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Rossetto, A.G.D.M.;  Sega, C.;  Leithardt, V.R.Q. Blockchain and Smart Contracts. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33759 (accessed on 16 April 2024).
Rossetto AGDM,  Sega C,  Leithardt VRQ. Blockchain and Smart Contracts. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33759. Accessed April 16, 2024.
Rossetto, Anubis Graciela De Moraes, Christofer Sega, Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt. "Blockchain and Smart Contracts" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33759 (accessed April 16, 2024).
Rossetto, A.G.D.M.,  Sega, C., & Leithardt, V.R.Q. (2022, November 09). Blockchain and Smart Contracts. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/33759
Rossetto, Anubis Graciela De Moraes, et al. "Blockchain and Smart Contracts." Encyclopedia. Web. 09 November, 2022.
Blockchain and Smart Contracts
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With the fast development of blockchain technology in the latest years, its application in scenarios that require privacy, such as health area, have become encouraged and widely discussed. An architecture to ensure the privacy of health-related data, which are stored and shared within a blockchain network in a decentralized manner, through the use of encryption with the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithms.

blockchain cryptography DApp health data

1. Introduction

Several advances related to blockchain technology have been recently consolidated, notably: the advent of blockchain 2.0, the blockchain network Ethereum (major programmable and public blockchain), the Hyperledger Fabric (private and permissioned blockchain), the improvement of smart contracts and the use of encryption on the data flowing through the blockchain, such as Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) [1]. As a result, it has become possible to develop ways to ensure the privacy, integrity, and access control of the data within within a specific application in various scenarios and solutions as described [2][3].
According to Nakamoto [4], the data is publicly visible to everyone on the blockchain network. Consequently, it is important that this information is encrypted before being stored to ensure the confidentiality of the data and to keep the content private, helping to reduce the risk of the pseudonym being linked to the the real identity of the blockchain user, which is crucial to promote sharing based on the need-to-know. In addition, blockchain makes it possible to ensure that data cannot be deleted or tampered with [5].
To ensure privacy, in some cases it is necessary to use cryptography, which has several techniques and algorithms that can be used to implement the security it provides. Another aspect that must be considered is the identification of the type of cryptography that best satisfies the problem of ensuring the security of the data that will be stored in the blockchain. Among several examples of applications and scenarios, is the control of access to information such as medical diagnoses, test results, and other confidential, vital, and sensitive information to the patient should be under his responsibility, because in a centralized environment the patient has no control over the stored data, as only the institution that stores it. In this way, as pointed out in Ref. [6], the user does not know if his information may be made available to, for example, an insurance company that may not accept to perform certain coverage due to this improper disclosure of data.
Faced with the challenges of health data security, blockchain technology can significantly contribute in terms of user authentication, access control, and data privacy, as well as enabling the development of decentralized application (DApp). DApps run in a distributed way, that is, they do not need a central entity to coordinate the tasks [7]. Therefore, they prevent “data owners” from having to trust whoever centralizes the data and their ability to prevent private information leaks. The management of data privacy based on rules, parameters, and user definitions, and the computing environment, is based on the work developed in [8][9][10][11].
The motivation for this project came from papers that address the blockchain scenario, such as the papers of Zhang, Xue, and Li [5], Shi et al. [6], Dasgupta, Shrein, and Gupta [12] and Feng et al. [13]. These works point to healthcare-oriented systems as a potential to be researched, especially with the privacy layer. In this sense, this work presents a decentralized architecture, leaving the responsibility of the documents to the users, in order to guarantee the privacy of the data related to the health area that are stored inside a blockchain network and in the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS), through the use of cryptography with the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ECC, and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithms. Evaluation tests were also conducted to verify the impact of encryption on the architecture, considering the criteria of cost, memory usage, and runtime.

2. Blockchain and Smart Contracts

Blockchain was originally introduced, or received more recognition, when Nakamoto in his work proposed a financial system using blockchain to record all transfers of the digital currency Bitcoin securely and reliably [13]. This technology is a decentralized, distributed, and immutable ledger, consisting of a collection of records that are cryptographically linked. Such a collection is better known as a blockchain that stores transactions or events [14]. This ledger is shared with all participating members (nodes) of the blockchain network.
Transactions that are performed between members of a blockchain must be approved by the mining nodes before they can be confirmed and added to the blockchain network. Thus, to start the mining process, the transaction is transmitted to all nodes in the network and the nodes that are miners will organize the transactions into a block, verify the transactions in the block, and transmit the block and its verification using a consensus protocol, for example Proof of Work (POW), to get the network’s approval [5]. Once the other nodes have verified that all the transactions contained in the block are valid, the block can be added to the blockchain via a cryptographic hash function that connects the blocks in the framework, where the hash of the n block is linked to the hash of the n + 1 block [15].
Among the features of blockchain, the most important ones according to Hewa, Ylianttila, and Liyanage [14] are:
  • Decentralization: grants authority to network members, ensuring redundancy in contrast to centralized systems operated by a trusted third party. Decentralization reduces the risk of failures and ultimately improves service reliability with guaranteed availability;
  • Immutability: the transaction records in the ledger, distributed among the nodes, are permanent and unchangeable. Immutability is a feature that differs from centralized database systems. The records are resistant to computational tampering with the existence of cryptographic links;
  • Cryptographic Link: the cryptographic link between each record is sorted in chronological order, building an integrity chain across the blockchain. The digital signature verifies the integrity of each record using hashing techniques and asymmetric key cryptography. Violating the integrity of the blockchain record or transaction ultimately renders the record and the block invalid.
Blockchain security is part of the advances in cryptography and blockchain design and implementation (Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc.). Blockchains have been made proposals over time to improve the efficiency of the cryptographic blockchain, for example, incorporating Merkle trees and putting multiple documents in a block [5]. The blockchain was built to guarantee several features regarding security, such as consistency, tamper resistance, pseudo-anonymity, and resistance to double-spend and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. However, even with the current level of security that blockchain can provide, in some scenarios additional security and privacy properties are still lacking [5].
Smart contracts can be thought of as a program that is executed when predetermined conditions are met (self-executing) and is deployed on the blockchain, and can be used in financial services, healthcare, and government. It is capable of supporting complex programmable functions and mechanisms to automate agreements and other types of [6] flows. This type of contract, which can be used on the blockchain, allows the parties to make use of it to create trusted virtual third parties who have behaved according to the rules agreed upon between them, thus allowing the creation of complex protocols with a very low risk of noncompliance [16].
In the Ethereum blockchain network, smart contracts are formally developed into high-level code via Solidity (a contract-oriented programming language similar to JavaScript) and are compiled to be executed by the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). In the concept of Solidity, smart contracts are a set of code, data, functions, and states, which are at a specific address on the Ethereum blockchain network [17].
For an account to interact with a contract or for interactions to occur between contracts, the name and arguments of the function must be known. This gives rise to the Application Binary Interface (ABI), which is a list of the functions and arguments of the contract organized in a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format, as soon as it is compiled. The ABI is then used to hash the function definition and then create the EVM bytecode needed to call the function [18].

References

  1. Shanthakumari, R.; Malliga, S. Dual layer security of data using LSB inversion image steganography with elliptic curve cryptography encryption algorithm. Multimed. Tools Appl. 2020, 79, 3975–3991.
  2. Chang, A.J.; El-Rayes, N.; Shi, J. Blockchain Technology for Supply Chain Management: A Comprehensive Review. FinTech 2022, 1, 191–205.
  3. Sega, C.L.; Rossetto, A.G.d.M.; Correia, S.D.; Leithardt, V.R.Q. An architectural proposal to protect the privacy of health data stored in the Blockchain. In Proceedings of the 2022 17th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Madrid, Spain, 22–25 June 2022; pp. 1–6.
  4. Nakamoto, S. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Decentralized Bus. Rev. 2008, 9.
  5. Zhang, R.; Xue, R.; Liu, L. Security and Privacy on Blockchain. ACM Comput. Surv. 2019, 52, 1–34.
  6. Shi, S.; He, D.; Li, L.; Kumar, N.; Khan, M.K.; Choo, K.K.R. Applications of blockchain in ensuring the security and privacy of electronic health record systems: A survey. Comput. Secur. 2020, 97, 101966.
  7. Tang, X.; Guo, H.; Li, H.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, J.; Cheng, J. A DAPP Business Data Storage Model Based on Blockchain and IPFS. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Security, Qinghai, China, 22–26 July 2021; pp. 219–230.
  8. Sestrem Ochôa, I.; Silva, L.A.; de Mello, G.; Alves da Silva, B.; de Paz, J.F.; Villarrubia González, G.; Garcia, N.M.; Reis Quietinho Leithardt, V. PRICHAIN: A Partially Decentralized Implementation of UbiPri Middleware Using Blockchain. Sensors 2019, 19, 4483.
  9. Cesconetto, J.; Augusto Silva, L.; Bortoluzzi, F.; Navarro-Cáceres, M.A.; Zeferino, C.; R. Q. Leithardt, V. PRIPRO—Privacy Profiles: User Profiling Management for Smart Environments. Electronics 2020, 9, 1519.
  10. Lopes, H.; Pires, I.M.; Sánchez San Blas, H.; García-Ovejero, R.; Leithardt, V. PriADA: Management and Adaptation of Information Based on Data Privacy in Public Environments. Computers 2020, 9, 77.
  11. Pereira, F.; Crocker, P.; Leithardt, V.R. PADRES: Tool for PrivAcy, Data REgulation and Security. SoftwareX 2022, 17, 100895.
  12. Dasgupta, D.; Shrein, J.M.; Gupta, K.D. A survey of blockchain from security perspective. J. Bank. Financ. Technol. 2019, 3, 1–17.
  13. Feng, Q.; He, D.; Zeadally, S.; Khan, M.K.; Kumar, N. A survey on privacy protection in blockchain system. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 2019, 126, 45–58.
  14. Hewa, T.; Ylianttila, M.; Liyanage, M. Survey on blockchain based smart contracts: Applications, opportunities and challenges. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 2021, 177, 102857.
  15. Sestrem Ochôa, I.; Mello, G.; Silva, L.; Gomes, A.; Fernandes, A.; Leithardt, V. FakeChain: A Blockchain Architecture to Ensure Trust in Social Media Networks. In Quality of Information and Communications Technology; Springer International Publishing: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2019; pp. 105–118.
  16. Kalodner, H.; Goldfeder, S.; Chen, X.; Weinberg, S.M.; Felten, E.W. Arbitrum: Scalable, private smart contracts. In Proceedings of the 27th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 18), Baltimore, MD, USA, 15–17 August 2018; USENIX Association: Baltimore, MD, USA, 2018; pp. 1353–1370.
  17. Ethereum. Introduction to Smart Contracts. 2021. Available online: https://docs.soliditylang.org/en/develop/introduction-to-smart-contracts.html (accessed on 14 May 2022).
  18. Ethereum. Contract ABI Specification. 2021. Available online: https://docs.soliditylang.org/en/develop/abi-spec.html (accessed on 14 May 2022).
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