Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1193 2022-11-07 10:17:42 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1193 2022-11-08 09:40:07 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Zhang, H.;  Li, C.;  Li, Y.;  Pang, J.;  Bu, X. Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 24 June 2024).
Zhang H,  Li C,  Li Y,  Pang J,  Bu X. Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 24, 2024.
Zhang, Hao, Cha Li, Yang Li, Jiandong Pang, Xianhe Bu. "Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 24, 2024).
Zhang, H.,  Li, C.,  Li, Y.,  Pang, J., & Bu, X. (2022, November 07). Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs. In Encyclopedia.
Zhang, Hao, et al. "Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs." Encyclopedia. Web. 07 November, 2022.
Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs

Since the advent of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), researchers have paid extensive attention to MOFs due to their determined structural composition, controllable pore size, and diverse physical and chemical properties. Reasonable internal modification and structure optimization of MOFs may not only make the photosensitive units orderly, but also shorten the distance between the photosensitive units and the catalytic centers, so as to improve the efficiency of photogenerated electrons separation and accelerate the rate of hydrogen evolution.

metal–organic frameworks photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

1. Introduction

Since the 21st century, the world energy crisis has become increasingly urgent mainly due to the growing shortage of non-renewable energy reserves such as coal, oil, and natural gas [1][2][3]. It is crucial to find clean renewable energy, especially one that can be produced on an industrial scale [4][5]. Hydrogen (H2) is regarded as one of the most ideal substitutes for carbon-based energy sources because of its high calorific value and lack of pollution from its combustion products [6][7]. At present, the electrocatalytic decomposition of water is mostly used in industrial hydrogen production, but this undoubtedly brings a large amount of waste of electrical energy [8][9]. As solar energy is inexhaustible, it would be a satisfactory advantage to fully utilize and convert solar energy to catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction [10][11]. In the early days of this field, some complexes of precious metals were explored as photosensitizers. Although they were highly capable of capturing light, these complexes were too expensive to meet the economic principle [12][13][14], which promoted the researchers to develop some low-cost materials.
With the continuous in-depth research of the theory and practice of photoelectric chemistry, a multitude of semiconductor materials with superb light trapping abilities emerged, such as CdS [15][16][17][18][19], TiO2 [20][21], C3N4 [22][23][24][25], etc. However, these classical semiconductor materials also had some inevitable shortcomings and deficiencies, despite that they were generally low toxicity, cheap, and easy to synthesize. In the case of CdS, serious photocorrosion would occur in the process of photocatalysis, which reduced the available components and made it difficult to maintain a high efficiency catalysis for a long-term reaction [26][27][28]. As far as TiO2 was concerned, it mainly absorbed ultraviolet light and was not sensitive to visible light, which was obviously not the optimal way to utilize solar energy [29][30]. C3N4 did not have the above-mentioned disadvantages as a kind of novel organic semiconductor material, but its apparent quantum yields (AQYs) in photocatalysis were not satisfactory, usually no more than 10% [31][32]. Therefore, it is a prerequisite for researchers to make unremitting efforts to extend such semiconductor materials from design to practice.
In the past three decades, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted the attention of many chemists due to their controllable pore size, redox ability of central ions, and changeful ligands [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Many literature reports in the fields of gas separation and adsorption [45][46][47][48], fluorescence recognition [49][50][51][52], electrocatalysis [53][54][55], and photocatalysis [56][57][58] have confirmed this hotspot. In the aspect of photocatalytic (hydrogen evolution reaction) HER, MOFs are particularly outstanding, and the orientations are mainly focused on the following three aspects. Firstly, the ligands and central ions of MOFs usually play various roles in the photocatalytic process, which makes reasonable design and adjustment of internal structures become one of the most common modification methods for MOFs. Secondly, the integration of MOFs and other types of materials is one of the frequent techniques, which can not only make full use of the stable skeleton of MOFs, but also make the supported substances evenly dispersed to improve the utilization of the cocatalyst. Thirdly, MOFs can be appointed as precursors to synthesize and prepare some substances with special morphology or composition. These corresponding measures give MOFs and their derivatives or composites better development potential and vitality in the field of photocatalytic HER for practical application.

2. Internal Modification and Structure Optimization of MOFs

Reasonable internal modification and structure optimization of MOFs may not only make the photosensitive units orderly, but also shorten the distance between the photosensitive units and the catalytic centers, so as to improve the efficiency of photogenerated electrons separation and accelerate the rate of hydrogen evolution [59][60].
Jiang et al. proposed a facile strategy for the construction of a deployable coordination microenvironment based on MOFs [61]. In this work, the earth-abundant metals (such as Ni2+, Co2+, and Cu2+) were fixed to the Zr6-oxo cluster in the form of single-atom catalysts (SACs) via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted method. The adjacent -O/OHx groups in the Zr6-oxo cluster of MOFs provided the lone pair electrons and the charge balance to anchor the additional single metal atoms. The atomically dispersed metal site was in close proximity to the photosensitive unit (the linker), which greatly accelerated the transfer of photogenerated electrons and thus facilitated the redox reactions. Therefore, the optimized Ni1-S/MOF had a unique Ni(I) microenvironment and exhibited excellent photocatalytic H2 evolution performance, which was 270 times higher than that of the pure MOF and far exceeded the other Ni1-X/MOF counterparts. This work unequivocally demonstrated the great advantage of MOFs in preparing high-content SACs with the proximity of variable microenvironments to photosensitive junctions, thereby promoting electrons transfer and facilitating photocatalysis.
In another example of structure optimization of MOFs, Jiang et al. discussed the role of linker engineering in MOFs for dark photocatalysis [62]. The dynamic and thermodynamic investigations manifested that the generation and the lifetime of Ti3+ intermediates were the most critical factors affecting their properties, due to the electron-donating/-withdrawing effect of the functional groups. The time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation indicated that the introduction of an electron-donating group was beneficial, which helped to lengthen the distance between the photogenerated electrons and holes and improved the separation of these pairs. According to the investigation, this was the first study to systematically regulate the dark photocatalytic hydrogen production process of MOFs-based materials. The relevant works gave a new reference to the lifetime adjustment of electron relay for enhancing the dark photocatalysis.
The stripping of MOFs single crystals into 2D layered materials could increase the surface area and shorten the transfer path of electrons, which was regarded as an excellent medication method. Zhang and his co-authors [63] reported a water-stable nickel-based MOF single crystal (Ni-TBAPy-SC) and its exfoliated nanobelts (Ni-TBAPy-NB), which could bear a wide range of pH environments. The optimized hydrogen production rate of Ni-TBAPy-NB could reach 98 μmol·h−1 (5 mmol·h−1·g−1) with an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 8.0% at 420 nm, which was 164 times higher than that of Ni-TBAPy-SC. Based on the DFT calculations, the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the H4TBAPy to the [Ni3O16] cluster was thermodynamically permissible. In addition, both the reduced [Ni3O16] and [Ni3O16] cluster had excellent properties of water absorption. In another report about 2D MOFs, Duan et al. [64] synthesized 2D indium-based porphyrin MOF cubic nanosheets (2D In-TCCP NS) via a surfactant-assisted method. The 2D In-TCCP NS showed great chemical stability in the range of 2-11 in acidic and basic solutions. In the photocatalytic tests, the 2D In-TCCP NS exhibited a hydrogen evolution rate of 67.97 μmol·g−1·h−1, which was 11.5 times higher than that of 3D In-TCCP bulk (5.87 μmol·g−1·h−1). It was worth noting that there was not an obvious activity decrease after 40 h of photocatalysis, which reflected the practical commercial application.


  1. Tian, D.; Denny, S.; Li, K.; Wang, H.; Kattel, S.; Chen, J. Density functional theory studies of transition metal carbides and nitrides as electrocatalysts. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2021, 50, 12338.
  2. Guerra, O.; Eichman, J.; Denholm, P. Optimal energy storage portfolio for high and ultrahigh carbon-free and renewable power systems. Energy Environ. Sci. 2021, 14, 5132.
  3. Lv, J.; Xie, J.; Mohamed, A.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y. Photoelectrochemical energy storage materials: Design principles and functional devices towards direct solar to electrochemical energy storage. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2022, 51, 1511.
  4. Luo, Q.; Liu, P.; Fu, L.; Hu, Y.; Yang, L.; Wu, W.; Kong, X.; Jiang, L.; Wen, L. Engineered Cellulose Nanofiber Membranes with Ultrathin Low-Dimensional Carbon Material Layers for Photothermal-Enhanced Osmotic Energy Conversion. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 13223–13230.
  5. Chen, Z.; Mian, M.R.; Lee, S.-J.; Chen, H.; Zhang, X.; Kirlikovali, K.O.; Shulda, S.; Melix, P.; Rosen, A.S.; Parilla, P.A.; et al. Fine-Tuning a Robust Metal-Organic Framework toward Enhanced Clean Energy Gas Storage. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 18838–18843.
  6. Lin, B.; Ma, B.; Chen, J.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, J.; Yan, X.; Xue, C.; Luo, X.; Liu, Q.; Wang, J.; et al. Sea-urchin-like ReS2 nanosheets with charge edge-collection effect as a novel cocatalyst for high-efficiency photocatalytic H2 evolution. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2022, 33, 943–947.
  7. Alves, H.; Frachoni, B.; Nunes, B.; Teixeira, P.; Paniago, R.; Bahnemann, D.; Paterno, L.; Patrocinio, A. Highly Stable Au/Hexaniobate Nanocomposite Prepared by a Green Intercalation Method for Photoinduced H2 Evolution Applications. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022, 5, 8371–8380.
  8. Bui, V.; Kumar, A.; Bui, H.; Lee, J.; Hwang, Y.; Le, H.; Kawazoe, Y.; Lee, H. Boosting Electrocatalytic HER Activity of 3D Interconnected CoSP via Metal Doping: Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for pH-Universal Hydrogen Generation. Chem. Mater. 2020, 32, 9591–9601.
  9. Sun, Z.; Liang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, B. Boosting Electrocatalytic Hydrogen-Evolving Activity of Co/CoO Heterostructured Nanosheets via Coupling Photogenerated Carriers with Photothermy. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 11206–11210.
  10. Jiang, L.; Guo, Y.; Qi, S.; Zhang, K.; Chen, J.; Lou, Y.; Zhao, Y. Amorphous NiCoB-coupled MAPbI3 for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Dalton Trans. 2021, 50, 17960.
  11. Su, H.; Rao, C.; Zhou, L.; Pang, Y.; Lou, H.; Yang, D.; Qiu, X. Mo-Doped/Ni-supported ZnIn2S4-wrapped NiMoO4 S-scheme heterojunction photocatalytic reforming of lignin into hydrogen. Green Chem. 2022, 24, 2027.
  12. Soltau, S.; Niklas, J.; Dahlberg, P.; Poluektov, O.; Tiede, D.; Mulfort, K.; Utschig, L. Aqueous light driven hydrogen production by a Ru–ferredoxin–Co biohybrid. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 10628–10631.
  13. Yuan, Y.; Yu, Z.; Chen, D.; Zou, Z. Metal-complex chromophores for solar hydrogen generation. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2017, 46, 603.
  14. Zhang, P.; Jacques, P.; Chavarot-Kerlidou, M.; Wang, M.; Sun, L.; Fontecave, M.; Artero, V. Phosphine Coordination to a Cobalt Diimine−Dioxime Catalyst Increases Stability during Light-Driven H2 Production. Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 2115–2120.
  15. Luan, X.; Dai, H.; Li, Q.; Xu, F.; Mai, Y. A Hybrid Photocatalyst Composed of CdS Nanoparticles and Graphene Nanoribbons for Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Production. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022, 5, 8621–8628.
  16. Zhang, J.; Cai, P.; Lin, J. Modulation of the Band Bending of CdS by Fluorination to Facilitate Photoinduced Electron Transfer for Efficient H2 Evolution over Pt/CdS. J. Phys. Chem. C 2022, 126, 7896–7902.
  17. Xie, X.; Wang, R.; Ma, Y.; Chen, J.; Shi, Z.; Cui, Q.; Li, Z.; Xu, C. Sulfate-Functionalized Core−Shell ZnO/CdS/Ag2S Nanorod Arrays with Dual-Charge-Transfer Channels for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022, 5, 6228–6237.
  18. Yang, Y.; Wu, J.; Cheng, B.; Zhang, L.; Al-Ghamdi, A.; Wageh, S.; Li, Y. Enhanced Photocatalytic H2-production Activity of CdS Nanoflower using Single Atom Pt and Graphene Quantum Dot as Dual Cocatalysts. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2206006–2206014.
  19. Gao, R.; He, H.; Bai, J.; Hao, L.; Shen, R.; Zhang, P.; Li, Y.; Li, X. Pyrene-benzothiadiazole-based Polymer/CdS 2D/2D Organic/Inorganic Hybrid S-scheme Heterojunction for Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Evolution. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2206031–2206038.
  20. Sahoo, S.; Mansingh, S.; Babu, P.; Parida, K. Black titania an emerging photocatalyst: Review highlighting the synthesis techniques and photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. Nanoscale Adv. 2021, 3, 5487.
  21. Liu, J.; Li, D.; Liu, X.; Zhou, J.; Zhao, H.; Wang, N.; Cui, Z.; Bai, J.; Zhao, Y. TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction hollow porous nanofibers as superior visible-light photocatalysts for H2 evolution and dye degradation. N. J. Chem. 2021, 45, 22123.
  22. Pan, Y.; Xiong, B.; Li, Z.; Wu, Y.; Yan, C.; Song, H. In situ constructed oxygen-vacancy-rich MoO3-x/ porous g-C3N4 heterojunction for synergistically enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution. RSC Adv. 2021, 11, 31219.
  23. Huang, D.; Sun, X.; Liu, Y.; Ji, H.; Liu, W.; Wang, C.; Ma, W.; Cai, Z. A carbon-rich g-C3N4 with promoted charge separation for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2021, 32, 2787–2791.
  24. Hu, Y.; Li, X.; Wang, W.; Deng, F.; Han, L.; Gao, X.; Feng, Z.; Chen, Z.; Huang, J.; Zeng, F. Bi and S Co-doping g-C3N4 to Enhance Internal Electric Field for Robust Photocatalytic Degradation and H2 Production. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2206069–2206078.
  25. Tao, S.; Wan, S.; Huang, Q.; Li, C.; Yu, J.; Cao, S. Molecular Engineering of g-C3N4 with Dibenzothiophene Groups as Electron Donor for Enhanced Photocatalytic H2-Production. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2206048–2206054.
  26. Tang, Y.; Hu, X.; Liu, C. Perfect inhibition of CdS photocorrosion by graphene sheltering engineering on TiO2 nanotube array for highly stable photocatalytic activity. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 16, 25321.
  27. Zhang, H.; Zhu, H.; Zhao, H.; Dou, M.; Yin, X.; Yang, H.; Li, D.; Dou, J. A novel dinuclear cobalt-bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex as a cocatalyst to enhance visible-light-driven H2 evolution on CdS nanorods and a mechanism discussion. J. Photoch. Photobio. A 2022, 426, 113771.
  28. Chen, S.; Huang, D.; Xu, P.; Xue, W.; Lei, L.; Cheng, M.; Wang, R.; Liu, X.; Deng, R. Semiconductor-based photocatalysts for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting: Will we stop with photocorrosion? J. Mater. Chem. A 2020, 8, 2286.
  29. Chen, R.; Jiang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Luo, Y. Intermediate Complex-Mediated Interfacial Electron Transfer in a Radical Dianion/TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Photocatalytic System. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2022, 13, 8091–8096.
  30. Yuan, C.; Shen, Y.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, P.; Yang, F.; Liu, J.; An, C. Ru Single-Atom Decorated Black TiO2 Nanosheets for Efficient Solar-Driven Hydrogen Production. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2022, 10, 10311–10317.
  31. Liu, Y.; Shen, C.; Jiang, N.; Zhao, Z.; Zhou, X.; Zhao, S.; Xu, A. g-C3N4 Hydrogen-Bonding Viologen for Significantly Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Evolution. ACS Catal. 2017, 7, 8228–8234.
  32. Hong, I.; Chen, Y.; Hsu, Y.; Yong, K. Triple-Channel Charge Transfer over W18O49/Au/g-C3N4 Z-Scheme Photocatalysts for Achieving Broad-Spectrum Solar Hydrogen Production. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 52670–52680.
  33. Wang, S.; Lan, H.; Guan, G.; Yang, Q. Amino-Functionalized Microporous MOFs for Capturing Greenhouse Gases CF4 and NF3 with Record Selectivity. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 40072–40081.
  34. Tarasi, S.; Ramazani, A.; Ramazani, A.; Hu, M.; Ghafghazi, S.; Tarasi, R.; Ahmadi, Y. Drug Delivery Using Hydrophilic Metal−Organic Frameworks (MOFs): Effect of Structure Properties of MOFs on Biological Behavior of Carriers. Inorg. Chem. 2022, 61, 13125–13132.
  35. Wang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zong, M.; Xu, J.; Wang, D.; Bu, X. Energy Level Engineering: Ru Single Atom Anchored on Mo-MOF with a 4− Structure Acts as a Biomimetic Photocatalyst. ACS Catal. 2022, 12, 7960–7974.
  36. Kaushal, S.; Kaur, G.; Kaur, J.; Singh, P. First transition series metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, properties and applications. Mater. Adv. 2021, 2, 7308.
  37. Li, K.; Yang, J.; Gu, J. Hierarchically Porous MOFs Synthesized by Soft-Template Strategies. Acc. Chem. Res. 2022, 55, 2235–2247.
  38. Hao, J.; Geng, L.; Zheng, J.; Wei, J.; Zhang, L.; Feng, R.; Zhao, J.; Li, Q.; Pang, J.; Bu, X. Ligand Induced Double-Chair Conformation Ln12 Nanoclusters Showing Multifunctional Magnetic and Proton Conductive Properties. Inorg. Chem. 2022, 61, 3690–3696.
  39. Zhang, Y.; Xu, X.; Yan, B. A multicolor-switchable fluorescent lanthanide MOFs triggered by anti-cancer drugs: Multifunctional platform for anti-cancer drug sensing and information anticounterfeiting. J. Mater. Chem. C 2022, 10, 3576.
  40. Sharp, C.; Bukowski, B.; Li, H.; Johnson, E.; Ilic, S.; Morris, A.; Gersappe, D.; Snurr, R.; Morris, J. Nanoconfinement and mass transport in metal-organic frameworks. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2021, 50, 11530.
  41. Sun, Z.; Liao, Y.; Zhao, S.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Q.; Shi, X. Research progress in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in CO2 capture from post-combustion coalfired flue gas: Characteristics, preparation, modification and applications. J. Mater. Chem. A 2022, 10, 5174.
  42. Zeeshan, M.; Shahid, M. State of the art developments and prospects of metal–organic frameworks for energy applications. Dalton Trans. 2022, 51, 1675.
  43. Li, T.; Jia, X.; Chen, H.; Chang, Z.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, J. Tuning the Pore Environment of MOFs toward Efficient CH4/N2 Separation under Humid Conditions. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 15830–15839.
  44. Lisensky, G.; Yaghi, O. Visualizing Pore Packing and Topology in MOFs. J. Chem. Educ. 2022, 99, 1998–2004.
  45. Ahmad, M.; Castro-Muñoz, R.; Budd, P. Boosting gas separation performance and suppressing the physical aging of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) by nanomaterial blending. Nanoscale 2020, 12, 23333.
  46. Xia, Y.; Wang, C.; Yu, M.; Bu, X. A unique 3D microporous MOF constructed by cross-linking 1D coordination polymer chains for effectively selective separation of CO2/CH4 and C2H2/CH4. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2021, 32, 1153–1156.
  47. Qiao, Y.; Chang, X.; Zheng, J.; Yi, M.; Chang, Z.; Yu, M.; Bu, X. Self-Interpenetrated Water-Stable Microporous Metal−Organic Framework toward Storage and Purification of Light Hydrocarbons. Inorg. Chem. 2021, 60, 2749–2755.
  48. Meng, M.; Liu, X.; Li, N.; Zhao, J.; Chang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Bu, X. Structural Transformation and Spatial Defect Formation of a Co(II) MOF Triggered by Varied Metal-Center Coordination Configuration. Inorg. Chem. 2020, 59, 9005–9013.
  49. Yin, J.; Chang, Z.; Li, N.; He, J.; Fu, Z.; Bu, X. Efficient Regulation of Energy Transfer in a Multicomponent Dye-Loaded MOF for White-Light Emission Tuning. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 51589–51597.
  50. Gupta, M.; Zhu, Z.; Kottilil, D.; Rath, B.; Tian, W.; Tan, Z.; Liu, X.; Xu, Q.; Ji, W.; Vittal, J. Impact of the Structural Modification of Diamondoid Cd(II) MOFs on the Nonlinear Optical Properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 60163–60172.
  51. Liu, L.; Chen, Q.; Lv, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, K.; Li, J. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks for Fluorescent Detection of Tetracycline Antibiotics. Inorg. Chem. 2022, 61, 8015–8021.
  52. Yang, Y.; Xu, S.; Gan, Y.; Zhang, B.; Chen, L. Recent Progresses in Lanthanide Metal-organic Frameworks (Ln-MOFs) as Chemical Sensors for Ions, Antibiotics and Amino Acids. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2211045–2211070.
  53. Jin, S. How to Effectively Utilize MOFs for Electrocatalysis. ACS Energy Lett. 2019, 4, 1443–1445.
  54. Dou, S.; Li, X.; Wang, X. Rational Design of Metal−Organic Frameworks towards Efficient Electrocatalysis. ACS Materials Lett. 2020, 2, 1251–1267.
  55. Hou, X.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhou, J.; Xie, H.; Liu, Z.; Chu, L.; Huang, M. Coupling of NiFe-Based Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheet Arrays with Embedded Fe-Ni3S2 Clusters as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2207074–2207080.
  56. Xia, T.; Lin, Y.; Li, W.; Ju, M. Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by MOFs based materials: A review. Chin. Chem. Lett. 2021, 32, 1153–1156.
  57. Kim, H.; Kim, N.; Ryu, J. Porous framework-based hybrid materials for solar-to-chemical energy conversion: From powder photocatalysts to photoelectrodes. Inorg. Chem. Front. 2021, 8, 4107.
  58. Zhang, H.; Sun, R.; Li, D.; Dou, J. A Review on Crystalline Porous MOFs Materials in Photocatalytic Transformations of Organic Compounds in Recent Three Years. Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2022, 41, 2211071–2211083.
  59. Unnikrishnan, V.; Zabihi, O.; Ahmadi, M.; Li, Q.; Blanchard, P.; Kiziltas, A.; Naebe, M. Metal-organic framework structure-property relationships for high-performance multifunctional polymer nanocomposite applications. J. Mater. Chem. A 2021, 9, 4348.
  60. Li, X.; Rajasree, S.; Yu, J.; Deria, P. The role of photoinduced charge transfer for photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and luminescence sensing in metal-organic frameworks. Dalton Trans. 2020, 49, 12892.
  61. Ma, X.; Liu, H.; Yang, W.; Mao, G.; Zheng, L.; Jiang, H. Modulating Coordination Environment of Single-Atom Catalysts and Their Proximity to Photosensitive Units for Boosting MOF Photocatalysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 12220–12229.
  62. Pan, Y.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.; Yang, W.; Ding, C.; Waseem, A.; Jiang, H. Linker engineering in metal-organic frameworks for dark photocatalysis. Chem. Sci. 2022, 13, 6696.
  63. Liu, L.; Du, S.; Guo, X.; Xiao, Y.; Yin, Z.; Yang, N.; Bao, Y.; Zhu, X.; Jin, S.; Feng, Z.; et al. Water-Stable Nickel Metal-Organic Framework Nanobelts for Cocatalyst-Free Photocatalytic Water Splitting to Produce Hydrogen. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2022, 144, 2747–2754.
  64. Zhang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Niu, B.; Liu, B.; Li, J.; Duan, W. Ultra-stable two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks for photocatalytic H2 production. Nanoscale 2022, 14, 7146.
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , ,
View Times: 343
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 08 Nov 2022
Video Production Service