Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 handwiki -- 582 2022-11-23 01:35:43

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
HandWiki. Hal Anger. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 24 June 2024).
HandWiki. Hal Anger. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "Hal Anger" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 24, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 23). Hal Anger. In Encyclopedia.
HandWiki. "Hal Anger." Encyclopedia. Web. 23 November, 2022.
Hal Anger
anger biophysicist electrical

1. Introduction

Hal Oscar Anger (May 20, 1920 – October 31, 2005)[1] was an United States electrical engineer and biophysicist at Donner Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, known for his invention of the gamma camera.[2]

In all, Anger held 15 patents, many of them for work at the Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. Anger received several awards in recognition of his inventions and their contributions to the field of nuclear medicine. Anger died in Berkeley, California.

2. Career

In 1957, he invented the scintillation camera, known also as the gamma camera or Anger camera. Anger also developed the well counter, widely used in laboratory tests to measure radioactivity in samples. Anger also developed a multi-plane tomographic radiation scanner using the Anger camera and a focussed radiation collimator.[2]

The first useful scintillation camera was developed by Anger at an AEC-funded laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley, California.[3] Consequently, the patent rights on the invention were owned by the U.S. Government. However, Anger's supervisors at the lab were well-connected with the head of the AEC, Glenn Seaborg, and prevailed on the AEC to release the patent rights to Anger personally. Anger retained patent counsel to file a U.S. patent application on his invention, and this application eventually matured into U.S. Patent 3,011,057, issued in November 1961. While his patent was pending, Anger tried unsuccessfully to interest nuclear instrument companies in taking a license on a non-exclusive basis to produce and sell the Anger camera. He eventually granted an exclusive license on the '057 patent to Nuclear-Chicago Corporation (NCC), in Des Plaines, Illinois. NCC successfully developed a commercially useful version of the Anger Camera and began marketing it to nuclear medical departments of hospitals in the United States. NCC's commercial sales of the Anger Camera grew substantially over the years and Anger became modestly wealthy from the royalties that he received under the exclusive license agreement. NCC was eventually acquired by G.D. Searle & Co, of Skokie, Illinois, and operated as a wholly owned subsidiary.[3]

Nuclear-Chicago Corporation's exclusivity on marketing the Anger scintillation camera was eventually challenged by the introduction of a competing version of the Anger camera by Picker Corporation. NCC and Anger sued Picker for infringement of the '057 patent, and Picker counterclaimed for invalidity of the '057 patent. Picker also filed a proceeding in the Atomic Energy Commission, challenging the legitimacy of the AEC's release of the patent rights to Anger, and requesting a compulsory license under the '057 patent. The AEC proceeding was decided in favor of Anger and NCC, and the patent infringement lawsuit was eventually settled by the grant of a sublicense agreement to Picker. Other competitors later emerged and further litigation on the '057 patent was initiated. NCC was eventually sold to Siemens Corporation and Siemens continued to develop the technology of the Anger Camera and to market the device worldwide.[4]

3. Philanthropy

In 2006, the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Education and Research Foundation received $6 million from the Hal Anger Estate, the largest gift ever received for advancing the field of nuclear medicine, leading to the development of a Hal Anger Prize and Lecture.[5]

Further Reading
In this part, we encourage you to list the link of papers wrote by the character, or published reviews/articles about his/her academic contributions. Edit


  1. "Anger, Gamma Camera Inventor, dies at 85". CBS News Online. November 13, 2005. Archived from the original on 25 June 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  2. "Nuclear Medicine Pioneer Hal O. Anger, 1920-2005". Molecular imaging news. Society of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 10 November 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  3. Tapscott, Eleanore (2005). "Nuclear Medicine Pioneer, Hal O. Anger, 1920–2005" (PDF). Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 33 (4). 
  4. Mitchell, William Gordon (1988). "3. Nuclear medical instrument research and commercialization". Dynamic commercialization: Organizing economic analysis of innovation in the medical diagnostic imaging industry (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of California at Berkeley. pp. 16–19. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  5. "SNM Committee Report, September 2010". SNM Awards Committee. 
Name: Hal Anger
Born: May 1920
Died: Oct 2005
Denver, Colorado
Titles: Engineer Biophysicist
Affiliation: Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
Honors: John Scott Award in 1964 for the development of the positron camera Guggenheim Fellowship, 1966 Gesellschaft fur Medizin, 1971 honorary doctorate in science, Ohio State University, 1972 Nuclear Medicine Pioneer Citation, SNM, 1974 Modern Medicine Award for Distinguished Achievement, 1975 SNM First Western Regional award for distinguished contributions to nuclear medicine, 1976 Centennial Year Medal, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1984 Societé Française de Biophysique et Médecine Nucléaire Medal, 1988 Georg de Hevesy Memorial Medal, Vienna, 1991 and Honorary Member and Fellow, American College of Nuclear Physicians, 1992
Subjects: Others
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 666
Entry Collection: HandWiki
Revision: 1 time (View History)
Update Date: 23 Nov 2022
Video Production Service