated only with inulin, favored the increase in lactobacilli and the reduction in total coliforms, improving the use of nutrients introduced with the diet [34].

4. Obesity

A common effect of flavanols, decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols, aqueous extracts of tea, marc, cinnamon, inulin, vanillin, and lignans is the reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio [36][37][38][39][40][41]. This ratio is considered as a possible hallmark for obesity, as it is high in obese people and tends to decrease following weight loss. In fact, Magne et al. [42] observed the increased abundances of Firmicutes in obese animals and humans, due to the fact that they are more efficient in extracting energy from food than Bacteroidetes, thus promoting a higher calorie absorption and a consequent weight gain. However, in the case of following a low-calorie diet for 12 months, Bacteroidetes increased, with the consequent normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, along with weight loss [42]. Bacteroides can reduce serum triglyceride levels, improve glucose intolerance, and counteract body weight gain [36].
Flavanols and aqueous extract of tea were also able to promote the growth of A. muciniphila [36][38] and similarly did other potential prebiotic compounds, such as cranberry extract, apple procyanidins, aqueous tea extracts, resveratrol, pterostilbene, and catechins [43][44][45][46][47].
The role of inulin-type fructans (ITF) (carbohydrates consisting of β-(2-1)fructosyl-fructose units) is also important, as they can modulate the intestinal microbiota composition in obese women by stimulating the growth of F. prausnitzii [48].
ITF, resveratrol, catechins, flavanols, promote the growth of bifidobacteria, which play an essential role in fighting obesity [43][45][48][49] as they modulate the secretion of ghrelin, a hormone that regulates the sense of appetite in vitro, highlighting their therapeutic potential [17].
A positive effect on Bifidobacterium spp., also linked to a modulation of fecal calprotectin and to an increase in rumenic and linolenic acids, was evidenced by Neyrinck et al. [50] during a 3-month, multicentric, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The most important outcome was the strong reduction in calprotectin, thus emphasizing the potential interest of prebiotic intake to combat gut inflammatory disorders occurring with obesity.
This effect on inflammation was also reported by Crovesy et al. [51], who combined FOS with a probiotic (B. animalis subsp. lactis), and by Lyon et al. [52], who studied the effect of a combination of inulin from chicory with a complex mixture of probiotic microorganisms (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces).
Other compounds (soy isoflavones, pomegranate extract, arctic berries, pollen extract, and genistein) positively affected gut microbiota composition and favored weight loss [53][54][55][56][57][58].
Positive effects of prebiotics on obese patients also include a reduction in the levels of cortisol with a direct effect on sleep quality [59], a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides [60], and a reduction in waist and hip circumferences [57].

5. Diabetes

COS and ITF were the most used prebiotics in diabetes; these compounds, alone or combined with probiotics, exert various beneficial effects. Some studies on mice highlight that COS reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and prevents obesity. In addition, it positively affects the composition of the gut microbiota; in fact, it favors the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria [61], as well as Actinobacteria and Lachnospiraceae populations [62]. In addition, COS reduces blood glucose levels (BGLs) [62].
Just like COS, ITF also promotes a reduction in BGL; other effects are a reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG), a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and increased levels of Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnoclostridium [63], F. prausnitzii and bifidobacteria [64].
In particular, Birkeland et al. [64] found that ITFs are responsible for the production of acetic and propionic acid; in fact, patients with diabetes have lower levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microorganisms and often occurs that the severity of the disease intensifies.
Zhang et al. [65] evaluated the interactions between plant extracts (bitter gourd extract, BGE and mulberry leaf extract, MLE) and potential probiotics (Lcb. casei K11 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei J5) on mice; both extracts provided interesting results. In fact, microbial targets showed a marked vitality in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the interactions Lcb. casei K11-BGE and Lcb. casei K11-MLE significantly reduced BGL and improved insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Lcb. casei K11 with both plant extracts also modulated lipid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress; in addition, it led to an improvement of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, SCFA levels, and free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) upregulation.

6. Metabolic Syndrome

N acetyl-chitooligosaccharide (NACOS) and proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds resulted in a reduction in Firmicutes [66][67][68]; however, most studies with phenolic extracts did not produce definitive clinical evidence, as patients generally involved in the trial are poly-medicated subjects affected by several variables [69].
NACOS improved glucose tolerance and inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver [67]. In addition, by monitoring fasting blood glucose (FBG), mice fed with NACOS actually had lower fasting glucose, and by measuring plasma insulin, it was found that feeding NACOS greatly promoted insulin secretion [66].
Concerning pro-anthocyanidins of grape seeds, they exerted a positive effect on satiety-related enterohormones (glucagon-like-peptide-1, GLP-1; ghrelin) as they led to a significant increase in GLP-1, and, therefore, to an improvement in glucose tolerance, and an induction of satiety, strengthened by the increase in ghrelin [68].

7. Osteoporosis

FOS and GOS were essential to a better absorption of calcium, better density, and resistance to bone wear [70][71][72][73].
In a study conducted on animal models, the treatment with FOS recorded higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP a marker enzyme of bone formation, used in the diagnosis of skeletal and liver diseases) and femurs with higher resistance. Increased bone density can lead to greater bone strength, reducing the risk of fracture [70].
Interesting was the study conducted by Johnson et al. [72] who compared antibiotics and prebiotics administered in mice. After 10 weeks of treatment with alendronate (a drug given for osteoporosis, especially in menopausal women), bone mineral density increased by 7.31%. The best results were obtained for FOS + dried prune treatment, which led to an increase of 36%. Hence, the combination of these two compounds has shown results that are equivalent to and can surpass those of conventional drugs [67]. Other data were reported by Wu et al. [74], who studied calcium absorption in premenopausal women with history of RYGB (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass).

8. Immunosenescence

Several articles focused on immunosenescence; it consists of the gradual deterioration of the immune system, due to natural age advancement; it involves both the host’s capacity to respond to infections and the development of long-term immune memory.
In immunosenescence, gut microbiota composition is not constant but change with aging, and these changes have been linked to declines in immunity; however, it has been demonstrated that the maintenance of a “youthful” and “healthy” gut microbiota could positively affect by delaying immunosenescence [75]. Therefore, probiotics and prebiotics perform the function of reducing the proinflammatory response and improving innate immune dysfunction in the elderly.
Syringaresinol (SYR), a lignan occurring in plant foods (oilseeds, cereal brans, and various berry seeds) act as antioxidant, antistress, antitumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory compound; although at present the mechanism is not yet well understood, the compound can delay immunosenescence by modulating the immune system and the composition of gut microbiota. Si-Young et al. [75] reported that SYR effectively delayed immunosenescence by increasing the number of total T lymphocytes, which identify the antigen and activate the immune response, by implementing a protection against infections by intracellular microorganisms such as viruses and some bacteria [75]. Moreover, SYR reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio; furthermore, it markedly increased the Bifidobacteriium and Lactobacillus (B. animalis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lim. reuteri) population, compared to control samples. Conversely, potentially opportunistic genus members, Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroides vulgatus and Staphylococcus lentus, were adversely affected [75].


  1. Mahdavi, M.; Laforest-Lapointe, I.; Massé, E. Preventing Colorectal Cancer through Prebiotics. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1325.
  2. Fernández, J.; Ledesma, E.; Monte, J.; Millán, E.; Costa, P.; García de la Fuente, V.; Fernández García, M.T.; Martínez-Camblor, P.; Villar, C.J.; Lombó, F. Traditional processed meat products re-designed towards inulin-rich functional foods reduce polyps in two colorectal cancer animal models. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 14783.
  3. Fernández, J.; Moreno, F.J.; Olano, A.; Clemente, A.; Villar, C.J.; Lombó, F. A galacto-oligosaccharides preparation derived from lactulose protects against colorectal cancer development in an animal model. Front. Microbiol. 2018, 9, 2004.
  4. Wu, M.; Li, J.; An, Y.; Li, P.; Xiong, W.; Li, J.; Yan, D.; Wang, M.; Zhong, G. Chitooligosaccharides prevents the development of colitis-associated. Front. Microbiol. 2019, 10, 2101.
  5. Ohara, T.; Suzutani, T. Intake of Bifidobacterium longum and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents colorectal carcinogenesis. Euroasian J. Hepato-gastroenterol. 2018, 8, 11–17.
  6. Chundakkattumalayil, H.C.; Kumar, S.; Narayanan, R.; Raghavan, K.T. Role of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KX519413 as probiotic and acacia gum as prebiotic in gastrointestinal tract strengthening. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 659.
  7. Verediano, T.A.; Viana, M.L.; Tostes, M.D.G.V.; de Oliveira, D.S.; Nunes, L.D.C.; Costa, N.M.B. Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius) prevented inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal alterations in an animal model of colorectal carcinogenesis. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2020, 100, 5442–5449.
  8. Fidelis, M.; Santos, J.S.; Escher, G.B.; Rocha, R.S.; Cruz, A.G.; Cruz, T.M.; Marques, M.B.; Nunes, J.B.; do Carmo, M.A.V.; de Almeida, L.A. Polyphenols of Jabuticaba, Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell. O. Berg) seeds incorporated in a yogurt model exert antioxidant activity and modulate gut microbiota of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats. Food Chem. 2021, 334, 127565.
  9. Ji, X.; Hou, C.; Yan, Y.; Shi, M.; Liu, Y. Comparison of structural characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 15, 1008–1018.
  10. Guo, M.; Li, Z. Polysaccharides isolated from Nostoc commune Vaucher inhibit colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice and modulate gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2019, 10, 6873–6881.
  11. Berding, K.; Bastiaanssen, T.F.S.; Moloney, G.M.; Boscaini, S.; Strain, C.R.; Anesi, A.; Long-Smith, C.; Mattivi, F.; Stanton, C.; Clarke, G.; et al. Feed your microbes to deal with stress: A psychobiotic diet impacts microbial stability and perceived stress in a healthy adult population. Mol. Psychiatr. 2023, 28, 601–610.
  12. Mysonhimer, A.R.; Cannavale, C.N.; Bailey, M.A.; Khan, N.A.; Holscher, H.D. Prebiotic consumption alters microbiota but not biological markers of stress and inflammation or mental health symptoms in healthy adults: A randomized, controlled, crossover trial. J. Nutr. 2023, 153, 1283–1296.
  13. Azuma, N.; Mawatari, T.; Saito, Y.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sampei, I.; Iwama, Y. Effect of continuous ingestion of bifidobacteria and dietary fiber on improvement of cognitive function: A randomized, double-bind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrients 2023, 15, 4175.
  14. Berding, K.; Long-Smith, C.M.; Carbia, C.; Bastiaanssen, T.F.S.; van de Wouw, M.; Wiley, N.; Strain, C.R.; Fouhy, F.; Stanton, C.; Cryan, J.F.; et al. A specific dietary fibre supplementation improves cognitive performance-an exploratory randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Psychopharmacology 2021, 238, 149–163.
  15. Leo, A.; De Caro, C.; Mainardi, P.; Tallarico, M.; Nesci, V.; Marascio, N.; Striano, P.; Russo, E.; Constanti, A.; De Sarro, G.; et al. Increased efficacy of combining prebiotic and postbiotic in mouse models relevant to autism and depression. Neuropharmacology 2021, 198, 108782.
  16. Tarutani, S.; Omori, M.; Ido, Y.; Yano, M.; Komatsu, T.; Okamura, T. Effects of 4G-beta-D-Galactosylsucrose in patients with depression: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2022, 148, 110–120.
  17. Duque, A.L.R.F.; Demarqui, F.M.; Santoni, M.M.; Zanelli, C.F.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Dragan, M.; Mesa, V.; Sivieiri, K. Effect of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic on the gut microbiota of autistic children using an in vitro gut microbiome model. Food Res. Int. 2021, 149, 110657.
  18. Grimaldi, R.; Gibson, G.; Vulevic, J.; Giallourou, N.; Castro-Mejía, J.; Hansen, L.; Gibson, E.; Nielsen, D.; Costabile, A. A prebiotic intervention study in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Microbiome 2018, 6, 133.
  19. Sevillano-Jiménez, A.; Romero-Saldaña, M.; García-Mellado, J.A.; Carrascal-Laso, L.; García-Rodríguez, M.; Molina-Luque, R.; Molina-Recio, G. Impact of high prebiotic and probiotic dietary education in the SARS-CoV-2 era: Improved cardio-metabolic profile in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatr. 2022, 22, 781.
  20. Hall, D.A.; Voigt, R.M.; Cantu-Jungles, T.M.; Hamaker, B.; Engen, P.A.; Shaikh, M.; Raeisi, S.; Green, S.J.; Naqib, A.; Forsyth, C.B.; et al. An open label, non-randomized study assessing a prebiotic fiber intervention in a small cohort of Parkinson’s disease participants. Nat. Commun. 2023, 14, 926.
  21. Kennedy, R.J.; Hoper, M.; Deodhar, K.; Kirk, S.J.; Gardiner, K.R. Probiotic therapy fails to improve gut permeability in a hapten model of colitis. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2000, 35, 1266–1271.
  22. Koleva, P.T.; Valcheva, R.S.; Sun, X.; Gänzle, M.G.; Dieleman, L.A. Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides have divergent effects on colitis and commensal microbiota in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Br. J. Nutr. 2012, 108, 1633–1643.
  23. Larrosa, M.; Yañéz-Gascón, M.J.; Selma, M.V.; González-Sarrías, A.; Toti, S.; Cerón, J.J.; Tomás-Barberán, F.; Dolara, P.; Espín, J.C. Effect of a low dose of dietary resveratrol on colon microbiota, inflammation and tissue damage in a DSS-induced colitis rat model. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 2211–2220.
  24. Furrie, E.; Macfarlane, S.; Kennedy, A.; Cummings, J.H.; Walsh, S.V.; O’Neil, D.A.; Macfarlane, G.T. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Gut 2005, 54, 242–249.
  25. Valcheva, R.; Koleva, P.; Martínez, I.; Walter, J.; Gänzle, M.G.; Dieleman, L.A. Inulin-type fructans improve active ulcerative colitis associated with microbiota changes and increased short-chain fatty acids levels. Gut Microbes 2019, 10, 334–335.
  26. Joossens, M.; De Preter, V.; Ballet, V.; Verbeke, K.; Rutgeerts, P.; Vermeire, S. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin (OF-IN) on bacterial composition and disease activity of patients with Crohn’s disease: Results from a double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Gut 2012, 61, 958.
  27. Lindsay, J.O.; Whelan, K.; Stagg, A.J.; Gobin, P.; Al-Hassi, H.O.; Rayment, N.; Kamm, M.A.; Knight, S.C.; Forbes, A. Clinical, microbiological, and immunological effects of fructo-oligosaccharide in patients with Crohn’s disease. Gut 2006, 55, 348–355.
  28. Hunter, J.O.; Tuffnell, Q.; Lee, A.J. Controlled trial of oligofructose in the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J. Nutr. 1999, 129, 1451–1453.
  29. Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fructooligosaccharides in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000, 72, 1570–1575.
  30. Azpiroz, F.; Dubray, C.; Bernalier-Donadille, A.; Cardot, J.M.; Accarino, A.; Serra, J.; Wagner, A.; Respondek, F.; Dapoigny, M. Effects of scFOS on the composition of fecal microbiota and anxiety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2016, 29, e12911.
  31. Wilson, B.; Rossi, M.; Dimidi, E.; Whelan, K. Prebiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other functional bowel disorders in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2019, 109, 1098–1111.
  32. Silk, D.B.A.; Davis, A.; Vulevic, J.; Tzortzis, G.R.; Gibson, G.R. Clinical trial: The effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic on faecal microbiota and symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2009, 29, 508–518.
  33. Alves-Santos, A.; Sugizaki, C.; Lima, G.; Naves, M. Prebiotic effect of dietary polyphenols: A systematic review. J. Funct. Foods 2020, 74, 104169.
  34. Ayala-Monter, M.; Hernández-Sánchez, D.; Pinto-Ruiz, R.; Torres-Salado, N.; Martínez-Aispuro, J.; Bárcena-Gama, J.; Caro-Hernánde, J. Efecto inulina y Lactobacillus casei en el comportamiento productivo, variables ruminales y metabolites sanguíneos en corderos destetados. Agrociencia 2019, 53, 303–331.
  35. Pan, L.; Han, Y.; Zhou, Z. In vitro prebiotic activities of exopolysaccharide from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides XG5 and its effect on the gut microbiota of mice. J. Funct. Foods 2020, 67, 103853.
  36. Dey, P.; Sasaki, G.Y.; Wei, P.; Li, J.; Wang, L.; Zhu, J.; McTigue, D.; Yu, Z.; Bruno, R.S. Green tea extract prevents obesity in male mice by alleviating gut dysbiosis in association with improved intestinal barrier function that limits endotoxin translocation and adipose inflammation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2019, 67, 78–89.
  37. Henning, S.M.; Yang, J.; Hsu, M.; Lee, R.P.; Grojean, E.M.; Ly, A.; Li, Z. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice. Eur. J. Nutr. 2018, 57, 2759–2769.
  38. Xia, Y.; Tan, D.; Akbary, R.; Kong, J.; Seviour, R.; Kong, Y. Aqueous raw and ripe Puerh tea extracts alleviate obesity and alter cecal microbiota composition and function in diet-induced obese rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2019, 103, 1823–1835.
  39. Van Hul, M.; Geurts, L.; Plovier, H.; Druart, C.; Everard, A.; Ståhlman, M.; Rhimi, M.; Chira, K.; Teissedre, P.L.; Delzenne, N.M.; et al. Reduced obesity, diabetes, and steatosis upon cinnamon and grape pomace are associated with changes in gut microbiota and markers of gut barrier. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2018, 314, 334–352.
  40. Chambers, E.S.; Byrne, C.S.; Morrison, D.J.; Murphy, K.G.; Preston, T.; Tedford, C.; Garcia-Perez, I.; Fountana, S.; Serrano-Contreras, J.I.; Holmes, E.; et al. Dietary supplementation with inulin-propionate ester or inulin improves insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity with distinct effects on the gut microbiota, plasma metabolome and systemic inflammatory responses: A randomised cross-over trial. Gut 2019, 68, 1430–1438.
  41. Guo, J.; Han, X.; Zhan, J.; You, Y.; Huang, W. Vanillin alleviates high fat diet-induced obesity and improves the gut microbiota composition. Front. Microbiol. 2018, 9, 2733.
  42. Magne, F.; Gotteland, M.; Gauthier, L.; Zazueta, A.; Pesoa, S.; Navarrete, P.; Balamurugan, R. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio: A relevant marker of gut dysbiosis in obese patients? Nutrients 2020, 12, 1474.
  43. Gibson, G.R.; Hutkins, R.; Sanders, M.E.; Prescott, S.L.; Reimer, R.A.; Salminen, S.J.; Scott, K.; Stanton, C.; Swanson, K.S.; Cani, P.D.; et al. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2017, 14, 491–502.
  44. Anhê, F.F.; Roy, D.; Pilon, G.; Dudonné, S.; Matamoros, S.; Varin, T.V.; Garofalo, C.; Moine, Q.; Desjardins, Y.; Levy, E.; et al. polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal inflammation in association with increased Akkermansia spp. population in the gut microbiota of mice. Gut 2015, 64, 872–883.
  45. Masumoto, S.; Terao, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mukai, T.; Miura, T.; Shoji, T. Nonabsorbable apple procyanidins prevent obesity associated with gut microbial and metabolomic changes. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 31208.
  46. Etxeberria, U.; Arias, N.; Boqué, N.; Macarulla, M.T.; Portillo, M.P.; Martínez, J.A.; Milagro, F.I. Reshaping faecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in high-fat sucrose diet-fed rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2015, 26, 651–660.
  47. Etxeberria, U.; Hijona, E.; Aguirre, L.; Milagro, F.I.; Bujanda, L.; Rimando, A.M.; Portillo, M.P. Pterostilbene-induced changes in gut microbiota composition in relation to obesity. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2017, 61, 1500906.
  48. Dewulf, E.M.; Cani, P.D.; Claus, S.P.; Fuentes, S.; Puylaert, P.G.; Neyrinck, A.M. Insight into the prebiotic concept: Lessons from an exploratory, double blind intervention study with inulin-type fructans in obese women. Gut 2013, 62, 1112–1121.
  49. Barbosa, R.; Vieira-Coelho, M. Probiotics and prebiotics: Focus on psychiatric disorders—A systematic review. Nutr. Rev. 2020, 78, 437–450.
  50. Neyrinck, A.M.; Rodriguez, J.; Zhang, Z.; Seethaler, B.; Sánchez, C.R.; Roumain, M.; Hiel, S.; Bindels, L.B.; Cani, P.D.; Paquot, N.; et al. dietary fibre intervention improves fecal markers related to inflammation in obese patients: Results from the Food4Gut randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur. J. Nutr. 2021, 60, 3159–3170.
  51. Crovesy, L.; El-Bacha, T.; Rosado, E.L. Modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics and symbiotics is associated with changes in serum metabolite profile related to a decrease in inflammation andoverall benefits to metabolic health: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in women with obesity. Food Funct. 2021, 12, 2161–2170.
  52. Lyon, J., 3rd; Connell, M.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Srivastava, S. Effect of synbiotics on weight loss and metabolic health in adults with overweight and obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Obesity 2023, 31, 2009–2020.
  53. Luo, Q.; Cheng, D.; Huang, C.; Li, Y.; Lao, C.; Xia, Y.; Liu, W.; Gong, X.; Hu, D.; Li, B.; et al. Improvement of colonic immune function with soy isoflavones in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Molecules 2019, 24, 1139.
  54. González-Sarrías, A.; Romo-Vaquero, M.; García-Villalba, R.; Cortés-Martín, A.; Selma, M.V.; Espín, J.C. The endotoxemia marker lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is reduced in overweight-obese subjects consuming pomegranate extract by modulating the gut microbiota: A randomized clinical trial. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2018, 62, e1800160.
  55. Fuke, N.; Nagat, N.; Suganuma, H.; Ota, T. Regulation of gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia with dietary factors. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2277.
  56. Anhê, F.F.; Varin, T.V.; Le Barz, M.; Pilon, G.; Dudonné, S.; Trottier, J.; Marette, A. Arctic berry extracts target the gut–liver axis to alleviate metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Diabetologia 2018, 61, 919–931.
  57. Cheng, N.; Chen, S.; Liu, X.; Zhao, H.; Cao, W. Impact of Schisandra Chinensis Bee Pollen on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and gut microbiota in high fat diet induced obese mice. Nutrients 2019, 11, 346.
  58. López, P.; Sánchez, M.; Perez-Cruz, C.; Velázquez-Villegas, L.A.; Syeda, T.; Aguilar-López, M.; Rocha-Viggiano, A.K.; Del Carmen Silva-Lucero, M.; Torre-Villalvazo, I.; Noriega, L.G.; et al. Long-term genistein consumption modifies gut microbiota, improving glucose metabolism, metabolic endotoxemia, and cognitive function in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2019, 62, e1800313.
  59. Nehmi-Filho, V.; Santamarina, A.B.; de Freitas, J.A.; Trarbach, E.B.; de Oliveira, D.R.; Palace-Berl, F.; de Souza, E.; de Miranda, D.A.; Escamilla-Garcia, A.; Otoch, J.P.; et al. Novel nutraceutical supplements with yeast β-glucan, prebiotics, minerals, and Silybum marianum (silymarin) ameliorate obesity-related metabolic and clinical parameters: A double-blind randomized trial. Front. Endocrinol. 2023, 13, 1089938.
  60. Kazzi, F.; Daher, N.; Zimmerman, G.; Garcia, M.; Schmidt, N.; Scharf, K. Effect of Bacillius coagulans and galactomannans on obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy, a randomized-controlled clinical trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2021, 27, 138–145.
  61. Wang, S.; Xiao, Y.; Tian, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, H.; Chen, W. Rational use of prebiotics for gut microbiota alterations: Specific bacterial phylotypes and related mechanisms. J. Funct. Foods 2020, 66, 103838.
  62. Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Dong, C. The effect of chitooligosaccharides on gut microbiota in diabetic mice. Open Acc. Libr. J. 2019, 6, e5961.
  63. Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.Y.; Xiao, X.H.; Hu, L.; Xin, F.J.; Yu, X.B. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats. PeerJ 2018, 6, e4446.
  64. Birkeland, E.; Gharagozlian, S.; Birkeland, K.I.; Valeur, J.; Måge, I.; Rud, I.; Aas, A.M. Prebiotic effect of inulin type fructans on faecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial. Eur. J. Nutr. 2020, 59, 3325–3338.
  65. Zhang, Z.; Bai, L.; Guan, M.; Zhou, X.; Liang, X.; Lv, Y.; Yi, H.; Zhou, H.; Liu, T.; Gong, P.; et al. Potential probiotics Lactobacillus casei K11 combined with plant extracts reduce markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2021, 131, 1970–1982.
  66. Zheng, J.; Cheng, G.; Li, Q.; Jiao, S.; Feng, C.; Zhao, X.; Yin, H.; Du, Y.; Liu, H. Chitin oligosaccharide modulates gut microbiota and attenuates high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 66.
  67. Mateos-Aparicio, I.; Mengibar, M.; Heras, A. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 137, 617–624.
  68. Casanova-Martí, À.; Serrano, J.; Portune, K.J.; Sanz, Y.; Blay, M.T.; Terra, X.; Ardévol, A.; Pinent, M. Grape seed proanthocyanidins influence gut microbiota and enteroendocrine secretions in female rats. Food Funct. 2018, 9, 1672–1682.
  69. Cortés-Martín, A.; Iglesias-Aguirre, C.E.; Meoro, A.; Selma, M.V.; Espín, J.C. Pharmacological therapy determines the gut microbiota modulation by a pomegranate extract nutraceutical in metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2021, 65, e2001048.
  70. Porwal, K.; Pal, S.; Kulkarni, C.; Singh, P.; Sharma, S.; Singh, P. Prebiotic, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides promotes peak bone mass and maintains bone mass in ovariectomized rats by an osteogenic mechanism. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020, 129, 110448.
  71. Seijo, M.; Bryk, G.; Zeni Coronel, M.; Bonanno, M.; Río, M.E.; Pita Martín de Portela, M.L. Effect of adding a galacto-oligosaccharides/fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) mixture to a normal and low calcium diet, on calcium absorption and bone health in ovariectomy-induced osteopenic rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. 2019, 104, 301–312.
  72. Johnson, C.D.; Lucas, E.A.; Hooshmand, S.; Campbell, S.; Akhter, M.P.; Arjmandi, B.H. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and dried plum to soy-based diets reverses bone loss in the ovariectomized rat. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2011, 2011, 836267.
  73. Tanabe, K.; Nakamura, S.; Moriyama-Hashiguchi, M.; Kitajima, M.; Ejima, H.; Imori, C.; Oku, T. Dietary fructooligosaccharide and glucomannan alter gut microbiota and improve bone metabolism in senescence-accelerated mouse. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2019, 67, 867–874.
  74. Wu, K.C.; Cao, S.; Weaver, C.M.; King, N.J.; Patel, S.; Kingman, H.; Sellmeyer, D.E.; McCauley, K.; Li, D.; Lynch, S.V.; et al. Prebiotic to improve calcium absorption in postmenopausal women after gastric bypass: A randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2022, 107, 1053–1064.
  75. Si-Young, C.; Juewon, K.; Ji Hae, L.; Ji Hyun, S.; Dong-Hyun, C.; Il-Hong, B.; Hyunbok, L.; Min, A.S.; Hyun Mu, S.; Tae-Joo, K.; et al. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 39026.
Subjects: Others
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , , ,
View Times: 129
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 26 Feb 2024