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Albadrani, M.A. Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 19 June 2024).
Albadrani MA. Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 19, 2024.
Albadrani, Mohammed Aqeel. "Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 19, 2024).
Albadrani, M.A. (2023, June 15). Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties. In Encyclopedia.
Albadrani, Mohammed Aqeel. "Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties." Encyclopedia. Web. 15 June, 2023.
Investigating Viroc's Compression Behavior and Mechanical Properties

To meet energy-saving requirements, in recent years, Saudi Arabia’s construction industry has focused on researching the use of naturally available resources as raw materials.

compression test eco-friendly finite element analysis

1. Introduction

Increasing environmental concerns have led to a significant focus on the development of eco-friendly materials in the fields of engineering and materials science. These materials are designed to minimize negative environmental impacts and improve sustainability while maintaining adequate mechanical properties.
One of the most promising eco-friendly materials is Viroc, a composite material made from a mixture of cement and wood particles. Viroc has gained attention due to its outstanding mechanical properties, including high compressive strength, low water absorption, and good fire resistance.
However, the behavior of Viroc during compression can significantly affect its mechanical properties, and this aspect requires further investigation. The compression behavior of Viroc is influenced by various factors, including the size and distribution of the wood particles, the type of cement used, and the manufacturing process.
Understanding the influence of Viroc behavior during compression on its mechanical properties is crucial for optimizing the material’s design and improving its performance. Therefore, Researchers aim to investigate the compression behavior of Viroc and its impact on the mechanical properties of the material. The results could provide valuable insights into the design and development of eco-friendly materials with improved mechanical properties.
The purpose is to investigate the influence of Viroc behavior during compression on the mechanical properties of eco-friendly materials. Viroc is a composite material made from a mixture of cement, wood, and other natural fibers, which makes it an environmentally sustainable option. However, the behavior of Viroc during compression is not well understood, and researchers aim to fill this gap by examining how it affects the mechanical properties of eco-friendly materials. The research will involve the experimental testing of different types of eco-friendly materials, including Viroc, to determine their mechanical properties under compression. The findings could have practical implications for the design and use of eco-friendly materials in construction and other industries.
As researchers work towards better protecting the environment, researchers will confront additional problems that will require more effective and efficient solutions, including lighter, more economical, and stronger materials. Researchers will continue to use cars with huge iron frames if researchers stop exploring new materials, such as carbon fiber or other composite materials that have greater tensile strength, are lightweight, and consume less fuel. As mechanical engineers and developers of the physical surroundings, it is the responsibility to safeguard the world’s future.
Viroc is a new composite construction material that can be used instead of some existing materials. When compared to other materials, Viroc is regarded as one of the most modern materials available. It is not widely used yet, which is why the primary role as mechanical engineers in this project is to perform mechanical tests to determine its characteristics and, as a result, its potential use, determining whether it can be widely distributed [1].
This project focuses on the mechanical properties of Viroc obtained by tests using a tensile testing machine and electronic simulation. The tests consider the reasons that led researchers to choose Viroc over other available materials, including economic considerations. As mechanical engineers, researchers will calculate and evaluate the stresses in specific sections of the Viroc specimens. Researchers will consider the different sites in which it is used and the different stresses affecting it depending on the application. This will help to determine the best fields of application for the material.
There are other approaches to reducing emissions related to the fabrication of building construction materials, such as foamed concrete (FC) and lightweight concrete. FC can be produced with soil or slag powder and is suitable for the thermal insulation of walls or for backfill [2]. Recent studies have also shown that potentially problematic wastes, such as polystyrene and cement kiln dust, can be mixed to create lightweight cementitious bricks as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional cement bricks [3].
The following are important concepts and terms:
  • Viroc: Made of cement and wood shavings. Viroc is a composite material. It has been employed in many different contexts, such as building and furniture [4].
  • Compression test: A mechanical test of this kind involves applying a compressive load to a material and observing how it responds. It is commonly used to determine a material’s elastic modulus and compressive strength [5].
  • Universal testing machine (UTM): A UTM is a device used to evaluate the strength, elasticity, plasticity, and other mechanical characteristics of materials. It applies a load to a specimen and measures its deformation [6].
  • Ansys: Ansys is a simulation tool used for engineering analysis, particularly for simulating mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic systems [7].
  • Mechanical properties: The mechanical properties of a material refer to how it responds physically to a load or applied force. These properties include toughness, ductility, stiffness, and strength [8].
  • Composite material: A composite material is a substance made by combining two or more distinct components to achieve desired properties. Examples of composite materials include fiberglass, carbon fiber, and Viroc [9].

2. Material

Viroc is a composite material consisting of a compressed and dry mixture of pinewood and cement, and it is used in structural fields. It is a heterogeneous material. Different colors of Viroc have slightly different compositions. For example, gray and white have the same composition, as do yellow, red, and black. The mechanical properties of Viroc are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Viroc’s mechanical properties [10].
Feature Unit Value Standard
Density kg/m3 1350 ± 50 EN 323
Swelling (24 h) % 1.5 EN 317
Moisture content at dispatch from the manufacturer % 9–12 EN 322
Modulus of elasticity N/mm2 4500 EN 310
Internal bond N/mm2 0.50 EN 319
Bending strength N/mm2 9 EN 310
Superficial alkalinity pH 11–13 -
Thermal conductivity W/m.C 0.22 EN 12664
Higher heating value, PCS MJ/kg 4 ± 0.5 EN ISO 1716

3. Technical Specifications

The technical details of Viroc, an environmentally beneficial substance, are listed in the table above according to its mechanical characteristics. The attributes of Viroc being measured are listed in the table’s first column. Each feature’s unit of measurement is listed in the second column. The value of each feature is given in the third column, and the standard by which each feature was measured is listed in the last column.
The density of Viroc, which is expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and has a value of 1350 ± 50, is the first characteristic stated. Using the EN 323 standard, this value has been established.
The swelling of Viroc, which is assessed as a percentage (percent) after 24 h and has a value of 1.5 percent, is the second characteristic. Using the EN 317 standard, this value has been established.
The third characteristic is Viroc’s moisture content at the time of manufacturer dispatch, which is expressed as a percentage (percent) and ranges from 9 to 12 percent. Using the EN 322 standard, this value has been established.
The fourth characteristic is Viroc’s modulus of elasticity, which has a value of 4500 newtons per square millimeter (N/mm2). Utilizing the EN 310 standard, this value was established.
The internal bond of Viroc, which has a value of 0.50 in newtons per square millimeter (N/mm2), is the fifth characteristic. Using the EN 319 standard, this value has been established.
The sixth characteristic of Viroc is its bending strength, which has a value of 9 newtons per square millimeter (N/mm2). The EN 310 standard is used to calculate this value.
The surface alkalinity of Viroc, which is evaluated using pH units and has a value range of 11–13, is the eighth characteristic.
The thermal conductivity of Viroc, which is expressed in watts per meter Celsius (W/m.C) and has a value of 0.22, is the seventh property. To calculate this number, the EN 12664 standard was used.
The increased heating value of Viroc, which has a value of 4 +/− 0.5 megajoules per kilogram (MJ/kg), is the eighth attribute. To calculate this number, the EN ISO 1716 standard was used.

4. Advantages

The advantages of Viroc over other composite construction materials are as follows:
  • Non-toxic;
  • Sound insulation;
  • Weight resistance;
  • Easy installation;
  • Fire retardant;
  • Moisture resistance;
  • Thermal insulation;
  • Withstands hot temperatures;
  • Insect resistance.

5. Applications

Viroc can be used in metallic or wooden supporting structures. Its applications are divided into two main areas depending on the environment: inside or outside. The difference between the environments is the effect of sunlight, air, humidity, and other external conditions. Outside environments may require additional safety considerations compared to inside environments [1].


Modern architecture, with its emphasis on light and transparency, poses various challenges for design, construction, and operation, mainly in the case of facades. Thermal necessities additionally want to be considered.


  1. Investwood. Cement Wood Board Technical File. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 16 November 2022).
  2. Yang, X.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Z.; Lv, Y. Strength, Durability, and Microstructure of Foamed Concrete Prepared Using Special Soil and Slag. Sustainability 2022, 14, 14952.
  3. El-Sayed, A.M.; Faheim, A.A.; Salman, A.A.; Saleh, H.M. Sustainable Lightweight Concrete Made of Cement Kiln Dust and Liquefied Polystyrene Foam Improved with Other Waste Additives. Sustainability 2022, 14, 15313.
  4. Viroc. (N.D.). Investwood. Available online: (accessed on 25 December 2022).
  5. Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics. Available online: (accessed on 10 October 2022).
  6. Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. 2018. Available online: (accessed on 15 March 2023).
  7. ANSYS. Engineering Simulation & 3D Design Software. 2017. Available online: (accessed on 15 March 2023).
  8. Meyers, M.A.; Chawla, K.K. Mechanical Behavior of Materials; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2008; Available online: (accessed on 1 December 2022.).
  9. Gibson, R.F. Principles of Composite Material Mechanics; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2016; Available online: (accessed on 1 December 2022).
  10. Investwood. Viroc Technical Data Sheet. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 16 November 2022).
Subjects: Engineering, Civil
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Update Date: 19 Jun 2023
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