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Xu, H. Proto-Iroquoian. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 06 December 2023).
Xu H. Proto-Iroquoian. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 06, 2023.
Xu, Handwiki. "Proto-Iroquoian" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 06, 2023).
Xu, H.(2022, October 27). Proto-Iroquoian. In Encyclopedia.
Xu, Handwiki. "Proto-Iroquoian." Encyclopedia. Web. 27 October, 2022.

Proto-Iroquoian is the name given to the hypothetical proto-language of the Iroquoian languages. Lounsbury (1961) estimated from glottochronology a time depth of 3,500 to 3,800 years for the split of South and North Iroquoian. At the time of first European contact, speakers of Iroquoian languages ranged from the Cherokee in the Great Smoky Mountains, to the Tuscarora and Nottoway near the modern Virginia/North Carolina border, then further north the Five Nations in Upstate New York and the Huron and Neutral in modern-day Ontario.

glottochronology proto-iroquoian iroquoian

1. Subdivisions

The Iroquoian languages are usually divided into two main groups: Southern Iroquoian (Cherokee) and Northern Iroquoian (all others) based on the great differences in vocabulary and modern phonology. Northern Iroquoian is then further divided by Lounsbury and Mithun into Proto-Tuscarora-Nottoway and Lake Iroquoian, although Julian (2010) does not believe Lake Iroquoian to be a valid subgrouping.

2. History of Studies

Isolated studies were done by Chafe (1977a), Michelson (1988), and Rudes (1995). There have also been several works of internal reconstruction for daughter languages, in particular with Seneca and Mohawk. A preliminary full reconstruction of proto-Iroquoian was not provided until Charles Julian's (2010) work.

3. Phonology

Proto-Iroquoian as reconstructed shares the Iroquoian languages' notable typological traits of small consonant inventories, complex consonant clusters, and a lack of labial consonants.

3.1. Vowels

The reconstructed vowel inventory for Proto-Iroquoian is:[1]

  Front Central Back
Close i     u  
Mid e       ẽː   o     õ   õː
Open   a    

Like later Iroquoian languages, Proto-Iroquoian is distinguished in having nasal vowels /õ/ and /ẽ/, although it has more than in its daughter languages.

3.2. Consonants

The reconstructed consonant inventory for Proto-Iroquoian is given in the table below. The consonants of all Iroquoian languages pattern so that they may be grouped as (oral) obstruents, sibilants, laryngeals, and resonants (Lounsbury 1978:337).

  Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive t   k   ʔ
Affricate ts      
Fricative s     h
Nasal n      
Approximant ɹ j w  

4. Morphology

Reconstructed functional morphemes from Julian (2010):

No. Gloss Proto-Iroquoian Proto-Northern
1 'negative'   *teɁ
2 'coincident' (perhaps also relativizer) *ts  
3 'contrastive'   *thi
4 'partitive' *ijiː  
5 'translocative' *wi  
6 'factual'   *waɁ
7 'duplicative' *teː  
8 'future' *ẽː  
9 'optative'   *aɹa
10 'cislocative' *t  
11 'repetitive' *ts  
12 'non-singular animate' *ka  
13 '1:2.SG' *kõː  
14 '1:2.DU'   *kni
15 '1:2.PL'   *kwa
16 '2:1.SG' *hskʷi  
17 '2:1.DU' *hskniː  
18 '2:1.PL' *hskʷ…  
19 '1SG:3' *ki  
20 1SG:3A' (> PNI '1SG:3I') *kiji  
21 '1SG:3M'   *he or *hɹi
22 '2SG:3' *hsi  
23 2SG:3A' (> PNI '2SG:3I') *hsiji  
24 '2SG:3M'   *hehse
25 '3:1SG' *wakʷi  
26 3A:1SG' (> PNI '3I:1SG') *jõːkʷi  
27 '3M:1SG'   *hɹake
28 '3:2SG' *tsa  
29 3A:2SG' (> PNI 3I:2SG') *jeːtsa  
30 '3M:2SG'   *hja
31 '2DU&3' *tsniː  
32 '2DU&3M'   *hshetsni
33 '2PL&3' *ts…  
34 '2PL&3M'   *hshetswa
35 '2NS&3I'   *jetshi
36 '1+2DU:3' *tniː  
37 '1+2DU:3M'   *hshetni
38 '1+2PL:3' *t…  
39 '1+2PL:3M'   *hshetwa
40 '1+3DU:3'   *jakni
41 '1+3DU:3M'   *hshakni
42 '1+3PL:3'   *jakwa
43 '1+3PL:3M'   *hshakwa
44 '3:1DU' *kniː  
45 '3M:1DU'   *hshõkni
46 '3:1PL' *kʷ…  
47 '3M:1PL'   *hshõkwa
48 '1+2NS:3I' (limited to Iroquoia)   *jethi
49 1+3NS:3I' (> Hu. 1NS:3I)   *jakhi
50 3I:1NS' (> Tu. '1NS&3I')   *jõkhi
51 '3SG:3' (lexically determined variant 1) *ka  
52 '3SG:3' (lexically determined variant 2) *wa  
53 '3SGM:3'   *hɹa
54 '3:3SG' *juː  
55 '3:3SGM'   *hɹo
56 '3DU:3'   *kni
57 '3DUM:3'   *hni
58 3NS:3' (> PNI '3PL:3') *wantiː  
59 '3PL:3' (second variant, in competition with *wati, #58)   *kõti
60 '3PLM:3'   *hɹati
61 '3:3NS' *juːntiː  
62 '3:3NSM'   *hɹoti
63 '3I:3'   *je
64 '3:3I'   *jako
65 '3SGM:3I'   *hshako
66 3A:3SGA' (> Ch. '3NS:3SG', PNI '3I:3SG') *kõːwa  
67 '3I:3SGM'   *hɹõwa
68 3A:3NSA' (> Ch. '3NS:3NS', PNI '3I:3NS') *kõːwantiː  
69 '3I:3NSM'   *hɹõwati
70 '3NS:3I' (limited to Iroquoia)   *jakoti
71 '3NSM:3I' (limited to Iroquoia)   *hshakoti
72 '2:1.SG.IMP'   *take
73 '2:1.DU.IMP'   *takni
74 '1:2.PL.IMP'   *takwa
75 '2SG:3.IMP'   *tse
76 'reflexive' *ataːt  
77 'semireflexive' (lexically determined variant 1) *at  
78 'semireflexive' (lexically determined variant 2) *aɹ  
79 'joiner vowel' *a  
80 'nominalizer' (lexically determined variant 1)   *hsɹ
81 'nominalizer' (lexically determined variant 2)   *Ɂtshɹ
82 'causative-instrumental' (lexically determined variant 1) *t  
83 'causative-instrumental' (lexically determined variant 2) *hst  
84 'instrumental'   *hkw
85 'reversive' (PNI lexically determined variant 1) *kʷ  
86 'reversive' (lexically determined variant 2)   *hsj
87 'inchoative'  
88 'dative-benefactive' (PNI lexically determined variant 1) *ts  
89 'dative-benefactive' (lexically determined variant 2)   *ẽ
90 'dative-benefactive' (lexically determined variant 3)   *ni
91 'dislocative' (lexically determined variant 1)   *n
92 'dislocative' (lexically determined variant 2)   *h
93 'dislocative' (lexically determined variant 3)   *ts
94 'dislocative' (lexically determined variant 4)   *tsɹ
95 'dislocative' (lexically determined variant 5, limited to Iroquoia)  
96 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 1)   *njõː
97 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 2)   *nõː
98 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 3)   *hõː
99 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 4)   *õː
100 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 5)   *ɹõː
101 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 6)   *ɹjõː
102 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 7)   *tsõː
103 'distributive' (lexically determined variant 8)   *tsɹõː
104 'progressive'   *tjeɁ
105 'present suffix' (lexically determined variant 1)   *hs
106 'present suffix' (lexically determined variant 2)   *ts
107 'present suffix' (lexically determined variant 3)   *haɁ
108 'present suffix' (lexically determined variant 4)   *h
109 'imperfective suffix' (cf. Cherokee imperfective verbs inhsk)   *hsk
110 'past habitual suffix'   *kʷ
111 'punctual suffix' (lexically determined variant 1)  
112 'punctual suffix' (lexically determined variant 2)   *ẽɁ
113 'punctual suffix' (lexically determined variant 3)  
114 'punctual suffix' (lexically determined variant 4)   *n
115 'perfect suffix' (lexically determined variant 1)   *õh
116 'perfect suffix' (lexically determined variant 2)   *ẽh
117 'perfect suffix' (lexically determined variant 3)  
118 'perfect suffix' (lexically determined variant 4)   *eɁ
119 'perfect suffix' (lexically determined variant 5)   *ih
120 'past perfect suffix'   *n
121 'facilitative suffix'   *nskõːh
122 'modalizer suffix'   *k
123 'noun suffix'   *aɁ
124 'authenticative suffix'   *õweh
125 'characterizer suffix'   *haːɁ
126 'decessive suffix'   *kẽh
127 'intensifier suffix'   *tsih
128 'locative suffix'   *keh
129 'populative suffix' (lexically determined variant 1)   *ɹonõɁ
130 'populative suffix' (lexically determined variant 2)   *kaːɁ

5. Lexicon

Reconstructed lexical roots and particles from Julian (2010):

No. Gloss Proto-Iroquoian Proto-Northern
(Common Huron-Petun)
131 'path, road, trail'   *-ah-, *-(a)hah-    
132 'be bad, be ugly, be useless'   *-(a)hetkẽɁ    
133 'be salty, be sour'   *-ahjoɁtsihs, *-oɁtsihst-    
134 'bark, wood, wood chips'   *-ahkaɹ-    
135 'be ten'   *-ahnshẽːh    
136 'ear'   *-(a)hõht-    
137 'count'   *-(a)hɹaːt-    
138 'hear, speak a language, understand'   *-ahɹõk-    
139 'foot' *-aːhs-, *-aːhsiɁt-      
140 'three'   *ahsẽh    
141 'string'     *ahsɹijeɁ  
142 'shoe'   *-ahtahkʷ-, *ahtaɁ    
143 'be forbidden, be prohibited, be strict, be taboo'   *-ahtjawẽɹeɁ    
144 'abandon, give up, leave behind, let go, quit, release'   *-ahtkaɁw-    
145 'disappear, vanish'   *-ahtõ-, *-ahtõɁ-    
146 'hide'   *-ahtseht-    
147 'argue for, compete for, contend for, fight for'   *-ahtskehnh-    
148 'not yet, still'   *ahtsõh, *atsõh    
149 'night' *-ahtsõːh-      
150 'connect, fasten, join together'   *-ahtsõtɹ-    
151 'be durable, be hard, be strong'   *-akanst-, *-anst-, *-kanst-    
152 'be a number, be an amount, be that many'   *-akeːh, *-keːh    
153 'be bad'   *-aksẽːh    
154 'cry'   *-anstaɹ-    
155 'outdoors, outside'   *ansteh    
156 'shoe' *-aɹaːhsu-      
157 'be cousins'   *-aɹaɁtseːɁ    
158 'about, almost, approximately' *aɹeɁ      
159 'be inside, be one, be present, be within, exist'   *-aːt    
160 'speak, talk'   *-atati-, *-atatj-    
161 'bathe, swim' *-atawẽ-      
162 'climb over, go over' *-atawẽːhɹat-      
163 'be ashamed, be embarrassed' *-ateːhẽːh-      
164 'be burning, burn'   *-atek-    
165 'burn, cause to burn, light a fire'   *-atekaɁt-    
166 'use to light a fire'   *-atekaɁtahkw-    
167 'be a doctor, cure, heal'   *-atetsjẽɁt-    
168 'food taken along, provisions'   *-atẽnaɁtshɹ-    
169 'be a member of the Wolf Clan' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-athahjõniːh    
170 'be cold, be cold out, cold'   *-athoɹ-, *athoɁ    
171 'hear' *-athõː-      
172 'garter' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-athsinh-, *-athsinhatshɹ-    
173 'be burnt, be consumed, be used up, burn, use oneself up'   *-athsɁaht-    
174 'abandon, throw, throw out'   *-ati-, *-atj-, *-õti-, *-õtj-    
175 'draw, pull, stretch'   *-atiɹõːt-    
176 'get dressed, put on' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-atjaɁtawiɁt-    
177 'harbour, hold back, keep'     *-atjenawahst-  
178 'be cheap, be easy, be profligate, squander'   *-atjets-    
179 'look at' *-atkahthw-      
180 'purulence, pus'   *-atkẽhtsɹ-    
181 'be a sorceror, be a spirit, have inherent power'   *-atkõɁ    
182 'axe'   *atokẽɁ    
183 'spoon' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-atokw-, *-atokwaɁtshɹ-    
184 'hunt'   *-atoɹaːt-    
185 'breathe' *-atõːɹ-      
186 'laugh, laugh out loud' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-atõtaɹikt-    
187 'meet, meet by chance'   *-atɹaɁ-    
188 'grandchild, have as grandchild'   *-atɹe-    
189 'be green, be new' *-atseːɁ      
190 'be glad, be happy'   *-atshẽnõni-    
191 'dry out, dry up, evaporate, run dry'   *-atst-, *-atstathẽ-    
192 'abandon, lend, let go, spare' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-atwẽteht-    
193 'fence, palisade'   *-atɁẽhɹ-    
194 'belong to, own, possess'   *-awẽh    
195 'stir'   *-awẽɹi-, *-awẽɹj-    
196 'water' *awẽɁ      
197 'be small'   *-aɁ-, *-aɁaːh    
198 'lace, net, netting, web' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-aɁaɹ-    
199 'dew'   *-aɁawj -    
200 'strike'   *-aɁe-    
201 'become dark, become night'   *-aɁkaɹaɁ-, *-aɁkɹaɁ-    
202 'snow, snowflake' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-aɁkɹ-    
203 'turtle' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-aɁnowaɹ-, *-Ɂnowaɹ-    
204 'be hot, be warm'   *-aɁtaɹihẽːh    
205 'heat, sweat'   *-aɁtaɹihẽhsɹ-    
206 'axe'   *-aɁtsɹ-    
207 'be extinguished, fire to go out'   *-aɁtsw-    
208 'extinguish, put out a fire'   *-aɁtswaht-    
209 'come, go, go on foot, walk' *-e-      
210 'remember'   *-ehjahɹ-    
211 'believe, think' *-eːɹ-      
212 'heart'   *-eɹjahs-    
213 'a lot, much'   *etsoɁ, *itsoɁ, *itswaɁ    
214 'above, high, over'   *eɁnkẽh, *heɁnkẽh    
215 'flower' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-ẽh-    
216 'day' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-ẽhnitsɹ-    
217 'be uncle to, have as nephew or niece'   *-ẽhwatẽɁ, *-jẽhwatẽɁ    
218 'be born, establish oneself'   *-ẽnakɹaːt-    
219 'day'   *-ẽt-    
220 'be finished, be over, be prepared, be ready, come to an end'   *-ẽtaɁ-    
221 'drop, fall' *-ẽɁ-      
222 'nine'   *ẽɁtɹõɁ, *waɁtɹõh, *waɁtɹõɁ    
223 'council fire, flame, torch'   *-hahsɹ-    
224 'cornstalk, grass'   *-heɹ-    
225 'shout, yell'   *-hẽɹeht-    
226 'clearing, field, meadow'   *-hẽt-    
227 'mark, write'   *-hjatõ-    
228 'book, something marked, something written'   *-hjatõhsɹ-    
229 'claw' *-hkaɹ-      
230 'current, moving water, rapids'   *-hnaw-    
231 'arm, shoulder' *-hnẽː-      
232 'command, employ, hire'   *-hnhaɁ-    
233 'door'   *-hnhoh-, *-hnhohw-    
234 'close a door, door to be closed'   *-hnhotõ-    
235 'have jowls protruding' (> cattle, cow)   *-hnh(o/õ)hskʷ(a/e)ɹõːt    
236 'feed, put in the mouth'   *-hnhõtho-, *-hnhõthw-    
237 'be durable, be hard, be solid, be strong'   *-hniɹ-    
238 'thigh'   *-hnitsh-    
239 'neck, throat' *-hnj-      
240 'tie'   *-hnɹ-    
241 'basswood'   *-hohsɹ-, *-hotsɹ-    
242 'bread'   *-hɹahkʷ-    
243 'feather'   *-hɹaɁt-    
244 'cut'   *-hɹen-    
245 'fall, fall over'   *-hɹjenẽɁ-, *-ɁɹhjenẽɁ-    
246 'tell' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-hɹoɹi-, *-hɹoɹj-    
247 'name, reputation'   *-hsẽn-    
248 'dough' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-hsheɁɹ-,-hsheɁɹh-    
249 'depression, depth, hole, hollow.   *-hshõw-    
250 'detest, dislike, hate'   *-hshwahẽ-, *-hshwẽ-    
251 'ankle, knee'   *-hsinkoɁt-    
252 'slow' *-hskanẽ-      
253 'be good' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-hskaːths    
254 'deer'   *-hskẽnõtõɁ    
255 'bone'   *-hskẽɁɹ-; *-hskẽɁɹakeht- 'be a warrior', lit. 'carry the bone'    
256 'head' *-hskʷ-      
257 'finger, hand'   *-hsnõhs-, *-hsnõɁ    
258 'be fast, be quick' *-hsnuːɹiɁ      
259 'be ancestor to, be grandparent to'   *-hsoːt    
260 'build, make, prepare' *-hsɹõːn-      
261 'use'   *-hst-    
262 'marrow'   *-hstahɹõw-    
263 'be little, be small' *-hsthwih, *-hstwih      
264 'back'   *-hsw-    
265 'board, wood'   *-hswẽɁkaɹ-, *-hwẽɁkaɹ-, *-hwẽɁkhaɹ-    
266 'complete, exhaust, finish'   *-hsɁ-, *-ihsɁ-    
267 'have as older sibling, have as older maternal female cousin'   *-htsiɁ    
268 'colour, dye, paint' *-htsuːhw-      
269 'family'   *-hwatsiɹ-    
270 'be round'   *-hweɁnõniːh    
271 'foam'   *-hwẽɁnst-    
272 'force, strength'   *-hwihsh-    
273 'five' *hwihsk      
274 'metal, money'   *-hwihst-    
275 'be, be the one, exist' *-iː-      
276 'be dead, die'   *-ihej-    
277 'cross over'   *-ihjaɁk-, *-jahjaɁk-    
278 'creek, river'   *-ijhõh-, *-ijhõhw-, *-wjhõh-    
279 'be beautiful, be good, be great'   *-ijoːh    
280 'emerge, go out, put out'   *-inkẽɁ-    
281 'far' *iːnõh      
282 'mattress, sheet, spread'   *-inskaɹ-    
283 'be sitting, sit' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-inskoːt    
284 'saliva, spit, spittle'   *-inskɹ-    
285 'fish scale'   *-inst-    
286 'cliff, rock, rock bank'   *-instẽhɹ-, *-nstẽhɹ-    
287 'sleep'   *-itaɁw-, *-itɁo-    
288 'crowd, group'   *-itjohkʷ-    
289 'you'   *iːts    
290 'shoot'   *-iɁaːk-, *-iɁjaːk-, *-Ɂjaːk-    
291 'clan, clay, hearth'   *-iɁtaɹ-, *-Ɂtaɹ-    
292 'abide, dwell, reside, sit'   *-iɁtɹõ-    
293 'exit, go out, leave'   *-jakẽɁ-    
294 'footprint, gait, track'   *-jan-    
295 'be a chief, be good, be lawful, be proper' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-janɹ-    
296 'law'   *-janɹehsɹ-, *-janrẽhsɹ-    
297 'break, cut'   *-jaɁk-    
298 'being, body, carcass, corpse, person'   *-jaɁt-    
299 'wake up' *-je-      
300 'add, contribute, mix'   *-jehst-    
301 'capture, catch, grab'   *-jena-, *-jenaw-    
302 'act, do, happen to'   *-jeɹ-    
303 'be complete, be just, be perfect, be right'   *-jeɹi-    
304 'body' *-jeːɹõɁ-      
305 'smile' *-jeːts-      
306 'be situated, exist, have, put down, set down, sit down'   *-jẽ-    
307 'hit, strike'   *-jẽht-    
308 'firewood, wood' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-jẽt-    
309 'accumulate, beget, get, obtain'   *-jẽtaɁ-    
310 'know'   *-jẽteɹ-    
311 'plant, sow'   *-jẽtho-, *-jẽthw-    
312 'flay, skin'   *-jẽtsɹ-    
313 'have as child'   *-jẽɁ-    
314 'smoke, tobacco'   *-jẽɁkʷ-    
315 'enter' *-jõ-      
316 'eat' *-k-      
317 'butterfly' *kahnaːwẽːh      
318 'look at' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-kahnɹ-    
319 'eye'   *-kahɹ-    
320 'four'   *kajeɹih    
321 'be old' *-kajõ-      
322 'anywhere, somewhere' (limited to Iroquoia)   *kankaɁ    
323 'pipe' *kanõːnowẽɁ      
324 'bite' *-kaɹ-      
325 'account, price, story'   *-kaɹ-    
326 'roll, turn around' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-kaɹhateni-, *-kaɹhatenj-    
327 'invert, roll over, turn over'   *-kaɹhatho-, *-kaɹhathw-    
328 'tree'   *kaɹhit, *keɹhit, *keɹhiɁ, *kɹaheːt, *kɹahit    
329 'come here!'   *katsih    
330 'paddle, row' *-kaweː-      
331 'lift, raise'   *-kensko-, *-kenskʷ-    
332 'see' *-kẽ-, *-kẽːh      
333 'be old'   *-kẽhtsi-    
334 'summer'   *-kẽnh-    
335 'be white'   *-kẽɹat    
336 'peel, scrape' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-kẽtsɹ-    
337 'divide, separate'   *-kh-, *-khahsi-, *-khahsj-, *-khahsk-    
338 'elbow' *-khjuːhs-      
339 'food, meal'   *-khw-    
340 'chipmunk' *kihɹjuɁkẽh      
341 'dog' *kiːɹ      
342 'hair' *-kiɁɹh-      
343 'crow' *koːhkaːɁ      
344 'be a lot, be many, be much' *-koɁtiɁ      
345 'face' *-kõːhs-      
346 'eel'   *kõteh    
347 'bowl, dish, plate'   *-kts-    
348 'acorn, oak' *kuːɹeh      
349 'be big, be large' *-kuwa-, *-kʷa-      
350 'pick up' *-kʷ-      
351 'be able'   *-kʷeni-, *-kʷenj-    
352 'that, the, this' *nV(H)      
353 'domestic animal, prisoner, slave'   *-nahskʷ-    
354 'be autochthonous, dwell, reside' *-nakɹ-      
355 'bed, place, room, space'   *-nakt-, *-nakʷt-    
356 'camp, city, settlement, town, village'   *-nat-    
357 'grain, wheat'   *-natsj-    
358 'be melted, be warm, be wet' *-nawẽːh      
359 'antler, horn'   *-naɁkaɹ-    
360 'imitate'   *-naɁkeɹ-    
361 'bread'   *-naɁtaɹ-    
362 'call' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-naɁtõhkʷ-    
363 'cauldron, kettle, pail, pot'   *-naɁtsj-    
364 'liquid' *-neː-      
365 'ice' *-neːhst-, *-neːhstwaɹ      
366 'corn, grain, kernel' *-nẽh-      
367 'now' *nẽh      
368 'steal' *-nẽːhskʷ-      
369 'sand; stone' *-nẽːj-      
370 'arm'   *-nẽtsh-    
371 'be stingy' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-niɁ-    
372 'marry'   *-njaːk-    
373 'neck'   *-njaɹ-    
374 'lake'   *-njataɹ-    
375 'wampum'   *-nkoɁɹ-, *-nkoɁɹh-    
376 'blood'   *-nkõ-, *-nkʷẽhs-    
377 'red' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-nkʷẽhtaɹ-    
378 'begin to snow'   *-nkʷẽɁ-    
379 'be cold'   *-noːh    
380 'tooth'   *-noɁts-, *-noɁtsj-    
381 'medicine'   *-nõhkʷ-, *-nõhkʷaɁt-, *-nõhkʷaɁtshɹ-    
382 'house' *-nõhs-      
383 'be painful, be sore, hurt'   *-nõhwakt-    
384 'admire, like'   *-nõhweɁ-    
385 'hill, mountain'   *-nõt-    
386 'corn soup, hominy' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-nõtaɹ-    
387 'brain, head' *-nõːtsiː-      
388 'breast, milk' *-nõɁt-      
389 'fungus, mushroom'   *-nɹahs-    
390 'leaf'   *-nɹaht-    
391 'get involved, help' *-nsteːɹ-      
392 'corn husk' *-nuːɹ-      
393 'be difficult, be unable to, fail to do' *-nuːɹõ-      
394 'winter, year'   *-ohsɹ-    
395 'throw' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-ojɁaːk-    
396 'split'   *-oɹẽ-    
397 'be, be standing, exist, stand upright'   *-oːt    
398 'be at the end, end'   *-oɁkt-    
399 'dig' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-oɁkʷaːt-    
400 'hand' *-oɁnj-      
401 'be of a kind, be of a sort'   *-oɁtẽːh    
402 'earth, land, world'   *-õhwẽtsj-    
403 'go beyond, go through, leak, pass through, penetrate, reach' *-õːkuːh-      
404 'sift' *-õːkuːhst-      
405 'be a person, human being'   *-õkʷeh, *-õkʷehsɹ-, *-õkʷeɁt-    
406 'be alive, life, live' *-õːnh-      
407 'rain'   *-õnoːt-    
408 'pot' *-õːt-      
409 'put into the fire' *-õːt-      
410 'be attached, have as a body part'   *-õːt    
411 'remove from the fire' *-õːtakʷ-      
412 'be a lake, lake' *-õːtaɹiɁ      
413 'be in, be on'   *-ɹ-    
414 'moon to be present, planet to be present, sun to be present'   *-ɹ-    
415 'moon, planet, sun'   *-ɹahkʷ-    
416 'erase, rub out, wipe out'   *-ɹakew-    
417 'choose, pick out, select'   *-ɹako-, *-ɹakw-    
418 'sap, syrup'   *-ɹan-    
419 'heel'   *-ɹat-    
420 'climb'   *-ɹathẽ-, *-ɹaɁthẽ-    
421 'adhere, stick, stick on'   *-ɹaɁnẽtaːk-    
422 'incantation, song, spell, witchcraft'   *-ɹẽn-    
423 'bush, forest, woods'   *-ɹhat-    
424 'coat with, put on'     *-ɹho-  
425 'be paternal aunt to' *-ɹhok      
426 'socks, leggings' *-ɹiː-      
427 'affair, business, thing, matter'   *-ɹihw-    
428 'fight, kill'   *-ɹijo-, *-ɹjo-    
429 'animal'   *-ɹjoːɁ    
430 'blue, sky'   *-ɹõhj-    
431 'log, tree'   *-ɹõt-    
432 'chop'   *-ɹɁo-, *-ɹɁok-    
433 'be present, exist'   *-t-    
434 'and, besides'     *tahnũɁ  
435 'run'   *-takh-    
436 'woodpecker' *taɹaːɹ      
437 'flint' *tawiːhskaɹaɁ      
438 'two'   *tekniːh    
439 'eight'   *tekɹõɁ    
440 'change'   *-teni-, *-tenj-    
441 'mosquito' *-tẽːhs-      
442 'alternate, differ'   *-tih-    
443 'skunk' *tiɁɹ      
444 'nearby'       tjohskẽẽɁ
445 'snake'       tjoɁxjẽtsihk
446 'decay, rot, spoil' *-tkẽː-      
447 'how, how many, how much' (limited to Iroquoia)   *toːh    
448 'be certain, be exact, be true'   *-tokẽːh    
449 'stand' *-toɁn-      
450 'bluejay' (limited to Iroquoia)   *tɹiɁtɹiːɁ    
451 'beans'   *tsaheɁ, *-tsaheɁt-    
452 'bottle, gourd, jar'   *-tsheɁ, *-tsheɁt-, *-tsheɁw-    
453 'club, fist, knot'   *-tsihkʷ-    
454 'robin' *tsiːhskʷoːɁkʷoːɁ      
455 'otter, seal' *tsiːjẽh      
456 'salt'   *-tsikheɁt-    
457 'be male'   *-tsin    
458 'fire' *-tsiːɹ      
459 'coal, ember, fire, spark'   *-tsist-    
460 'fox, lynx'   *tsitshoɁ    
461 'bile, green, yellow'   *-tsiɁnkʷaɹ-    
462 'bird'   *tsiɁtẽɁ    
463 'corn tassel' *-tsiːɁtsiːɁ      
464 'seven'   *tsjatahk    
465 'tobacco' *-tsjoːɹ-      
466 'six; seven'   *tsjotaɹeɁ    
467 'fish' *-tsjõɁt-      
468 'be daughter-in-law' *-tsoɁ      
469 'dream, sleep'   *-tsɹẽht-    
470 'put into the water' *-uː-      
471 'remove from the water' *-uːkʷ-      
472 'cover' *-uːɹ-      
473 'splash water, sprinkle' *-uːtsɹ-      
474 'whippoorwill' *waɁkuhɹiːɁ      
475 'say, speak' *-we-      
476 'language, voice, word'   *-wẽn-    
477 'thumb' (limited to Iroquoia)   *-whjõhkaɹ-    
478 'young person' *-wiːnõːh      
479 'baby, child, infant, offspring'   *-wiɹ-    
480 'arm, fin, wing'   *-wj-    
481 'wing'     *-wjahũtsh-  
482 'learn, teach'   *-wjẽhst-    
483 'know how, learn how'   *-wjẽhw-, *-wjẽw-, *-wjẽɁ-    
484 'craft, manner, skill, way'   *-wjẽn-    
485 'become capable, learn how'     *-wjʌ̃tehtaɁ-  
486 'be good' *-wohst      
487 'air, wind'   *-wɹ-    
488 'arrow' *-Ɂn-      
489 'bone'   *-Ɂnẽj-    
490 'egg'   *-Ɂnhõhs-    
491 'mind, spirit'   *-Ɂnikõhɹ-    
492 'be late, delay'   *-Ɂnitsko-, *-Ɂnitskʷ-    
493 'escape, flee, run away'   *-ɁnjakẽɁ-    
494 'nose' *-Ɂnjõːhs-      
495 'be envious, be jealous, envy'   *-Ɂnonsh-    
496 'be powerful, be strong'   *-Ɂnshanst-    
497 'drown, fall into water'   *-ɁtskoɁ-    
498 'drag, drive, pull, ride'   *-Ɂtsɹ-    


  1. Julian (2010), p. 21.
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