1. Please check and comment entries here.
Table of Contents

    Topic review

    Translating Nanobiotechnology in Medical Theranostics

    View times: 73
    Submitted by: Farid Menaa

    Definition

    Nanotheranostic is a word we use a bit more than a decade ago to define namaterials with potential or confirmed use as therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents.  Here, we strived to define the properties characteristics and of most commonly used nanomaterials that have been proved or could be apply for a wide range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications (e.g. biosensing, drug delivery, imaging).

    1. Introduction 

    Nanotechnology refers to the manipulation. utilization and control of structures or systems at nanometer (nm: 10-9 m) scale. It has revolutionized and influenced each area of today's technology because nanomaterials (e.g., nano particles (NPS), nanostructures, nanodevices and nano systems)exhibit many unique properties compared to that of macroscale materials [1]. The scope of this field is almost impossible to define as it is growing too rapidly, covering almost every field from biotechnology to electronics encompassing physics, chemistry, molecular biology computer science, microbiology, food science, regenerative medicine and pathology [1][2][3][4][5].

    Matter at nanoscale depicts striking optical, magnetic chemical and physical properties including increased reactivity, solubility, specificity, stability, efficacy, and interaction at subcellular levels [1][6][7]. Soon, theranostic nanotechnology (i.e., nanoscale techniques, methods devices, particles and operations) will  replace all conventional key functioning healthcare systems.

    Surface functionalization of nanomaterials confers additional specific features such as enhanced specificity biocompatibility, tunability, and effectiveness. In recent years, much attention has been paid to nanobiotechnology exploiting natures components (i.e., nucleic acids, proteins enzymes, cells) to develop nanobiomaterials (i.e., materials of nanoscale thickness designed to interface with biology) and theranostic nanobiodevices (i.e, DNA origami nanomachines, drug delivery nanosystems. nanosensors )for diagnosing, preventing and treating illness using cutting edge nanoscale materials [4][5][8]. Indeed, several biologica entities like polypeptides [9], antibodies [10][11], vitamins [12] or proteins [13][14] have been chemically attached to the surface of NPs, which favoured their inherent properties ovel methods are developed to conjugate a biologica molecule with NPs. For instance. a method described the exposition of carboxyl groups on the surface of water soluble iron oxide NPs before a cross-linker known as EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide )was used to link streptavidin on this surface for subsequent recognition and attachment of the resulting conjugate to a biotin-labeled oligonucleotide [15][16].

    Furthermore, the most useful and practical goal and application of nanotechnology is devoted to improve and Upgrade the overall standard of life. A growing number of evidence can ilustrate this fact. For instance. selenium anoclusters are used in anti-cancerous and anti-infective orthopedic coatings, which prevent osteosarcoma proliferation and contamination at the site of implantation and promote healthy bone cell activities [17][18][19][20]. Furthermore, various bone infections (e.g., refractory osteomyelitis )have been treated using vancomycin antibiotic surrounded by NPs in the form of scaffolds and injections [21]. Furthermore, analysis and determination of bone growth could be done using strain sensors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTS) [22][23]. Besides, in order to visualize and determine the detailed anatomy, morphology and physiology of musculoskeletal systems, the unique chemical, optical and magnetic properties of NPs, such as quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with Renilla reniformis luciferase, are being exploited [24]. Moreover, nanosensors (e.g., nanobarcodes, QDs) have been deployed to determine cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) [25][26], while nanovesicles were able to specifically detect vascular antigens present in cardiac diseases, inhibit the proliferation of primary smooth muscles of the aorta in vitro and alleviate damaged vascular in vivo [27]. Interestingly, in a transplantation context myocardiocytes were generated efficiently by using stem cells (SCs) differentiated on nano-fabricated scaffolds such as carbon nanofibers [28][29]. More recently, a study reViewed the development of nanovesicles to avert non-specific binding and upregulate efficacy by improving the accumulation of drugs in lesion tissues for rheumatoid arthritis [30]. Furthermore, nanostructures can be exploited to aid in the rapid deposition of calcium mierals onto orthopedic implants, promote the effective insertion of these implants, and strengthen the interactions of bone cells with adhesion proteins [20][26][31].

    Thus, the state-of-the art approaches and applications of nanobiotechnology in medicine led us closer to what was seen as "impossible" to date and include [1][8] (i) the selectively search for the disease causative agent to destroy it both in vivo and outside the body (environment)using rationally-designed nanosystems; (ii) the interaction o functionalized nanosystems with the body's own machinery to stimulate, restore and regulate its functioning, thereby placing organ (i.e., bone transplantation).

    Nevertheless, ethical and technical challenges (e.g., toxicological issues ) remain to be addressed for more efficient and safer translational nanobiotechnology into medicine.

    2. Bomiedcal Applicatons of Nano Inechnology

    The field of nanotechnology is as vast and diverse as diseases and ailments of living organisms. It is a challenging area but it is rapidly growing every day. The modification of nanomaterials' properties by controlling their structure and surface makes them attractive candidates for their use in healthcare. from fundamental innovative scientific studies to next-generation commercially viable and accessible theranostic technologies [1][3][8][32].

    Biomedical nanotechnology embodies from controlled targeting to bioimaging nanoplatforms and novel therapeutic nanosystems. For instance, NPS, nanostructures, and nanodevices (e.g., nanorobots) are being applied to detect and screen key cardiovascular symptoms (e.g., heart o respiratory rates) and pathologies (e.g., atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypertension), or perform minimal invasive cardiovascular surgeries, respectively [33][34][35].

    3. Major Theranostic Nanomaterials: A Glimpse over the Horizon

    Nanomaterials include NPs (e.g., lipid based-, metallic based-, magnetic based-, polymer based-, semiconductor based-) and nanostructures (e.g., dendrimers, hydrogels, nanofilms, nanowires, graphene and other carbon allotropes) [36][37][38]. They can be functionalized, doped or conjugated with organic or inorganic molecules to enhance their features for a wider range of environmental and theranostic applications (e.g., compound, drug, gene or cell delivery, bioimaging, biosensing) [39][40].

    4. "Smart" Nheranostic Nanodevices and Nanosystems: A Road to the Cure

    Other types and classes of multifunctional nanoplatforms (e.g., chips, microfluidics, and biosensors) are routinely used for a diverse range of applications. Thereby, microfluidic systems combine several processes over a single circult or chip. Importantly, the role of nanosensors in our dally life is increasingly expanding due to their high precision power, overall stabllity, outstanding biocompatibility, high efficiency In terms of sensitivity and specificity [41]. The scope of these more complex nanoplatforms In healthcare is beyond every technology making them useful in pre-clinical assessments, encompassing molecular and synthetic biology to environmental monItoring (e.g., pollution control to establish the link between air quality and pathogens in asthma, infections, allergies, or oral cancers). Each nanoplatform has its own attributes and characteristics depend  upon the substrate, cost, adaptability, efficacy specificity, heterogeneity, outcome generation, diversity and specific process [42]. For instance, a novel approach involving a microfluidic system, namely disruption and field-enhanced (DFE) delivery, was recently employed to mechanically squeeze cells, disrupt membranes and promote DNA transfer at exceptional rates [43].

    5. Conclusion and Perspectives

    The prominent role of nanotechnology in current healthcare advancements has been thoroughly investigated These maior advancements include advanced nanomaterials (e.g., NPs and nanostructures), nanodevices and nanosystems. Despite remaining concerns, progress in the field of nanobiotechnology opened many new avenues which Is encouraging the perspective to deal with the matter at nanoscale when human health is especially concerned. The growing interest aims to quantify the mechanisms and behaviors of living systems, as well as record the signals produced by them using means that can be encoded and read through the naked eye. This implicates measuring and calculating the Individual's early symptoms and changes In a given type of cells (including SCs, engineered cells)or from a specific disease (i.e., cancers, diabetes, CVD, obesity, rare genetic syndromes). According to us, studies devoted to demonstrate the benefits of nanotechnology over (or combined with )genetic engineering and/or SC theranostics will represent a veritable asset for humanity.

    This entry is adapted from 10.2174/1573413715666191126093258

    References

    1. Elham Abbasi; Sedigheh Fekri Aval; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh; Morteza Milani; Hamid Tayefi Nasrabadi; Sang Joo; Younes Hanifehpour; Kazem Nejati-Koshki; Roghiyeh Pashaei-Asl; Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties. Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9, 247-247, 10.1186/1556-276x-9-247.
    2. Mohamed AbdelGawad; Aaron R. Wheeler; The Digital Revolution: A New Paradigm for Microfluidics. Advanced Materials 2009, 21, 920-925, 10.1002/adma.200802244.
    3. Abhilash, M.; Insilico analysis of cranberry proanthocyanidin Epicatechin (4beta-8,2beta-0-7) as an inhibitor for modelled afimbrial adhesin virulence protein of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2010, 1, 1-7, .
    4. Sarit S. Agasti; Apiwat Chompoosor; Chang-Cheng You; Partha Ghosh; Chae Kyu Kim; Vincent M. Rotello; Photoregulated Release of Caged Anticancer Drugs from Gold Nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009, 131, 5728-5729, 10.1021/ja900591t.
    5. Tugce Akyazi; Lourdes Basabe-Desmonts; Fernando Benito-Lopez; Review on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices towards commercialisation. Analytica Chimica Acta 2018, 1001, 1-17, 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.010.
    6. Mohamed Al-Fandi; Nid’’A H. Alshraiedeh; Rami Oweis; Hala Alshdaifat; Omamah Al-Mahaseneh; Khadijah Al-Tall; Rawan Alawneh; Rami Owies; Novel Selective Detection Method of Tumor Angiogenesis Factors Using Living Nano-Robots. Sensors 2017, 17, 1580, 10.3390/s17071580.
    7. David Alcantara; Soledad López; María Luisa García-Martín; David Pozo; Iron oxide nanoparticles as magnetic relaxation switching (MRSw) sensors: Current applications in nanomedicine. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2016, 12, 1253-1262, 10.1016/j.nano.2016.01.005.
    8. P. Alpuim; S. A. Filonovich; C.M. Costa; P. F. Rocha; M. I. Vasilevskiy; S. Lanceros-Mendez; C. Frias; A. Torres Marques; R. Soares; Fabrication of a strain sensor for bone implant failure detection based on piezoresistive doped nanocrystalline silicon. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 2008, 354, 2585-2589, 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2007.09.094.
    9. S. Altundemir; A. K. Uguz; Kutlu O. Ulgen; A review on wax printed microfluidic paper-based devices for international health. Biomicrofluidics 2017, 11, 041501, 10.1063/1.4991504.
    10. Chava Angell; Mingxuan Kai; Sibai Xie; Xiangyi Dong; Yi Chen; Bioderived DNA Nanomachines for Potential Uses in Biosensing, Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Applications. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2018, 7, e1701189, 10.1002/adhm.201701189.
    11. Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Pouratian, Nader; Sherman, Jonathan; et al.; Advances in brain tumor surgery. NEUROLOGIC CLINICS 2007, 25, 975, .
    12. Sandya S. Athukoralalage; Rajkamal Balu; Naba Kumar Dutta; N. Roy Choudhury; 3D Bioprinted Nanocellulose-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications: A Brief Review. Polymers 2019, 11, 898, 10.3390/polym11050898.
    13. M. B. Avinash; Elisabeth Verheggen; Carsten Schmuck; T. Govindaraju; Self-Cleaning Functional Molecular Materials. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 10324-10328, 10.1002/anie.201204608.
    14. Ganesan Balasundaram; Thomas J Thomas Webster; An Overview of Nano-Polymers for Orthopedic Applications. Macromolecular Bioscience 2007, 7, 635-642, 10.1002/mabi.200600270.
    15. Irena Barbulovic-Nad; Hao Yang; Philip S. Park; Aaron R. Wheeler; Digital microfluidics for cell-based assays. Lab on a Chip 2008, 8, 519-526, 10.1039/b717759c.
    16. Aoune Barhoumi; Qian Liu; Daniel S. Kohane; Ultraviolet light-mediated drug delivery: Principles, applications, and challenges. Journal of Controlled Release 2015, 219, 31-42, 10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.07.018.
    17. John Beaulaurier; Eric E. Schadt; Gang Fang; Deciphering bacterial epigenomes using modern sequencing technologies. Nature Reviews Genetics 2018, 20, 157-172, 10.1038/s41576-018-0081-3.
    18. Erwin Berthier; David J. Guckenberger; Peter Cavnar; Anna Huttenlocher; Nancy P. Keller; David J. Beebe; Kit-On-A-Lid-Assays for accessible self-contained cell assays.. Lab on a Chip 2013, 13, 424-31, 10.1039/c2lc41019b.
    19. Arpit Bhargava; Vikram Pareek; Subhasree Roy Choudhury; Jitendra Panwar; Surajit Karmakar; Superior Bactericidal Efficacy of Fucose-Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles againstPseudomonas aeruginosaPAO1 and Prevention of Its Colonization on Urinary Catheters. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10, 29325-29337, 10.1021/acsami.8b09475.
    20. Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Dave, Kaushalkumar; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna; Microneedles in the clinic. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE 2017, 260, 164-182, .
    21. Alberto Bianco; Kostas Kostarelos; Maurizio Prato; Opportunities and challenges of carbon-based nanomaterials for cancer therapy. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 2008, 5, 331-342, 10.1517/17425247.5.3.331.
    22. Hale Bila; Eva E. Kurisinkal; Maartje M. C. Bastings; Engineering a stable future for DNA-origami as a biomaterial. Biomaterials Science 2019, 7, 532-541, 10.1039/c8bm01249k.
    23. Sara A. Brenner; John F. Ling; Nanotechnology Applications in Orthopedic Surgery. Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine 2012, 3, 024501, 10.1115/1.4006923.
    24. A. Cacchioli; F. (Francesca) Ravanetti; R. Alinovi; S. Pinelli; F. Rossi; M. Negri; E. Bedogni; M. Campanini; M. Galetti; M. Goldoni; et al. Cytocompatibility and Cellular Internalization Mechanisms of SiC/SiO2 Nanowires. Nano Letters 2014, 14, 4368-4375, 10.1021/nl501255m.
    25. Tyler Camp; Mark McLean; Mallory Kato; Lionel E. Cheruzel; Stephen G. Sligar; The hydrodynamic motion of Nanodiscs. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 2019, 220, 28-35, 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2019.02.008.
    26. Emanuel Carrilho; Scott T. Phillips; Sarah J. Vella; Andres W. Martinez; George M. Whitesides; Paper Microzone Plates. Analytical Chemistry 2009, 81, 5990-5998, 10.1021/ac900847g.
    27. Riccardo Cazzoli; Fiamma Buttitta; Marta Di Nicola; Sara Malatesta; Antonio Marchetti; William N. Rom; Harvey I. Pass; microRNAs Derived from Circulating Exosomes as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Screening and Diagnosing Lung Cancer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology 2013, 8, 1156-1162, 10.1097/jto.0b013e318299ac32.
    28. Juliana M. Chan; Liangfang Zhang; Rong Tong; Debuyati Ghosh; Weiwei Gao; Grace Liao; Kai P. Yuet; David Gray; June-Wha Rhee; Jianjun Cheng; et al. Spatiotemporal controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2010, 107, 2213-2218, 10.1073/pnas.0914585107.
    29. Arun Richard Chandrasekaran; Nate Anderson; Megan Kizer; Ken Halvorsen; Xing Wang; Beyond the Fold: Emerging Biological Applications of DNA Origami. ChemBioChem 2016, 17, 1081-1089, 10.1002/cbic.201600038.
    30. Chavda, Vivek P.; Nanobased Nano Drug Delivery: A Comprehensive Review. APPLICATIONS OF TARGETED NANO DRUGS AND DELIVERY SYSTEMS: NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DRUG DELIVERY 2019, 1, 69-92, .
    31. Feng Chen; Min Bai; Yue Zhao; Ke Cao; Xiaowen Cao; Yongxi Zhao; MnO2-Nanosheet-Powered Protective Janus DNA Nanomachines Supporting Robust RNA Imaging. Analytical Chemistry 2018, 90, 2271-2276, 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04634.
    32. Jun Chen; Sithira Ratnayaka; Aaron Alford; Veronika Kozlovskaya; Fei Liu; Bing Xue; Kenneth Hoyt; Eugenia Kharlampieva; Theranostic Multilayer Capsules for Ultrasound Imaging and Guided Drug Delivery. ACS Nano 2017, 11, 3135-3146, 10.1021/acsnano.7b00151.
    33. Jyh-Ping Chen; Yun Chiang; Bioactive Electrospun Silver Nanoparticles-Containing Polyurethane Nanofibers as Wound Dressings. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2010, 10, 7560-7564, 10.1166/jnn.2010.2829.
    34. Nan Cheng; Dan Du; Xinxian Wang; Dong Liu; Wentao Xu; Yunbo Luo; Yuehe Lin; Recent Advances in Biosensors for Detecting Cancer-Derived Exosomes. Trends in Biotechnology 2019, 37, 1236-1254, 10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.04.008.
    35. Ja Young Cheon; Su Jun Kim; Young Ha Rhee; Oh Hyeong Kwon; Won Ho Park; Shape-dependent antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2019, 14, 2773-2780, 10.2147/ijn.s196472.
    36. Chun-Wei Chi; Ah Rezwanuddin Ahmed; Zeynep Dereli-Korkut; Sihong Wang; Microfluidic cell chips for high-throughput drug screening. Bioanalysis 2016, 8, 921-937, 10.4155/bio-2016-0028.
    37. Maria Serena Chiriacò; Monica Bianco; Annamaria Nigro; Elisabetta Primiceri; Francesco Ferrara; Alessandro Romano; Angelo Quattrini; Roberto Furlan; Valentina Arima; G. Maruccio; et al. Lab-on-Chip for Exosomes and Microvesicles Detection and Characterization. Sensors 2018, 18, 3175, 10.3390/s18103175.
    38. Young Wook Chun; Spencer W Crowder; Steven C Mehl; Xintong Wang; Hojae Bae; Hak-Joon Sung; THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CARDIOVASCULAR AND PULMONARY REGENERATION. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 2013, 7, e201304005, 10.5936/csbj.201304005.
    39. Haile Fentahun Darge; Abegaz Tizazu Andrgie; Hsieh-Chih Tsai; Juin-Yih Lai; Polysaccharide and polypeptide based injectable thermo-sensitive hydrogels for local biomedical applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2019, 133, 545-563, 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.131.
    40. Nadim Darwish; Albert C. Aragonès; Tamim Darwish; Simone Ciampi; Ismael Díez-Pérez; Multi-Responsive Photo- and Chemo-Electrical Single-Molecule Switches. Nano Letters 2014, 14, 7064-7070, 10.1021/nl5034599.
    41. Nuno Miguel Matos Pires; Tao Dong; Ulrik Hanke; Nils Hoivik; Recent Developments in Optical Detection Technologies in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Biosensing Applications. Sensors 2014, 14, 15458-15479, 10.3390/s140815458.
    42. Florian Praetorius; Benjamin Kick; Karl L. Behler; Maximilian N. Honemann; Dirk Weuster-Botz; Hendrik Dietz; Biotechnological mass production of DNA origami. Nature 2017, 552, 84-87, 10.1038/nature24650.
    43. Ling Qiu; Jeffery Z. Liu; Shery L.Y. Chang; Yanzhe Wu; Dan Li; Biomimetic superelastic graphene-based cellular monoliths. Nature Communications 2012, 3, 1241, 10.1038/ncomms2251.
    More