Food packaging is used to protect food products from physical, chemical, or biological stresses in their environment, thereby improving their quality and extending their shelf life. A variety of packaging materials have traditionally been used for this purpose, including plastic, glass, metal, paper, wood, and textiles. Some of these materials, particularly plastics, cause considerable environmental damage during their manufacture and after their disposal. For0 this reason, there has been great interest in developing biodegradable forms of packaging materials that are more sustainable to produce, that rapidly decompose after disposal, and that do not cause as much environmental pollution. These packaging materials can be constructed from biodegradable film-forming materials such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. Moreover, their functional performance can be enhanced by incorporating organic or inorganic nanoparticles or nanofibers. For instance, nano-forms of clay, iron oxide (Fe2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used (inorganic nanoparticles), as well as nano-forms of chitin and cellulose and their derivatives (organic nanoparticles). The resulting nanocomposites often have enhanced technofunctional characteristics such as improved optical, mechanical and barrier properties, as well as some novel functional attributes, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, that can prolong the shelf life of packaged foods. Moreover, it is possible to incorporate sensing materials into biodegradable films to provide information about the quality, freshness, or safety of packaged foods.