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Liu, D. GTF2I Gene. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 04 December 2023).
Liu D. GTF2I Gene. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 04, 2023.
Liu, Dean. "GTF2I Gene" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 04, 2023).
Liu, D.(2020, December 22). GTF2I Gene. In Encyclopedia.
Liu, Dean. "GTF2I Gene." Encyclopedia. Web. 22 December, 2020.
GTF2I Gene

General transcription factor IIi


1. Introduction

The GTF2I gene provides instructions for making two proteins, BAP-135 and TFII-I. BAP-135 is involved in normal immune system function. It is active in B cells, which are a specialized type of white blood cell that protects the body against infection. When a B cell senses a foreign substance (such as a virus), it triggers a series of chemical reactions that instruct the cell to mature, divide, and produce specific proteins called antibodies to fight the infection. The BAP-135 protein is activated as part of this series of chemical reactions; it transmits chemical signals that allow B cells to respond to potentially harmful invaders.

TFII-I, the other protein produced from the GTF2I gene, binds to specific areas of DNA and helps regulate the activity of other genes. Based on this role, TFII-I is called a transcription factor. This protein is active in the brain and many other tissues in the body. Studies suggest that the TFII-I protein is involved in coordinating cell growth and division, and it may also play a role in controlling the flow of calcium into cells.

2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

2.1. 7q11.23 duplication syndrome

The GTF2I gene is located in a region of chromosome 7 that is duplicated in people with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome. As a result of this duplication, people with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome have an extra copy of the GTF2I gene and several other genes in each cell. 7q11.23 duplication syndrome can cause a variety of neurological and behavioral problems as well as other abnormalities.

Behavioral problems associated with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome include anxiety disorders (such as social phobias and selective mutism, which is an inability to speak in certain circumstances), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), physical aggression, excessively defiant behavior (oppositional disorder), and autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction. Studies suggest that an extra copy of the GTF2I gene may be associated with some of the behavioral features of 7q11.23 duplication syndrome, but the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Despite the role of the GTF2I gene in immune function, affected individuals do not appear to have immune abnormalities related to this disorder.

2.2. Williams syndrome

The GTF2I gene is located in a region of chromosome 7 that is deleted in people with Williams syndrome. As a result of this deletion, people with this condition are missing one copy of the GTF2I gene in each cell. Studies suggest that the loss of this gene is partly responsible for intellectual disability in people with Williams syndrome. Loss of this gene may also contribute to dental abnormalities and the characteristic problems with visual-spatial tasks, such as writing and drawing, that are seen in this disorder. Researchers are investigating how a deletion involving this gene may be related to these specific features of Williams syndrome.

3. Other Names for This Gene

  • BAP-135

  • BAP135

  • Bruton tyrosine kinase-associated protein 135

  • BTK-associated protein, 135kD

  • BTKAP1

  • DIWS


  • IB291

  • SPIN

  • TFII-I

  • WBSCR6


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  4. Egloff AM, Desiderio S. Identification of phosphorylation sites for Bruton'styrosine kinase within the transcriptional regulator BAP/TFII-I. J Biol Chem.2001 Jul 27;276(30):27806-15.
  5. Hirota H, Matsuoka R, Chen XN, Salandanan LS, Lincoln A, Rose FE, Sunahara M, Osawa M, Bellugi U, Korenberg JR. Williams syndrome deficits in visual spatialprocessing linked to GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I on chromosome 7q11.23. Genet Med. 2003Jul-Aug;5(4):311-21.
  6. Mervis CB, Klein-Tasman BP, Huffman MJ, Velleman SL, Pitts CH, Henderson DR,Woodruff-Borden J, Morris CA, Osborne LR. Children with 7q11.23 duplicationsyndrome: psychological characteristics. Am J Med Genet A. 2015Jul;167(7):1436-50. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37071.
  7. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mervis CB, Berman KF. Neural mechanisms in Williamssyndrome: a unique window to genetic influences on cognition and behaviour. NatRev Neurosci. 2006 May;7(5):380-93. Review.
  8. Morris CA, Mervis CB, Hobart HH, Gregg RG, Bertrand J, Ensing GJ, Sommer A,Moore CA, Hopkin RJ, Spallone PA, Keating MT, Osborne L, Kimberley KW, Stock AD. GTF2I hemizygosity implicated in mental retardation in Williams syndrome:genotype-phenotype analysis of five families with deletions in the Williamssyndrome region. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Nov 15;123A(1):45-59.
  9. Morris CA, Mervis CB, Paciorkowski AP, Abdul-Rahman O, Dugan SL, Rope AF,Bader P, Hendon LG, Velleman SL, Klein-Tasman BP, Osborne LR. 7q11.23 Duplicationsyndrome: Physical characteristics and natural history. Am J Med Genet A. 2015Dec;167A(12):2916-35. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37340.
  10. Ohazama A, Sharpe PT. TFII-I gene family during tooth development: candidategenes for tooth anomalies in Williams syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2007 Oct;236(10):2884-8.
  11. Pérez Jurado LA, Wang YK, Peoples R, Coloma A, Cruces J, Francke U. Aduplicated gene in the breakpoint regions of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndromedeletion encodes the initiator binding protein TFII-I and BAP-135, aphosphorylation target of BTK. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Mar;7(3):325-34.
  12. Roy AL. Signal-induced functions of the transcription factor TFII-I. BiochimBiophys Acta. 2007 Nov-Dec;1769(11-12):613-21.
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  14. Tassabehji M. Williams-Beuren syndrome: a challenge for genotype-phenotypecorrelations. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12 Spec No 2:R229-37.Review.
  15. Yang W, Desiderio S. BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase inresponse to B cell receptor engagement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jan21;94(2):604-9.
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Update Date: 22 Dec 2020