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Hassan, M.A.; Zardari, S.; Farooq, M.U.; Alansari, M.M.; Nagro, S.A. Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 23 April 2024).
Hassan MA, Zardari S, Farooq MU, Alansari MM, Nagro SA. Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 23, 2024.
Hassan, Muhammad Ali, Shehnila Zardari, Muhammad Umer Farooq, Marwah M. Alansari, Shimaa A. Nagro. "Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 23, 2024).
Hassan, M.A., Zardari, S., Farooq, M.U., Alansari, M.M., & Nagro, S.A. (2024, February 18). Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture. In Encyclopedia.
Hassan, Muhammad Ali, et al. "Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture." Encyclopedia. Web. 18 February, 2024.
Risks in Industry 5.0 Architecture

Industry 4.0, which was proposed ten years ago to address both the industry’s strengths and faults, has finally been replaced by Industry 5.0. It seeks to put human welfare at the core of manufacturing systems, achieving societal goals beyond employment and growth to firmly provide wealth for the long-term advancement of all of humanity.

ndustry 4.0 Industry 5.0 cyber security IIoT cobot AI DoS

1. Introduction

The current technological revolution will profoundly change the way individuals throughout the world live, work, think, and cooperate [1]. Digital technology built on artificial intelligence can handle business problems. They are utilized to achieve mass customization and enhanced production with less human work. Industry 5.0 was first proposed in 2015, but its effects on production have just begun becoming apparent. Here, cutting-edge production techniques are used to meet customized customer requests. Artificial intelligence is being used as a new tool in industrial processes to improve accuracy and performance [2].

2. Industry 4.0 Overview

Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution which is strongly tied to the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, big data analytics, and other technologies as mentioned in Figure 1, was developed around the concept of smart factories, i.e., a manufacturing unit where different process are linked vertically and horizontally [3]. The concept of smart factories, which is the key element in Industry 4.0, focuses on the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), IoT, and robotics to enhance productivity, optimization, efficiency, and quality of operations. Machines are interconnected with each other to communicate with a central control system, which ensures real-time monitoring and decision-making in the smart factories of Industry 4.0 [4].
Figure 1. Industry 4.0 architecture [3].

3. Industry 5.0 Overview

The issue for manufacturers throughout the world is to boost productivity while keeping people informed in the manufacturing process. This endeavor becomes increasingly challenging when emerging technologies like brain–machine interfaces and advancements in AI make robots more essential to the production process. The upcoming industrial revolution, known as Industry 5.0, can handle these problems. In a nutshell, the phrase “Industry 5.0” alludes to humans and robots cooperating rather than competing [5]. Industry 5.0 merely focuses on the workers’ knowledge, skills, and abilities, which can be incorporated with the machines [6]. It has been examined how Industry 5.0 is currently performing in relation to related research developments. Notably, supply chains, AI, big data, digital transformation, machine learning, and the Internet of Things are still key factors influencing Industry 5.0. These are the same forces that formed Industry 4.0 [7].
The three key determinants of Industry 5.0’s development are identified as human-centric, sustainable, and resilient development [8]. The term “human touch” in Industry 5.0 refers to the integration of human expertise, intelligence, and creativity with the machine to increase the effectiveness of the industrial output [9][10]. To have a better understanding of this “human touch” in Industry 5.0, consider the example of mobile manufacturing, in which machines are responsible for creating and integrating parts of mobile phones, and humans customize them according to the needs of the customer. Figure 2 illustrates how Industry 5.0’s architecture combines human and machine collaboration [7]. A different perspective characterizes Industry 5.0 as being faster, more scalable, and involving more people than earlier due to the type of technology available. This can be achieved by pushing for more sophisticated robot-human interfaces that combine human intelligence and creativity with better automation and integration of robots. Increased productivity will result from this. Industry 5.0 offers significant benefits such as increased productivity, agility, profitability, adaptability, change-readiness, and cost reduction. By emphasizing usability, accessibility, and user experience, human-centric design principles improve security measures by guaranteeing that security protocols are simple to understand and smoothly incorporated into workflow procedures. By incorporating human-centric design concepts into security measures, organizations can cultivate a security-aware culture among staff members, enabling them to take an active role in protecting assets and reducing possible risks in Industry 5.0 environments. However, it also offers core benefits such as the evolving global society, fostering open-minded employees, and waste prevention for sustainability, cost savings, environmental protection, and better social interaction. Through the reduction of wasted materials and resources, the four types of waste prevention viewpoints have a substantial impact on both the environment and the economy. With the goal of minimizing material costs and social repercussions, these views encompass physical waste, urban waste, process waste, and social waste [11].
Figure 2. Industry 5.0 architecture [7].
Acknowledging the paradigm shift from a techno-centric Industry 4.0 to a human-centric approach in intelligent and automated factories draws attention to the growing ethical issues across various industrial sectors. Ethical issues emphasize the importance of tools like Value Sensitive Design (VSD) in converting complex cultural values into practical design necessities, particularly in the context of human–machine symbiosis in the Factory of the Future [12].
Along with human centricity, Industry 5.0 distinguishes itself by thoughtfully incorporating sustainable and resilient practices into the constantly changing realm of modern industrial systems, as depicted in Figure 3. To complement the evolution of Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0 represents a strategic change towards tackling socio-environmental challenges stemming from the ongoing digital industrial transition [13]. Industry 5.0, which positions itself as a comprehensive approach that fully incorporates digitalization into processes throughout organizations and supply chains, essentially aims to achieve a symbiosis of technological, social, and ecological elements. The change from a solely technological focus to one that takes into account the advantages and comfort of individuals further reinforces the sustainability element and fits in with the overall wellbeing of society in what is sometimes referred to as “Society 5.0” [14]. The circular economy is a key focus in the context of electric vehicles, emphasizing the circularity of resources in supply chains. Product-Service Systems (PSS) enable new business models for this economy. Industry 5.0’s sustainable value networks prioritize service integration and digital technologies to enhance ties between participants [15]. Global automakers prioritize sustainability through recycling and product reuse, leading to supply chain reorganization. Electric vehicles and digitization are transforming the sector, fostering stronger supplier-manufacturer relationships through digital technology and product-related services [16].
Figure 3. Industry 5.0 [13].
In Industry 5.0, where complex industrial processes are vulnerable to disruptions due to the use of modern technologies like AI, big data analytics, and IoT, resilience is essential. The idea goes beyond only enduring difficulties; it also emphasizes performance enhancement and flexibility in the face of setbacks. The need for resilience has been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which implies that organizations must develop systems that can withstand disruptions and quickly bounce back. Resilience is mostly attributed to flexibility and inherent redundancy, which allow systems to overcome malfunctions or failures. To prevent and successfully respond to disruptions in the Industry 5.0 scenario, organizations need to proactively strengthen resilience through techniques like modular production systems, flexible manufacturing system designs, and risk management procedures, including cybersecurity measures [17][18]. The emphasis on resilience and sustainability is not just a catchphrase in Industry 5.0; it is a core design principle. The awareness of the essential role that humans play in this technology environment is what distinguishes Industry 5.0. A special synergy is produced when humans and machines work together. Humans are adaptable, skilled at addressing problems, and capable of making subtle decisions. This human–machine collaboration promotes sustainable operations by lowering the need for ongoing maintenance and guaranteeing steady production. Because human workers can swiftly adjust to changing circumstances and manage unforeseen problems, Industry 5.0 places a strong emphasis on the human touch as a means of developing resilience. In Industry 5.0, a holistic strategy that leverages the capabilities of both humans and robots emerges as essential to attaining sustainability and resilience.

4. Concept of Industry 5.0

Industry 4.0 was found to be less concerned with people and more with technology, dismissing the role of people in productive systems. As a result, Industry 5.0 has emerged as a complementary and transitional philosophy from a technological Industry 4.0 to a human-centered Industry 5.0, where worker wellbeing is prioritized while preserving productive performance. Moving beyond a profit-centric approach, Industry 5.0 emphasizes sustainability through a dedication to social, environmental, and societal factors. Though it emphasizes workplace safety, human–machine connections, and larger social and environmental responsibilities, the notion acknowledges the power of technology for industrial development while also tying commercial aims and social goals together. Harness in human–machine collaboration, enhancing interaction in complex industrial systems, and empowering people and operators through individual capabilities and skills are all examples of future possibilities for human centricity [19]. Based on the concepts of the 6 R’s policy of industrial recycling, Industry 5.0 may be the first to be human-driven in terms of sustainability: Recognize, Rethink, Realize, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle waste where possible while producing/creating customized, high-quality products. However, there is still a debate about the concept of Industry 5.0, specifically how this strategy might help sustainable development [13].
Humans manage personalization and critical thinking while machines handle monotonous jobs in Industry 5.0, which integrates humans and technologies as collaborative robots [20]. Industry 5.0 is a symmetric innovation aimed at securing outputs by isolating automated systems, preparing the next generation of global governance [13][19][20].
The creation of the Digital Twin (DT), which depicts a high-fidelity, virtual, physical entity with real-time communication, is a particular aspect of using robots. [19][21]. These Industry 5.0-identified DT (Digital Twin) systems enable production optimization while conducting operational safety assessments in conjunction with simulation systems [22]. DTs, primarily focused on connectivity and production system modeling, can reduce educational inequality by promoting tele-operability and interactive robot production systems for instruction and learning [19][21][23].

5. Difference between Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0

Industry 4.0 focuses on utilizing cognitive computing to integrate cloud servers with intelligent facilities and the Internet of Things in manufacturing plants, while Industry 5.0 stresses the importance of bringing human hands and brains back into the industrial setting. The eras of humans and machines are attempting to collaborate to maximize efficiency and responsible resource usage. Factory data in Industry 4.0 is collected and stored in the cloud for analysis by various instruments and sensors. Access to these data is crucial for artificial intelligence to improve goods and enhance the manufacturing environment. With the aid of intelligent manufacturing and tools like the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, physical cyber systems, cloud computing, and cognitive computing, Industry 4.0 put a strong emphasis on customization. The human connection with production, which is made possible by increased human interaction and engagement in the production system, is one of the key components of Industry 5.0. In this revolution, applying critical thinking abilities increases the automated system’s speed and precision. Industry 5.0 automates equipment updates, modernizes production systems, avoids overproduction, and selects appropriate instruments through intelligent systems. The goal of this revolution is to use digital equipment with human intelligence to speed up manufacturing and prevent errors in systems [11].
Industry 5.0 prioritizes human centricity, sustainability, and resilience, requiring logistics to balance societal, environmental, and economic aspects. Industry 4.0’s smart logistics revolution aims to replace human operators and increase productivity. The emphasis in Industry 5.0 is now more on the environment and human beings, with new technologies being employed to enhance human operators rather than replace them to provide more highly customized goods and services. Many logistics providers are, in this sense, going through a smart transformation of Industry 4.0; however, this smart transformation should not be impeded but rather redirected to better accomplish societal, environmental, and economic sustainability in Industry 5.0 [24].

6. Threats and Risks Involved

It is important to remember that the fifth industrial revolution will be fueled by cobots (collaborative robots), robots, and artificial intelligence, which will play critical roles in this sector. Despite its potential and capabilities, the industry will still require human modification and personalization skills [25].
As shown in Figure 4, most of the industries that have embraced the concepts of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 are responsible for the generation of significant value through the capture, storage, and mining of big data. This has led to the creation of several opportunities in a variety of industries, including government services and even healthcare [26][27]. Given the multiple benefits that may be derived from big data, the industrial revolutions that resulted in the creation of ICT and other kinds of digital technology drove big data to become the present oil in the technological world. Because of the importance and influence of big data, organizations often spend a significant amount of money on issues related to privacy and cyber security. For instance, stricter access control restrictions must be put in place as big data are gathered and stored to guarantee that it can only be used for those purposes. However, because security and privacy issues will be treated extremely seriously, it is crucial to consider how data are shared and linked across numerous organizations and industries [25][28]. Because most industries have automated and digitalized their operations, which has revealed a variety of vulnerabilities that can substantially harm the system, cyber security in the fourth and fifth industrial revolutions has become crucial. Even though both Industries 4.0 and 5.0 are already up and running, they have brought with them several operational issues that are problematic for digital supply networks and connected smart industries [25][29].
Figure 4. Threats and risks in Industry 5.0 [26][27].
This is because the industrial value chain may not be able to immediately mitigate the effects of a cyber-attack if one occurs. After all, those effects could be quite severe, and they are not prepared for such risks. Therefore, as Industry 4.0 transitions to Industry 5.0, addressing the cyber dangers necessitates developing robust cybersecurity strategies that must be vigilant, secure, and persistent, fully integrated into organizational and IT strategies [30]. In this discussion, cybersecurity threats in Industries 4.0 and 5.0 are evaluated. The need for maintenance and ongoing upgrades to handle these risks is highlighted [25].
The number of terminal and intermediary devices has significantly increased because of Industry 5.0’s extensive adoption of IoT. Cyber threats have greater opportunities because of this increased attack surface. To safeguard infrastructure, Industry 5.0 uses blockchain-based access control systems and artificial intelligence (AI)-based intrusion detection systems (IDS). Compared to Industry 4.0, this represents a more complex and advanced approach to security. Cyber-physical systems and augmented reality (AR) are emerging supporting technologies for the Internet of Things. The harmonization of functionality may become more complex as a result of these technologies’ potential introduction of new security requirements. In conclusion, Industry 5.0 highlights the use of cutting-edge technologies like blockchain and artificial intelligence for security, expands the attack surface with an emphasis on the Internet of Things, and tackles particular difficulties related to the integration of various applications and auxiliary technologies [31].

7. Cybersecurity Risks

Over the past few years, interest in cyber security has significantly increased. As our world becomes increasingly connected, real-time system availability is becoming increasingly important. As a result, enterprises must pay close attention to maintaining and preserving their information assets to prevent the effects that cyberattacks may have on them. The assets play a big role in critical corporate operations. Additionally, users and customers are increasingly appreciating the value of the information provided by various technologies. A cybersecurity risk is the result of the likelihood that a cybersecurity-related incident will occur and its possible effects. It includes a variety of hazards with different technology, attack routes, and techniques, but they all have two things in common: they might have a big impact, and people might think that they are improbable. To identify and manage these dangers, which were previously viewed as unlikely and hence received little attention, cyber security entails activities. Due to their unpredictable nature and the requirement for specialized ways to detect and classify them, cybersecurity risks require a different strategy for management than other categories of hazards [32].
Confidentiality, integrity, and availability are the three main security objectives as shown in Figure 8, and in a cybersecurity attack, these objectives are violated, leading to attacks on digital systems, networks, and data. It considers the potential for unauthorized access, data breaches, system outages, and data theft.
Figure 8. Principles of cyber security [33].

8. Operational and Implementation Risks

The difficulties and unknowns that organizations encounter when implementing new technology or procedures are referred to as operational and implementation risks. The practical ramifications of introducing new systems, practices, or strategies within an organization are tied to these risks. They can result from several things, including human errors, technical difficulties, poor planning, and opposition to change.
Operational risk is the potential for a loss brought on by either outside events or insufficient or poor internal processes, people, or systems [34].
Contrarily, implementation risks concentrate on the difficulties and barriers that appear when implementing new technology or procedures. These hazards could include issues with adjusting to new systems, a lack of personnel training and knowledge, and insufficient funding or resources for implementation.

9. Workforce and Training Risks

Risks related to the workforce’s capacity and readiness for utilizing new technology or processes are referred to as workforce and training risks. Particularly in the context of technical breakthroughs and digital revolutions like Industry 4.0, these risks are concentrated around the human resource component of adopting new projects. On the other hand, training hazards might include insufficient training programs, resistance to training, the cost of training, etc., in the workforce, which could include a shortage of competent workers, a competency gap, a generational difference, etc. Risks related to the workforce and training must be effectively addressed if new technologies are to be successfully implemented and used.


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