Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 3131 2022-11-25 01:34:15

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Xu, H. Problem Gambling. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 05 December 2023).
Xu H. Problem Gambling. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 05, 2023.
Xu, Handwiki. "Problem Gambling" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 05, 2023).
Xu, H.(2022, November 25). Problem Gambling. In Encyclopedia.
Xu, Handwiki. "Problem Gambling." Encyclopedia. Web. 25 November, 2022.
Problem Gambling

Problem gambling is an urge to gamble continuously despite negative consequences or a desire to stop. Problem gambling is often defined by whether harm is experienced by the gambler or others, rather than by the gambler's behaviour. Severe problem gambling may be diagnosed as clinical pathological gambling if the gambler meets certain criteria. Pathological gambling is a common disorder that is associated with both social and family costs. The DSM-5 has re-classified the condition as an addictive disorder, with sufferers exhibiting many similarities to those who have substance addictions. The term gambling addiction has long been used in the recovery movement. Pathological gambling was long considered by the American Psychiatric Association to be an impulse control disorder rather than an addiction. However, data suggest a closer relationship between pathological gambling and substance use disorders than exists between PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder, largely because the behaviors in problem gambling and most primary substance use disorders (i.e. those not resulting from a desire to "self-medicate" for another condition such as depression) seek to activate the brain's reward mechanisms while the behaviors characterizing obsessive-compulsive disorder are prompted by overactive and misplaced signals from the brain's fear mechanisms. Problem gambling is an addictive behavior with a high comorbidity with alcohol problems. A common feature shared by people who suffer from gambling addiction is impulsivity.

pathological gambling impulse control disorder gambling addiction

1. Signs and Symptoms

Research by governments in Australia led to a universal definition for that country which appears to be the only research-based definition not to use diagnostic criteria: "Problem gambling is characterized by many difficulties in limiting money and/or time spent on gambling which leads to adverse consequences for the gambler, others, or for the community."[1] The University of Maryland Medical Center defines pathological gambling as "being unable to resist impulses to gamble, which can lead to severe personal or social consequences".[2]

Most other definitions of problem gambling can usually be simplified to any gambling that causes harm to the gambler or someone else in any way; however, these definitions are usually coupled with descriptions of the type of harm or the use of diagnostic criteria. The DSM-V has since reclassified pathological gambling as "gambling disorder" and has listed the disorder under substance-related and addictive disorders rather than impulse-control disorders. This is due to the symptomatology of the disorder resembling an addiction not dissimilar to that of a substance use disorder.[3] |In order to be diagnosed, an individual must have at least four of the following symptoms in a 12-month period:[4]

  • Needs to gamble with increasing amounts of money in order to achieve the desired excitement
  • Is restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop gambling
  • Has made repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling
  • Is often preoccupied with gambling (e.g., having persistent thoughts of reliving past gambling experiences, handicapping or planning the next venture, thinking of ways to get money with which to gamble)
  • Often gambles when feeling distressed (e.g., helpless, guilty, anxious, depressed)
  • After losing money gambling, often returns another day to get even ("chasing" one's losses)
  • Lies to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling
  • Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, education, or career opportunity because of gambling
  • Relies on others to provide money to relieve desperate financial situations caused by gambling

2. Factors That Lead to Gambling Addiction

Mayo Clinic specialists state that compulsive gambling may be a reason for biological, genetic, and environmental factors Gambling addiction: Symptoms, triggers, and treatment, such as:

  • mental health disorders (the presence of substance use disorders, personality disorders, emotional states)
  • age and sex (usually found in the youth and middle-aged people, and more common to men than women)
  • family or friends impact
  • personality traits
  • drugs with rare side-effects (for example, antipsychotic medications or dopamine agonists).

Other studies add the following triggers to the mentioned above Gambling:

  • traumatic conditions
  • job-related stress
  • solitude
  • other addictions

If not interfered, the problem gambling may cause very serious and lasting effects for individuals' life Compulsive gambling - Symptoms and causes:

  • relationship related issues
  • problems with money, bankruptcy as well
  • legal problems, imprisonment
  • health problems
  • suicide, including suicidal thoughts and attempts

2.1. Suicide Rates

A gambler who does not receive treatment for pathological gambling when in his or her desperation phase may contemplate suicide.[5] Problem gambling is often associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population.[6][7]

Early onset of problem gambling may increase lifetime risk of suicide.[8] Both comorbid substance use[9][10] and comorbid mental disorders increase the risk of suicide in people with problem gambling.[11] A 2010 Australian hospital study found that 17% of suicidal patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital's emergency department were problem gamblers.[12]

3. Mechanisms

3.1. Biology

According to the Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery, evidence indicates that pathological gambling is an addiction similar to chemical addiction.[13] It has been observed that some pathological gamblers have lower levels of norepinephrine than normal gamblers.[14] According to a study conducted by Alec Roy, formerly at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, norepinephrine is secreted under stress, arousal, or thrill, so pathological gamblers gamble to make up for their under-dosage.[15]

Studies have compared pathological gamblers to substance addicts, concluding that addicted gamblers display more physical symptoms during withdrawal.[16]

Deficiencies in serotonin might also contribute to compulsive behavior, including a gambling addiction. There are three important points discovered after these antidepressant studies:[17]

  1. Antidepressants can reduce pathological gambling in case when there is an effect on serotonergic reuptake inhibitors and 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonists.
  2. Pathological gambling, as the part of obsessive-compulsive disorder, requires the higher doses of antidepressants as it usually required for depressive disorders.
  3. In cases where participants do not have or have minimal symptoms of anxiety or depression, antidepressants still have those effect.

A limited study was presented at a conference in Berlin, suggesting opioid release differs in problem gamblers from the general population, but in a very different way from people who have a substance use disorder.[18]

The findings in one review indicated the sensitization theory is responsible.[19] Dopamine dysregulation syndrome has been observed in the aforementioned theory in people with regard to such activities as gambling.[20]

Some medical authors suggest that the biomedical model of problem gambling may be unhelpful because it focuses only on individuals. These authors point out that social factors may be a far more important determinant of gambling behaviour than brain chemicals and they suggest that a social model may be more useful in understanding the issue.[21] For example, an apparent increase in problem gambling in the UK may be better understood as a consequence of changes in legislation which came into force in 2007 and enabled casinos, bookmakers, and online betting sites to advertise on TV and radio for the first time and which eased restrictions on the opening of betting shops and online gambling sites.[22]

Pathological gambling is similar to many other impulse control disorders such as kleptomania.[23] According to evidence from both community- and clinic-based studies, individuals who are pathological gamblers are highly likely to exhibit other psychiatric problems concurrently, including substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, or personality disorders.[24]

Pathological gambling shows several similarities with substance use disorders. There is a partial overlap in diagnostic criteria; pathological gamblers are also likely to have a substance use disorder. The "telescoping phenomenon" reflects the rapid development from initial to problematic behavior in women compared with men. This phenomenon was initially described for alcoholism, but it has also been applied to pathological gambling. Also biological data provide a support for a relationship between pathological gambling and substance use disorder.[17] A comprehensive UK Gambling Commission study from 2018 has also hinted at the link between gambling addiction and a reduction in physical activity, poor diet and overall well-being. The study links problem gambling to a myriad of issues affecting relationships, and social stability.

3.2. Psychological

Several psychological mechanisms are thought to be implicated in the development and maintenance of problem gambling.[25] First, reward processing seems to be less sensitive with problem gamblers. Second, some individuals use problem gambling as an escape from the problems in their lives (an example of negative reinforcement). Third, personality factors play a role, such as narcissism, risk-seeking, sensation-seeking, and impulsivity. Fourth, problem gamblers suffer from a number of cognitive biases, including the illusion of control,[26] unrealistic optimism, overconfidence and the gambler's fallacy (the incorrect belief that a series of random events tends to self-correct so that the absolute frequencies of each of various outcomes balance each other out). Fifth, problem gamblers represent a chronic state of a behavioral spin process, a gambling spin, as described by the criminal spin theory.[27]

Spain's gambling watchdog has made an update to its 2019–2020 Responsible Gaming Program, classifying problem gambling as a mental disorder.

4. Diagnosis

The most common instrument used to screen for "probable pathological gambling" behavior is the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) developed by Lesieur and Blume (1987) at the South Oaks Hospital in New York City.[28] In recent years the use of SOGS has declined due to a number of criticisms, including that it overestimates false positives (Battersby, Tolchard, Thomas & Esterman, 2002).

The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria presented as a checklist is an alternative to SOGS, it focuses on the psychological motivations underpinning problem gambling and was developed by the American Psychiatric Association. It consists of ten diagnostic criteria. One frequently used screening measure based upon the DSM-IV criteria is the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS). The Canadian Problem Gambling Inventory (CPGI) and the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) are newer assessment measures. The Problem Gambling Severity Index, which focuses on the harms associated with problem gambling, is composed of nine items from the longer CPGI.[29] The VGS is also harm based and includes 15 items. The VGS has proven validity and reliability in population studies as well as Adolescents and clinic gamblers.

5. Treatment

Most treatment for problem gambling involves counseling, step-based programs, self-help, peer-support, medication, or a combination of these. However, no one treatment is considered to be most efficacious and, in the United States, no medications have been approved for the treatment of pathological gambling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a commonly used treatment for gambling problems. Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, GA is a twelve-step program that emphasizes a mutual-support approach. There are three in-patient treatment centers in North America.[30] One form of counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms and gambling-related urges. This type of therapy focuses on the identification of gambling-related thought processes, mood and cognitive distortions that increase one's vulnerability to out-of-control gambling. Additionally, CBT approaches frequently utilize skill-building techniques geared toward relapse prevention, assertiveness and gambling refusal, problem solving and reinforcement of gambling-inconsistent activities and interests.[31]

As to behavioral treatment, some recent research supports the use of both activity scheduling and desensitization in the treatment of gambling problems.[32] In general, behavior analytic research in this area is growing[33] There is evidence that the SSRI paroxetine is efficacious in the treatment of pathological gambling.[34] Additionally, for patients suffering from both pathological gambling and a comorbid bipolar spectrum condition, sustained-release lithium has shown efficacy in a preliminary trial.[35] The opioid antagonist drug nalmefene has also been trialled quite successfully for the treatment of compulsive gambling.[36] Group concepts based on CBT, such as the metacognitive training for problem gambling[37] have also proven effective.

5.1. Step-Based Programs

12 Step-based programs such as Gambler's Anonymous are specific to gambling and generic to healing addiction, creating financial health, and improving mental wellness. Commercial alternatives that are designed for clinical intervention, using the best of health science and applied education practices, have been used as patient-centered tools for intervention since 2007. They include measured efficacy and resulting recovery metrics.

5.2. Motivational Interviewing

Motivational interviewing is one of the treatments of compulsive gambling. The motivational interviewer's basic goal is promoting readiness to change through thinking and resolving mixed feelings. Avoiding aggressive confrontation, argument, labeling, blaming, and direct persuasion, the interviewer supplies empathy and advice to compulsive gamblers who define their own goal. The focus is on promoting freedom of choice and encouraging confidence in the ability to change.[38]

5.3. Peer Support

A growing method of treatment is peer support. With the advancement of online gambling, many gamblers experiencing issues use various online peer-support groups to aid their recovery. This protects their anonymity while allowing them to attempt recovery on their own, often without having to disclose their issues to loved ones.

5.4. Self-Help

Research into self-help for problem gamblers has shown benefits.[39] A study by Wendy Slutske of the University of Missouri concluded one-third of pathological gamblers overcome it by natural recovery.[40]

5.5. Self-Exclusion

Gambling self-exclusion (voluntary exclusion) programs are available in the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, South Africa, France, and other countries. They seem to help some (but not all) problem gamblers to gamble less often.[41]

Some experts maintain that casinos in general arrange for self-exclusion programs as a public relations measure without actually helping many of those with problem gambling issues. A campaign of this type merely "deflects attention away from problematic products and industries", according to Natasha Dow Schull, a cultural anthropologist at New York University and author of the book Addiction by Design.[42]

There is also a question as to the effectiveness of such programs, which can be difficult to enforce.[43] In the province of Ontario, Canada, for example, the Self-Exclusion program operated by the government's Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (OLG) is not effective, according to investigation conducted by the television series, revealed in late 2017. |"Gambling addicts ... said that while on the ... self-exclusion list, they entered OLG properties on a regular basis" in spite of the facial recognition technology in place at the casinos, according to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. As well, a CBC journalist who tested the system found that he was able to enter Ontario casinos and gamble on four distinct occasions, in spite of having been registered and photographed for the self-exclusion program. An OLG spokesman provided this response when questioned by the CBC: "We provide supports to self-excluders by training our staff, by providing disincentives, by providing facial recognition, by providing our security officers to look for players. No one element is going to be foolproof because it is not designed to be foolproof".[42]

5.6. Impact (Australia)

According to the Productivity Commission's 2010 final report into gambling, the social cost of problem gambling is close to 4.7 billion dollars a year. Some of the harms resulting from problem gambling include depression, suicide, lower work productivity, job loss, relationship breakdown, crime and bankruptcy.[44] A survey conducted in 2008 found that the most common motivation for fraud was problem gambling, with each incident averaging a loss of $1.1 million.[44] According to Darren R. Christensen. Nicki A. Dowling, Alun C. Jackson and Shane A.Thomas a survey done from 1994–2008 in Tasmania gave results that gambling participation rates have risen rather than fallen over this period.[45]

6. Prevalence

6.1. Europe

In Europe, the rate of problem gambling is typically 0.5 to 3 percent.[46] The "British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007", conducted by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission, found approximately 0.6 percent of the adult population had problem gambling issues—the same percentage as in 1999.[47] The highest prevalence of problem gambling was found among those who participated in spread betting (14.7%), fixed odds betting terminals (11.2%), and betting exchanges (9.8%).[47] In Norway, a December 2007 study showed the amount of present problem gamblers was 0.7 percent.[48]

With gambling addiction on the rise and across Europe in particular, the voices calling gambling a disease has been gaining grounds. The UK Gambling Commission announced a significant shift in their approach to gambling as they said that gambling is a disease, and therefore, it should be addressed adequately by the NHS.

The World Health Organization has also called gambling a disease. In its 72nd World Health Assembly held on Saturday, May 25, 2019, decided that ‘gaming disorder’ is an official illness. The 194-member meet added excessive gaming to a classified list of diseases as it revised its International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problem (ICD-11).

6.2. North America

In the United States, the percentage of pathological gamblers was 0.6 percent, and the percentage of problem gamblers was 2.3 percent in 2008.[49] Studies commissioned by the National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act has shown the prevalence rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent.[50] Nevada has the highest percentage of pathological gambling; a 2002 report estimated 2.2 to 3.6 percent of Nevada residents over the age of 18 could be called problem gamblers. Also, 2.7 to 4.3 percent could be called probable pathological gamblers.[51]

According to a 1997 meta-analysis by Harvard Medical School's division on addictions, 1.1 percent of the adult population of the United States and Canada could be called pathological gamblers.[52] A 1996 study estimated 1.2 to 1.9 percent of adults in Canada were pathological.[53] In Ontario, a 2006 report showed 2.6 percent of residents experienced "moderate gambling problems" and 0.8 percent had "severe gambling problems".[54] In Quebec, an estimated 0.8 percent of the adult population were pathological gamblers in 2002.[55] Although most who gamble do so without harm, approximately 6 million American adults are addicted to gambling.[56]

Signs of a gambling problem include:

  • Using income or savings to gamble while letting bills go unpaid
  • Repeated unsuccessful attempts to stop gambling
  • Chasing losses
  • Losing sleep over thoughts of gambling
  • Arguing with friends or family about gambling behavior
  • Feeling depressed or suicidal because of gambling losses

6.3. Oceania (Australia)

Casinos and poker machines in pubs and clubs facilitate problem gambling in Australia. The building of new hotels and casinos has been described as "one of the most active construction markets in Australia"; for example, AUD$860 million was allocated to rebuild and expand the Star Complex in Sydney.[57]

A 2010 study, conducted in the Northern Territory by researchers from the Australian National University (ANU) and Southern Cross University (SCU), found that the proximity of a person's residence to a gambling venue is significant in terms of prevalence. Harmful gambling in the study was prevalent among those living within 100 metres of any gambling venue, and was over 50% higher than among those living ten kilometres from a venue. The study's data stated:

"Specifically, people who lived 100 metres from their favourite venue visited an estimated average of 3.4 times per month. This compared to an average of 2.8 times per month for people living one kilometre away, and 2.2 times per month for people living ten kilometres away".[58]

According to the Productivity Commission's 2016 report into gambling, 0.5% to 1% (80,000 to 160,000)[59] of the Australian adult population suffered with significant problems resulting from gambling. A further 1.4% to 2.1% (230,000 to 350,000) of the Australian adult population experienced moderate risks making them likely to be vulnerable to problem gambling.[60] Estimates show that problem gamblers account for an average of 41% of the total gaming machine spending.[60]

7. Gambling at an Early Age

According to recent studies, 69% of gambling teenagers reaffirmed that they started gambling as early as the age of 13. Being exposed in a variety of gambling in childhood increases the likelihood that someone will engage in later gambling and develop problematic gambling behaviors.[61]


  1. Problem Gambling and Harm: Towards a National Definition (Report). p. i.$file/NatDefs_ExecSum.pdf. 
  2. Vorvick, Linda; Merrill, Michelle (February 18, 2010). "Pathological Gambling". University of Maryland Medical Center. 
  3. Christensen, D. R.; Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki A.; Volberg, Rachel A.; Thomas, Shane A. (2014). "An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems". Journal of Gambling Studies 31 (3): 1–20. doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9449-2. PMID 24627139.
  4. American Psychiatric Association (18 May 2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. 
  5. Paul, Laura. "High Stakes: Teens Gambling with Their Futures". Teenagers Today. Disney. 
  6. Moreyra, Paula; Ibáñez, Angela; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Nissenson, Kore; Blanco, Carlos (2000). "Review of the Phenomenology, Etiology and Treatment of Pathological Gambling". German Journal of Psychiatry 3 (2): 37–52. ISSN 1433-1055. 
  7. Volberg, Rachel (March 2002). "The Epidemiology of Pathological Gambling". Psychiatric Annals 32 (3): 171–178. doi:10.3928/0048-5713-20020301-06.
  8. Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph; Jadamec, Agnes (September 2002). "Gambling Behavior in Adolescent Substance Abuse". Substance Abuse 23 (3): 191–198. doi:10.1080/08897070209511489. PMID 12444352.
  9. Kausch, Otto (December 2003). "Patterns of Substance Abuse Among Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 25 (4): 263–270. doi:10.1016/S0740-5472(03)00117-X. PMID 14693255.
  10. Ladd, George; Petry, Nancy (August 2003). "A Comparison of Pathological Gamblers with and without Substance Abuse Treatment Histories". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 11 (3): 202–209. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.11.3.202. PMID 12940499.
  11. Kausch, Otto (September 2003). "Suicide Attempts Among Veterans Seeking Treatment for Pathological Gambling". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (9): 1031–1038. doi:10.4088/JCP.v64n0908. PMID 14628978.
  12. Hagan, Kate (April 21, 2010). "Gambling linked to one in five suicidal patients". The Age (Melbourne). 
  13. "Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery – WEEK News 25 – News, Sports, Weather – Peoria, Illinois". 
  14. "We Put Troubled Lives Back Together". Broadcast Interactive. 
  15. Roy, Alec; Adinoff, Brian; Roehrich, Laurie; Lamparski, Danuta; Custer, Robert; Lorenz, Valerie; Barbaccia, Maria; Guidotti, Alessandro et al. (April 1988). "Pathological Gambling: A Psychobiological Study". Archives of General Psychiatry 45 (4): 369–373. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800280085011. PMID 2451490.
  16. Griffiths, Mark (November 2003). "Action plan: Problem Gambling". The Psychologist 16 (11): 582–585. 
  17. Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won (2006-09-01). "Medication Management of Pathological Gambling". Minnesota Medicine 89 (9): 44–48. ISSN 0026-556X. PMID 17024925.
  18. Shweta Iyer. "Gambling Addicts' Brains Don't Have The Same Opioid Systems As Others".  (source: Mick I, et al. Endogenous opioid release in pathological gamblers after an oral amphetamine challenge. At The European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Congress. 2014.)
  19. Probst, Catharina C.; van Eimeren, Thilo (2013). "The Functional Anatomy of Impulse Control Disorders". Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 13 (10): 386. doi:10.1007/s11910-013-0386-8. ISSN 1528-4042. PMID 23963609.
  20. Olsen, Christopher M. (2011). "Natural Rewards, Neuroplasticity, and Non-Drug Addictions". Neuropharmacology 61 (7): 1109–1122. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010. ISSN 0028-3908. PMID 21459101.
  21. Moscrop, A. (2011). "Medicalisation, morality, and addiction: Why we should be wary of problem gamblers in primary care". British Journal of General Practice 61 (593): 836–838. doi:10.3399/bjgp11X613197. PMID 22137420.
  22. "Moran E. Letter: Gambling with lives". Guardian. 21 April 2009. 
  23. Abbott, Max (June 2001). What do We Know About Gambling and Problem Gambling in New Zealand? (Report). The New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs. p. 28. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  24. Black, Donald; Shaw, Martha (October 2008). "Psychiatric Comorbidity Associated With Pathological Gambling". Psychiatric Times 25 (12). 
  25. Problem gambling: Cognition, prevention and treatment. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 2014. ISBN 9781137272416. 
  26. Hudgens-Haney, Matthew E; Hamm, Jordan P; Goodie, Adam S; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A (2013). "Neural Correlates of Perceived Control and Risky Decision Making in Pathological Gamblers". Biological Psychology 92 (2): 365–372. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.11.015. PMID 23201037.
  27. Bensimon, M.; Baruch, A.; Ronel, N. (2013). "The experience of gambling in an illegal casino: The gambling spin process". European Journal of Criminology 10 (1): 3–21. doi:10.1177/1477370812455124.
  28. "The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers". American Journal of Psychiatry 144 (9): 1184–1188. September 1, 1987. doi:10.1176/ajp.144.9.1184. 
  29. "Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI". Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. 
  30. "Treatment Facilities | National Council on Problem Gambling". 
  31. "Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers". 
  32. Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A. (2008). "Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization". International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy 4 (2): 172–188. doi:10.1037/h0100841.
  33. Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Flannery, Kathryn A. (2007). "Facing the challenge: The behavior analysis of gambling". The Behavior Analyst Today 9 (2): 130–142. doi:10.1037/h0100652.
  34. "A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of paroxetine in the treatment of pathological gambling". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (6): 501–507. 2002. doi:10.4088/JCP.v63n0606. PMID 12088161.
  35. "Does sustained release lithium reduce impulsive gambling and affective instability versus placebo in pathological gamblers with bipolar spectrum disorders?". American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (1): 137–145. 2005. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.137. PMID 15625212.
  36. "Best Practice in Problem Gambling Services". Gambling Research Panel. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  37. Gehlenborg, Josefine; Bücker, Lara; Berthold, Mira; Miegel, Franziska; Moritz, Steffen (2020-09-21). "Feasibility, Acceptance, and Safety of Metacognitive Training for Problem and Pathological Gamblers (Gambling-MCT): A Pilot Study" (in en). Journal of Gambling Studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-020-09975-w. ISSN 1573-3602. PMID 32955694.
  38. Harvard Medical School (2004). "The Harvard mental health letter". Factiva 20 (9): 1. 
  39. "Minimal Intervention Approach to Problem Gambling". 
  40. Slutske, Wendy (February 2006). "Natural Recovery and Treatment-Seeking in Pathological Gambling: Results of Two U.S. National Surveys". American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (2): 297–302. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.297. PMID 16449485.
  41. Gainsbury, Sally M. (January 22, 2013). "Review of Self-exclusion from Gambling Venues as an Intervention for Problem Gambling". Journal of Gambling Studies 30 (2): 229–251. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9362-0. PMID 23338831.
  42. 'Nobody stopped me' at the casino: Ontario self-exclusion program fails to keep gambling addicts out
  43. Casino Industry in Asia Pacific: Development, Operation, and Impact, page 153
  44. Productivity Commission Inquiry Report, Gambling, Vol 1, 2010
  45. Christensen, Darren R.; Dowling, Nicki A.; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A. (2015-12-01). "Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity in a Stratified Random Survey: Findings from the Second Social and Economic Impact Study of Gambling in Tasmania". Journal of Gambling Studies 31 (4): 1317–1335. doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9495-9. ISSN 1573-3602. PMID 25167843.
  46. "Problem Gaming". European Gaming and Betting Association. 
  47. "British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007". National Centre for Social Research. September 2007. p. 10. 
  48. Pengespill og Pengespillproblem i Norge 2007 (Report). SINTEF. December 2007. p. 3. 
  49. "History of Problem Gambling Prevalence Rates". American Gaming Association. 
  50. National Opinion Research Center (April 1, 1999). "The Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Problems Among Adults". Gambling Impact and Behavior Study. National Gambling Impact Study Commission. p. 25. 
  51. Voberg, Rachel (March 22, 2002). Gambling and Problem Gambling in Nevada (Report). Nevada Department of Human Resources. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  52. Shaffer, Howard; Hall, Mathew; Vander Bilt, Joni (September 1999). "Estimating the Prevalence of Disordered Gambling Behavior in the United States and Canada: A Research Synthesis". American Journal of Public Health 89 (9): 1369–1377. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1369. PMID 10474555.
  53. Ladouceur, Robert (June 1996). "The Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in Canada". Journal of Gambling Studies 12 (2): 129–142. doi:10.1007/BF01539170. PMID 24233912.
  54. Weibe, Jamie; Mun, Phil; Kauffman, Nadine (September 2006). Gambling and Problem Gambling in Ontario (Report). Responsible Gambling Council. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  55. Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian; Chevalier, Serge; Sévigny, Serge; Hamel, Denis (July 2005). "Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in Quebec in 2002". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 50 (8): 451–456. doi:10.1177/070674370505000804. PMID 16127962. 
  57. "Hotel refurbishment market continues boom phase". Hotel Management. HM – The business of Accommodation. 11 January 2012. 
  58. Martin Young, Bruce Doran; Francis Markham (6 December 2013). "Too close to home: people who live near pokie venues at risk". The Conversation Australia. 
  59. "Statistics of Gambling Addiction 2016". 
  60. Productivity Commission Inquiry Report, Gambling, Vol 1, 2010, p. 203
  61. "America's Gambling Mania – Gamez Pop" (in en-US). 
Subjects: Others
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 510
Entry Collection: HandWiki
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 25 Nov 2022