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Jiao, S.;  Liang, F. Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 05 December 2023).
Jiao S,  Liang F. Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 05, 2023.
Jiao, Shi, Fang Liang. "Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 05, 2023).
Jiao, S., & Liang, F.(2022, October 24). Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners. In Encyclopedia.
Jiao, Shi and Fang Liang. "Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners." Encyclopedia. Web. 24 October, 2022.
Sustainable Development of Chinese High School English Learners

Since the establishment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), countries all around the globe have been working together toward an inclusive, sustainable, and resilient future. However, there is still a long way to go before meeting the aim of sustainable development on time. Providing quality education and promoting gender equality are important tasks encompassed by the UN development goals. Quality education is a key component of the SDGs, yet little is known about how to accomplish the SDGs’ quality education targets. Second language learning plays an essential role in cultivating international innovators, and it is also an important way of achieving sustainable development. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has forced many countries to close schools, posing a huge challenge to the sustainability of quality education. Managing the relationship between quality education and sustainable development in this new era is our top priority. In this special period, it becomes particularly important to study students’ motivation to learn a second language.

SDGs motivation achievement intrinsic interest

1. Introduction

Motivation determines the willingness to learn, the effect, and achievement of learning goals [1]. It also determines why learners learn, for whom they learn, and the direction and results of their efforts [2]. Therefore, motivation plays an important role in second language learning. For a long time, researchers have tried to solve the problem of what constitutes second language learning motivation, and developed concepts such as instrumental motivation and integrative motivation [3][4]. The current academic research on second language learning motivation has provided the reasons, necessity, and motivations for English learning [5][6]. However, the issue of motivational effects on academic achievement must be addressed, and the internal structure and gender differences in motivation must be clarified. Past studies have shown that learning motivation has an impact on students’ academic performance [7][8]. Recent studies show that learning motivation has a significant predictive effect on grades [9][10]. The stronger the second language learning motivation, the higher the second language achievement will be. The weaker the second language learning motivation, the weaker the second language achievement will be [11].
However, previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of motivation on students’ academic achievement but paid little attention to how motivation affects students’ academic achievement. Few studies have explored the role of various motivations in influencing students’ academic achievement [12]. Studies on gender differences in motivation are mostly reflected in the analysis of the results of gender differences between male and female students, but little is known about the causes of such gender differences [13][14]. As for the study of motivation structure, the previous studies mainly focused on the exploration of motivation types without paying enough attention to the internal structure of motivation, and the interpretation was insufficiently explanatory.
There are different challenges that educational transformation must face. Schools are the main drivers of social change, aiming to help students get fair and high-quality educational opportunities after COVID-19 and cultivate individuals who can create a sustainable world with comprehensive learning ability [15]. High school plays a key role in Chinese students’ academic careers, and the National College Entrance Exam, called “Gaokao”, is a college admission examination for Chinese students [16]. English is a compulsory subject in high school, playing an important role in high school studies [17]. Students’ motivation to learn English determines their desire and priority [18]. Studying the motivation of high school students’ English learning has both theoretical and practical value. For high school students, learning English is not only driven by the desire for personal development, but also influenced by internal interests, social responsibilities, and learning situation [12][16]. However, under the pressure of the National College Entrance Exam, it is challenging to achieve ideal academic levels and maintain motivation for learning English [19]. In the context of high school learning, it is of great research value to explore English learning motivation. As an important factor in pursuing higher education, the research value of high school learning cannot be ignored. Since English is an important subject in high school, the research on English language learning motivation of high school students is of great significance.
The research on second language learning motivation has not paid enough attention to the high school level. The discussion on English learning motivation is mainly confined to college and middle school students, and there is a lack of research on high school learners. The questions of how to structure the classification of high school students’ English learning motivation, and how motivation affects academic achievement, are difficult to determine, and are the focus. Herein, it is attempted to explore the internal structure of high school students’ English learning motivation, the influence of motivation on English achievement, and the motivational differences between male and female students through empirical investigation. Herein, it collects data on the English learning motivation of high school students from two representative high schools in Beijing city and Shandong province. The novelty is that it explores the motivational complexity of English learning for high school students and examines the internal structure of English learning motivation and its influence on English achievement in the Asian context. Additionally, gender differences in motivation are analyzed and their causal reasons are explained. By deepening the understanding of high school students’ English learning motivation, second language was seeked to enhance teaching across China and worldwide.

2. Motivation Composition

Second language learning motivation is an important indicator in measuring students’ second language learning levels. Dörnyei and Ottó [20] defined the motivation of second language learning as the dynamic awakening of individual English learning, which could start, guide, coordinate, amplify, terminate, and evaluate the cognitive and operational processes, in order to select the priority learning content and finally realize the initial learning desire. Motivation for second language learning is both a mental engine and an emotional attitude [21]. Therefore, second language learning motivation is an important concept that cannot be ignored in second language learning [22]. Generally, second language learning motivation can be categorized into three aspects [23][24]. The first one is socio-educational-based theory, which mainly includes integrative and instrumental motivation. The second approach is self-determination theory (SDT), which includes both internal and external drives. The third model is the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS), which is the leading model in contemporary research on second language learning motivation [25][26][27].
The research on motivation in second language learning initially focused on the debate between instrumentality and integration. Gardner and Lambert [28] put forward instrumental and integrative motivation as the main motivations for second language learning. Instrumental motivation was defined as acquiring a second language through utilitarian behavior, such as earning a higher salary or getting better jobs. Integrative motivation was defined as the willingness of second language learners to become important members of the language community, in contrast to utilitarian acquisition [3][28][29]. Since the classification was proposed, instrumental motivation and the integrative motivation framework have been the focus of the debate surrounding second language learning.
Csizér and Dörnyei [18] proposed that integration was the most important motivation for second language learning, and the main effects of other motivation variables were adjusted by integration and the number of efficiency scales. Aoki [30] argued that Chinese students had higher integrative motivation than students from other countries. The language competence of high achievers was closely related to integrative motivation, indicating that high achievers possessed high integrative motivation [31]. However, a critic suggested that most second language learners exhibit instrumental learning motivation, and that the type of motivation was influenced by the social environment; second language learners mostly possessed instrumental motivation, which was an important factor in students’ second language learning [32]. Similarly, students’ instrumental motivation for test-taking remained high and they attached importance to the practicability of English tests [33].
Gardner and MacIntyre [29] indicated that both integrative and instrumental motivation could promote learning, but students with instrumental motivation invested more time in learning than students without instrumental motivation. Instrumental motivation had a significant predictive effect on language achievement [34]. This argument was supported by Gao, Zhao, Cheng, and Zhou [35]. An empirical study was conducted; students’ learning motivation for a second language was divided into seven types: intrinsic interest, academic performance, going abroad, learning situation, social responsibility, personal development, and information media. Gao, Zhao, Cheng, and Zhou [35] believed that instrumentality and integration were compatible. Therefore, integrative and instrumental motivation could be mutually inclusive, and language learning, in most cases, involves a mixture of various motivations [28].
In recent years, the world has witnessed a change not seen for centuries. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has hindered the sustainable development of second language learning and quality education [36]. This change has made second language learning increasingly complex and uncertain, and traditional theories have made it hard to fully explain students’ motivation for second language learning in the new era. Therefore, the research on second language learning motivation has evolved from the integrative and instrumental debate to the vision of the L2 Motivational Self System [37]. Based on the framework of the L2 Motivational Self System, You and Dörnyei [5] conducted a large-scale investigation on English learners’ motivation and divided motivation into three levels: the Ideal L2 Self, the Ought-to L2 Self, and the L2 Learning Experience. Dörnyei [1] used the concept of “vision” to specify “the Ideal L2 Self”. “The L2 Learning Experience” was not only a powerful predictor of various standard measures, but also generally the most powerful predictor of motivational behavior. It was regarded as the perceived quality of learners’ participation in all aspects of the language learning process [37]. Despite the increasing knowledge regarding the above findings, the internal structures of second language learning have not been adequately explored.

3. Gender Differences

It is generally acknowledged that girls’ learning motivation is significantly higher than that of boys, and second language learning is no exception. In terms of second language learning motivation, it was believed that girls’ second language learning motivation was higher than boys’, and their second language learning involvement and academic achievements were also better than boys’ [38]. A recent study found that the score of second language learning motivation of girls was higher than that of boys [13]. Female students’ intrinsic interest motivation was significantly higher than that of male students, which might be due to their higher self-development and vision cultivation ability than those of male students [5]. Mori and Gobel [39] supported the above views and found that there were significant differences in motivation between genders, suggesting that female students scored significantly higher in second language motivation than male students. Female students’ learning motivation was positively correlated with their intellectual development and course performance, but male students’ learning motivation was not [40]. Most studies on gender differences in motivation have paid great attention to the motivational results, but have paid little attention to the specific causes behind these differences.

4. Motivation and Academic Achievement

In motivation research, previous studies have reached a consensus that motivation affects students’ academic achievement [8][9][41]. Learning motivation had a significant predictive effect on learning results [42], and motivation could promote academic achievement [10]. Liu, et al. [43] suggested that motivation could predict test results, and different motivational conditions would lead to different academic performance. A wide range of studies had confirmed that stronger motivation was associated with higher academic achievement and weaker motivation was associated with lower academic achievement [6][11][12]. Motivation could not only improve academic achievement, but could promote students’ health and psychological growth as well [44]. Motivation could enhance students’ learning autonomy, which was predictive of academic achievement [45]. Motivation could also be divided into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation has been defined as an activity performed for the intrinsic satisfaction it provides rather than for some external outcome. Extrinsic motivation was the desire to achieve some discernible results whenever an activity was completed [7]. Internal motivation, such as internal interest, had been found to improve students’ academic achievement. The stronger the internal motivation, the higher the academic achievement [46][47].
Intrinsic interest has been proven to be correlated with achievement [48]. Students who were intrinsically motivated showed more interest and happiness while learning [49]. A recent study indicated that intrinsic interest motivation had a direct positive impact on science achievement [50]. Besides, students who displayed more interest in learning were more likely to have higher academic achievement [23][51]. In the Asian context, intrinsic interest has been recognized as an influential factor in enhancing lifelong learning for students [52].
In many Asian-Pacific educational contexts, instrumental goals, primarily personal development, are central to the learning process and its outcomes, and this motivation has a positive impact on academic achievement [53]. When students are motivated by clear achievement goals, the instrumental nature becomes evident. Achievement goals had an impact on the motivation of students to face challenging tasks, and students with positive personalities showed a stronger tendency to face challenging tasks [54]. A promotion-oriented approach to language learning led to more adaptive motivation, which in turn contributed to language learning success [55].
Past studies have generally reached a consensus on the predictive role of learning context on academic performance [22][56]. A recent study implied that when students received positive attention and praise from teachers and had positive interactions with them, they were more likely to achieve higher levels in reading and math. Students who were sensitive to school conditions, such as order and safety, were more likely to have lower reading scores [51]. The perception of the classroom learning environment could affect students’ participation and significantly impact their academic performance [57].
Social responsibility has a significant predictive effect on academic achievement [58]. Chinese students live in a field-dependent society, and a large proportion of Chinese students have the learning motivation of family responsibility, as they are deeply influenced by Confucian culture. This motivation for Chinese students was found to be driven by a sense of duty, and this motivation could predict their grades [59]. In China, parental expectation deeply influences the motivation for second language learning, which may be related to the principle of “reciprocal duty”, in which parents feel obliged to provide their children with a high-quality education in return for the children’s responsibility to care for their elderly parents [5]. Therefore, this responsibility motivation has a profound impact on second language learning in China. Responsibility not only predicts academic achievement but is also the most important predictor of outcomes in management [60].
Notably, motivations seem to be particularly relevant to students’ learning outcomes [50]. Although previous studies have shown us different motivational impacts on students’ academic performance, little is known about how motivation affects students’ academic performance, and it is still necessary to explore how motivation plays a role in influencing students’ academic performance. The relationship between motivation and academic achievement affects students’ specific investments and goals in second language learning. Therefore, the question of how motivation affects performance needs to be further explored.


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