Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1569 2022-12-01 03:28:03 |
2 layout Meta information modification 1569 2022-12-01 03:53:55 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Díaz-Montes, E. Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 21 June 2024).
Díaz-Montes E. Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 21, 2024.
Díaz-Montes, Elsa. "Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 21, 2024).
Díaz-Montes, E. (2022, December 01). Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films. In Encyclopedia.
Díaz-Montes, Elsa. "Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films." Encyclopedia. Web. 01 December, 2022.
Polysaccharide-Based Biodegradable Films

Packaging can mitigate the physical, chemical, and microbiological phenomena that affects food products’ quality and acceptability. However, the use of conventional packaging from non-renewable fossil sources generates environmental damage caused by the accumulation of non-biodegradable waste. Biodegradable films emerge as alternative biomaterials which are ecologically sustainable and offer protection and increase food product shelf life.

polysaccharides biodegradable films food packaging

1. Introduction

Packaging is one of the most important issues in the food industry [1] because its functional capacity protects against gases (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide), humidity, and possible mechanical damage [2]. Additionally, it provides the information needed about the product and allows its commercialization and distribution [3][4][5]. Although packaging characteristics depend on the food product they protect, the materials most used are paper, cardboard, metal, glass, and plastic [6]. However, these synthetic materials have been restricted because they consume finite resources and they are not biodegradable, reusable, or recyclable [7]. According to data from 2018, about 102,895 tons of waste is generated per day in Mexico, including cardboard, paper, metals (aluminum), and glass [8], which contributes to the global problem of solid waste distribution in the environment [9]. Furthermore, only 10% of total synthetic materials are recycled [8][10], and the degradation treatment of them is considered dangerous and harmful to human health and economically unprofitable. As a result, synthetic material packaging is used once before being discarded [11].
Recently, food packaging has been directed toward the development of technologies for the generation of packaging with biodegradable materials which can serve as emerging materials or as substitutes for traditional packaging [2].

2. Food Packaging

Food packaging is any wrapper whose function is to protect food from physical, chemical, and biological contamination and preserve its quality [12]. Physical contamination is any external material (e.g., bumps or pieces of glass, plastic, and wood) that are is part of the food and that is normally associated with unhygienic conditions during the preparation, production, storage, and distribution of food products. In contrast, chemical contamination can occur from the addition of food additives (e.g., flavors, colors, and sweeteners) or other chemicals (e.g., antibiotics, sanitizers, pesticides, and lubricants) during processing, food preparation, and storage. Biological contamination is related to any micro-organisms (e.g., Salmonella sp., Clostridium sp., and Escherichia coli) or harmful fauna (e.g., rats, mice, and cockroaches) that produce toxins (e.g., aflatoxins, citrinin, and alternariol) or cause consumer illness [13][14].
The increase in the demand for food in the market stimulated the innovation of food packaging to improve the characteristics of traditional and active packaging that were used until a few years ago. Subsequently, packaging with new characteristics was conceptualized, or so-called intelligent packaging. This type of packaging is made up of a system influenced by the physicochemical properties, temperature, exposure time, or enzymatic reactions of foods that monitor, generate, and display the information [15]. Intelligent packaging uses chemical sensors or biosensors to monitor food quality, including ripeness, freshness, temperature, oxygen levels, moisture, or other gases [16].
Active packaging is more studied than intelligent packaging since there are many extracts and essential oils extracted from natural sources that have an antioxidant or antimicrobial nature and can be added as a biological additive [17]. Nevertheless, active packaging and intelligent packaging are not mutually exclusive since both can work synergistically together [18]. There are even authors who contradict the idea of using the terms intelligent packaging and smart packaging as synonyms because they establish that smart packaging is active–intelligent packaging in which the characteristics of both are added [16].

3. Biodegradable Films

Biodegradable films are solid matrices with a thickness of less than 0.3 mm [19] which are formed with biopolymer material [20][21] using casting, extrusion, or electrospinning techniques [22]. Biodegradable films are considered active packaging as their protective function includes the addition of bioactive compounds [2]. Biodegradable films present greater benefits than conventional packaging since in addition to meeting the main objectives of food passive packaging (i.e., protection against mechanical, chemical, and biological damage), they can also reduce UV light interaction [23], control the absorption of gases (e.g., oxygen, ethylene, carbon dioxide, and water vapor) [23][24], and control the release of bioactive components (e.g., antioxidants, antimicrobials, and flavors) [25][26][27]. These objectives create benefits, including the reduction of lipid oxidation and the increase in the nutritional value of food and its shelf life [28][29].
The formation of biodegradable films is carried out due to the interaction between polymers (i.e., polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins), and polysaccharides are the most widely used biopolymers for biodegradable films due to their accessibility [30]. The main natural sources of polysaccharides are plants (e.g., cellulose, starch, and pectin), animals (e.g., chitin, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid), algae (e.g., alginate, agar, and carrageenan), fungi (e.g., glucans and pullans), and bacteria (e.g., dextran, xanthan, and gellan) [30]. According to the Scopus database, more than 50% of biodegradable film reports are based on plant polysaccharides, with cellulose being the most widely used polymer [31]. This is justifiable because it is the most abundant polysaccharide in nature, it is inexpensive, and it is obtained using simple methods, such as alkaline hydrolysis [32]. Chitosan and chitin (ca. 30%) are the most used animal polysaccharides for the generation of biodegradable films [31], and their extraction is based on the demineralization, deproteination, and distillation of residues from the shells of crustaceans [33]. These animal polysaccharides are appreciated due to their antimicrobial activity caused by their cationic characteristics [30]. In contrast, algae polysaccharides represent around 11% of the natural polymers reported for the generation of biodegradable films [31]. Alginate stands out because its extraction is traditionally carried out from brown algae using hydrolysis acid–alkaline [34]. Less than 10% of the rest of the studies report biodegradable films based on fungi and bacteria [31]. This is because bacteria and fungi need strictly controlled conditions of temperature, substrate, and exposure times so that the production yield is high [35]. However, the production of a polysaccharide by fermentation or by culture cannot be compared with the extraction yield of a polysaccharide from a plant or an animal.
Additives, such as plasticizers, crosslinkers, or bioactive components, improve their characteristics and properties [20][21]. In the compilation made by Suderman et al. [36], it was stipulated that the most used plasticizers in biodegradable films are glycerol, sorbitol, xylitol, and fructose because they influence the microstructure and consequently improve mechanical (e.g., brittleness and flexibility), physicochemical (e.g., solubility), thermal (e.g., thermal decomposition), and barrier (e.g., gas absorption) properties. However, the interaction between polymer and plasticizer depends on the nature of both. For example, Sanyang et al. [37] concluded that adding plasticizers (i.e., glycerol and sorbitol) to the formulation of sugar palm starch films reduced brittleness and water absorption and increased solubility and moisture. Kaewprachu [38] reported higher elongation, moisture, and water vapor permeability in fish protein films by adding plasticizers (i.e., glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol). The use of lipids in the formulation of biodegradable films has been carried out only in composite films, including some lipids (e.g., oils, waxes, and resins) mixed with polysaccharides and/or proteins, because their hydrophobic nature hinders the formation of cross-linking [39]. For example, Hassan et al. [40] formulated sugar palm starch/chitosan films with olive oil and noted that the lipid acted as a plasticizer that improved the elasticity and brittleness of the biodegradable films and stabilized the thermal and barrier properties. Additionally, Da Silva E Silva et al. [41] noted an increase in mechanical strength and a decrease in water vapor permeability when buriti oil was added to fish gelatin films.
Biodegradable films can use crosslinking agents, such as stimuli (e.g., pH and electrical charges) or components (e.g., ions and enzymes) to generate physical, chemical, or enzymatic changes and improve the interaction between polymeric components [42][43][44][45][46][47]. Chitosan is an acetylated polysaccharide that necessarily needs a cross-linking agent (an acid such as acetic, formic, or lactic acid) [48] to acidify its medium and increase its protonation [49] so it can interact with other molecules and eventually form biodegradable gels and films [50]. In amino polysaccharides or proteins, it is common to use genipin as a crosslinking agent because it produces nucleophilic reactions between amino and carboxylic groups in a neutral-acid medium [51] so they can generate biodegradable films due to intermolecular interactions [52]. Other protein cross-linking agents are enzymes (e.g., transglutaminases) because they can catalyze isopeptide bonds and improve the three-dimensional network of biodegradable films [53][54]. In contrast, the use of radioactive waves (e.g., electron beam, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet light) in starches can cause hydrolysis and linear restructuring of the chains, which then cause an increase in the hydrogen bonds and the crystallinity of the film [55][56].
In addition, biodegradable films may contain bioactive substances or components (molecules that can affect health) [57] extracted from natural sources (e.g., plant extracts, natural oils, or essential oils) which have an antimicrobial [58], antifungal [59], antioxidant [60], or probiotic effect [61]. However, regardless of the additives, polysaccharides (e.g., starches, gums, celluloses, agars, and pectins) are the most widely used polymers in the formulation of biodegradable films due to their hydrophilic nature, accessibility (i.e., sources and costs), and characteristics (e.g., non-toxic, biodegradable, and bioactive) [30].

4. Biodegradable Films in Food Packaging

Foods are susceptible to spoilage due to physical, enzymatic, chemical, or microbiological effects, which accelerate maturation and senescence and consequently modify product quality [62]. Food quality is based on sensory characteristics and its nutritional and functional properties which allow their acceptability. For direct consumers, sensory characteristics, such as color, appearance, texture, shape, size, odor, and taste demarcate the degree of product acceptability [63]. Therefore, packaging is important as it protects and maintains food quality from post-harvest until it reaches the consumer.


  1. Peelman, N.; Ragaert, P.; De Meulenaer, B.; Adons, D.; Peeters, R.; Cardon, L.; Van Impe, F.; Devlieghere, F. Application of Bioplastics for Food Packaging. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2013, 32, 128–141.
  2. Masuelli, M.A.; Zanon, M. State of the Art. In Biopackaging; Masuelli, M.A., Ed.; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018; pp. xv–xx. ISBN 9781498749688.
  3. Han, J.H. Innovations in Food Packaging; Elsevier Ltd.: London, UK, 2005.
  4. Davis, G.; Song, J.H. Biodegradable Packaging Based on Raw Materials from Crops and Their Impact on Waste Management. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2006, 23, 147–161.
  5. Raheem, D. Application of Plastics and Paper as Food Packaging Materials-An Overview. Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013, 25, 177–188.
  6. Kishimoto, A. New Food Packaging Materials: An Introduction. In Food Packaging; Kadoya, T., Ed.; Academic Press Inc.: San Diego, CA, USA, 1990; pp. 47–51. ISBN 0123935903.
  7. Siracusa, V.; Rocculi, P.; Romani, S.; Rosa, M.D. Biodegradable Polymers for Food Packaging: A Review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2008, 19, 634–643.
  8. SEMARNAT. Informe de La Situación Del Medio Ambiente En México. Available online: (accessed on 2 September 2019).
  9. Joaquid, D.D.F.; Villada, C.H.S. Propiedades Ópticas Y Permeabilidad De Vapor De Agua En Películas Producidas a Partir De Almidón. Biotecnol. Sect. Agropecu. Agroind. 2013, 11, 59–68.
  10. SEMARNAT. Inventario de Residuos Sólidos de La Ciudad de México. Available online: (accessed on 8 October 2019).
  11. Briassoulis, D. An Overview on the Mechanical Behaviour of Biodegradable Agricultural Films. J. Polym. Environ. 2004, 12, 65–81.
  12. Dwi Ariyanto, H.; Loon Neoh, T.; Yoshii, H. Active Packaging. In Gases in Agro-Food Processes; Cachon, R., Girardon, P., Voilley, A., Eds.; Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, CA, USA, 2019; pp. 363–372. ISBN 9780128124659.
  13. Singh, P.K.; Singh, R.P.; Singh, P.; Singh, R.L. Food Hazards: Physical, Chemical, and Biological. In Food Safety and Human Health; Singh, R.L., Mondal, S., Eds.; Elsevier Inc.: London, UK, 2019; pp. 15–65. ISBN 9780128163337.
  14. Alexandre, E.M.C.; Pinto, C.A.; Moreira, S.A.; Pintado, M.; Saraiva, J.A. Nonthermal Food Processing/Preservation Technologies. In Saving Food: Production, Supply Chain, Food Waste and Food Consumption; Galanakis, C.M., Ed.; Elsevier Inc.: London, UK, 2019; pp. 141–169. ISBN 9780128153574.
  15. Wilson, C.L. Intelligent and Active Packaging for Fruits and Vegetables, 1st ed.; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2007; ISBN 9780849391668.
  16. Stoma, M.; Dudziak, A. Eastern Poland Consumer Awareness of Innovative Active and Intelligent Packaging in the Food Industry: Exploratory Studies. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13691.
  17. Shinde, R.; Rodov, V.; Krishnakumar, S.; Subramanian, J. Active and Intelligent Packaging for Reducing Postharvest Losses of Fruits and Vegetables. In Postharvest Biology and Nanotechnology; Paliyath, G., Subraamanian, J., Lim, L.-T., Subramanian, K.S., Handa, A.K., Mattoo, A.K., Eds.; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 2018; pp. 171–189. ISBN 9781119289470.
  18. Vanderroost, M.; Ragaert, P.; Devlieghere, F.; De Meulenaer, B. Intelligent Food Packaging: The next Generation. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 39, 47–62.
  19. Embuscado, M.E.; Huber, K.C. Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications; Springer Science & Business Media: New York, NY, USA, 2009; ISBN 9780387928234.
  20. Montalvo, C.; López-Malo, A.; Palou, E. Películas Comestibles de Proteína: Características, Propiedades y Aplicaciones. Temas Sel. Ing. Aliment. 2012, 6, 32–46.
  21. Shit, S.C.; Shah, P.M. Edible Polymers: Challenges and Opportunities. J. Polym. 2014, 2014, 427259.
  22. Li, M.; Ye, R. Edible Active Packaging for Food Application: Materials and Technology. In Biopackaging; Masuelli, M.A., Ed.; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018; pp. 1–19. ISBN 9781498749688.
  23. Debeaufort, F.; Quezada-Gallo, J.-A.; Voilley, A. Edible Films and Coatings: Tomorrow’s Packagings: A Review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1998, 38, 299–313.
  24. Falguera, V.; Quintero, J.P.; Jiménez, A.; Muñoz, J.A.; Ibarz, A. Edible Films and Coatings: Structures, Active Functions and Trends in Their Use. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2011, 22, 292–303.
  25. Salvia-Trujillo, L.; Soliva-Fortuny, R.; Rojas-Graü, M.A.; McClements, D.J.; Martín-Belloso, O. Edible Nanoemulsions as Carriers of Active Ingredients: A Review. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2017, 8, 439–466.
  26. Sánchez Aldana, D.; Contreras-Esquivel, J.C.; Nevárez-Moorillón, G.V.; Aguilar, C.N. Caracterización de Películas Comestibles a Base de Extractos Pécticos y Aceite Esencial de Limón Mexicano. CYTA-J. Food 2015, 13, 17–25.
  27. Kraśniewska, K.; Galus, S.; Gniewosz, M. Biopolymers-based Materials Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Active Packaging for Food Applications–A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 698.
  28. Tharanathan, R.N. Biodegradable Films and Composite Coatings: Past, Present and Future. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2003, 14, 71–78.
  29. Díaz-Montes, E.; Castro-Muñoz, R. Edible Films and Coatings as Food-Quality Preservers: An Overview. Foods 2021, 10, 249.
  30. Díaz-Montes, E. Polysaccharides: Sources, Characteristics, Properties, and Their Application in Biodegradable Films. Polysaccharides 2022, 3, 29.
  31. Elsevier, B.V. Scopus. Available online: (accessed on 14 November 2022).
  32. Escamilla-García, M.; García-García, M.C.; Gracida, J.; Hernández-Hernández, H.M.; Granados-Arvizu, J.Á.; Di Pierro, P.; Regalado-González, C. Properties and Biodegradability of Films Based on Cellulose and Cellulose Nanocrystals from Corn Cob in Mixture with Chitosan. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 10560.
  33. Varun, T.K.; Senani, S.; Jayapal, N.; Chikkerur, J.; Roy, S.; Tekulapally, V.B.; Gautam, M.; Kumar, N. Extraction of Chitosan and Its Oligomers from Shrimp Shell Waste, Their Characterization and Antimicrobial Effect. Vet. World 2017, 10, 170–175.
  34. Mohammed, A.; Rivers, A.; Stuckey, D.C.; Ward, K. Alginate Extraction from Sargassum Seaweed in the Caribbean Region: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 245, 116419.
  35. Osemwegie, O.O.; Adetunji, C.O.; Ayeni, E.A.; Adejobi, O.I.; Arise, R.O.; Nwonuma, C.O.; Oghenekaro, A.O. Exopolysaccharides from Bacteria and Fungi: Current Status and Perspectives in Africa. Heliyon 2020, 6, e04205.
  36. Suderman, N.; Isa, M.I.N.; Sarbon, N.M. The Effect of Plasticizers on the Functional Properties of Biodegradable Gelatin-Based Film: A Review. Food Biosci. 2018, 24, 111–119.
  37. Sanyang, M.L.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Ishak, M.R.; Sahari, J. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Physical Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Starch for Food Packaging. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 53, 326–336.
  38. Kaewprachu, P.; Osako, K.; Rawdkuen, S. Effects of Plasticizers on the Properties of Fish Myofibrillar Protein Film. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 55, 3046–3055.
  39. Amin, U.; Khan, M.U.; Majeed, Y.; Rebezov, M.; Khayrullin, M.; Bobkova, E.; Shariati, M.A.; Chung, I.M.; Thiruvengadam, M. Potentials of Polysaccharides, Lipids and Proteins in Biodegradable Food Packaging Applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 183, 2184–2198.
  40. Hasan, M.; Rusman, R.; Khaldun, I.; Ardana, L.; Mudatsir, M.; Fansuri, H. Active Edible Sugar Palm Starch-Chitosan Films Carrying Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Barrier, Thermo-Mechanical, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Properties. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 163, 766–775.
  41. Da Silva, N.S.E.; Hernández, E.J.G.P.; Araújo, C.D.S.; Joele, M.R.S.P.; Lourenço, L.d.F.H. Development and Optimization of Biodegradable Fish Gelatin Composite Film Added with Buriti Oil. CYTA-J. Food 2018, 16, 340–349.
  42. Rouhi, M.; Razavi, S.H.; Mousavi, S.M. Optimization of Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Films for Mechanical Properties. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2017, 71, 1052–1063.
  43. da Silva, M.A.; Bierhalz, A.C.K.; Kieckbusch, T.G. Alginate and Pectin Composite Films Crosslinked with Ca2+ Ions: Effect of the Plasticizer Concentration. Carbohydr. Polym. 2009, 77, 736–742.
  44. Delville, J.; Joly, C.; Dole, P.; Bliard, C. Solid State Photocrosslinked Starch Based Films: A New Family of Homogeneous Modified Starches. Carbohydr. Polym. 2002, 49, 71–81.
  45. Figueiró, S.D.; Góes, J.C.; Moreira, R.A.; Sombra, A.S.B. On the Physico-Chemical and Dielectric Properties of Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked Galactomannan-Collagen Films. Carbohydr. Polym. 2004, 56, 313–320.
  46. Su, J.F.; Yuan, X.Y.; Huang, Z.; Wang, X.Y.; Lu, X.Z.; Zhang, L.D.; Wang, S.B. Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Blend Films Crosslinked by Maillard Reactions: Color, Transparency and Heat-Sealing Ability. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2012, 32, 40–46.
  47. Migneault, I.; Dartiguenave, C.; Bertrand, M.J.; Waldron, K.C. Glutaraldehyde: Behavior in Aqueous Solution, Reaction with Proteins, and Application to Enzyme Crosslinking. BioTecniques 2004, 37, 790–802.
  48. Sikorski, D.; Gzyra-Jagieła, K.; Draczyński, Z. The Kinetics of Chitosan Degradation in Organic Acid Solutions. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 236.
  49. Díaz-Montes, E.; Castro-Muñoz, R. Trends in Chitosan as a Primary Biopolymer for Functional Films and Coatings Manufacture for Food and Natural Products. Polymers 2021, 13, 767.
  50. Deshmukh, A.R.; Aloui, H.; Khomlaem, C.; Negi, A.; Yun, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, S.B. Biodegradable Fi Lms Based on Chitosan and Defatted Chlorella Biomass: Functional and Physical Characterization. Food Chem. 2021, 337, 1–10.
  51. González, A.; Strumia, M.C.; Alvarez Igarzabal, C.I. Cross-Linked Soy Protein as Material for Biodegradable Films: Synthesis, Characterization and Biodegradation. J. Food Eng. 2011, 106, 331–338.
  52. Roy, S.; Rhim, J.W. Genipin-Crosslinked Gelatin/Chitosan-Based Functional Films Incorporated with Rosemary Essential Oil and Quercetin. Materials 2022, 15, 3769.
  53. Sabbah, M.; Giosafatto, C.V.L.; Esposito, M.; Di Pierro, P.; Mariniello, L.; Porta, R. Transglutaminase Cross-Linked Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications. In Enzymes in Food Biotechnology: Production, Applications, and Future Prospects; Kuddus, M., Ed.; Elsevier Inc.: London, UK, 2019; pp. 369–388. ISBN 9780128132807.
  54. Seiwert, K.; Kamdem, D.P.; Kocabaş, D.S.; Ustunol, Z. Development and Characterization of Whey Protein Isolate and Xylan Composite Films with and without Enzymatic Crosslinking. Food Hydrocoll. 2021, 120, 106847.
  55. Khan, B.; Khan Niazi, M.B.; Jahan, Z.; Farooq, W.; Naqvi, S.R.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, I.; Hussain, A. Effect of Ultra-Violet Cross-Linking on the Properties of Boric Acid and Glycerol Co-Plasticized Thermoplastic Starch Films. Food Packag. Shelf Life 2019, 19, 184–192.
  56. Yin, P.; Chen, C.; Ma, H.; Gan, H.; Guo, B.; Li, P. Surface Cross-Linked Thermoplastic Starch with Different UV Wavelengths: Mechanical, Wettability, Hygroscopic and Degradation Properties. RSC Adv. 2020, 10, 44815–44823.
  57. Kris-Etherton, P.M.; Hecker, K.D.; Bonanome, A.; Coval, S.M.; Binkoski, A.E.; Hilpert, K.F.; Griel, A.E.; Etherton, T.D. Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Their Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. Am. J. Med. 2002, 113, 71–88.
  58. Pérez-Vergara, L.D.; Cifuentes, M.T.; Franco, A.P.; Pérez-Cervera, C.E.; Andrade-Pizarro, R.D. Development and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Native Cassava Starch, Beeswax, and Propolis. NFS J. 2020, 21, 39–49.
  59. Díaz-Galindo, E.P.; Nesic, A.; Cabrera-Barjas, G.; Mardones, C.; Von Baer, D.; Bautista-Baños, S.; Garcia, O.D. Physical-Chemical Evaluation of Active Food Packaging Material Based on Thermoplastic Starch Loaded with Grape Cane Extract. Molecules 2020, 25, 1306.
  60. Medeiros Silva, V.D.; Coutinho Macedo, M.C.; Rodrigues, C.G.; Neris dos Santos, A.; de Freitas e Loyola, A.C.; Fante, C.A. Biodegradable Edible Films of Ripe Banana Peel and Starch Enriched with Extract of Eriobotrya Japonica Leaves. Food Biosci. 2020, 38, 100750.
  61. Khodaei, D.; Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Lacroix, M. Gelatin and Low Methoxyl Pectin Films Containing Probiotics: Film Characterization and Cell Viability. Food Biosci. 2020, 36, 100660.
  62. Tzia, C.; Sfakianakis, P.; Giannou, V. Raw Materials of Foods: Handling and Management. In Handbook of Food Processing-Food Safety, Quality and Manufacturing Processes; Varzakas, T., Tzia, C., Eds.; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2016; pp. 1–40.
  63. Tzia, C.; Giannou, V.; Lignou, S.; Lebesi, D. Sensory Evaluation of Foods. In Handbook of Food Processing-Food Safety, Quality and Manufacturing Processes; Varzakas, T., Tzia, C., Eds.; Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2016; pp. 41–72.
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 506
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 01 Dec 2022
Video Production Service