1. Please check and comment entries here.
Table of Contents


    Any oenological tool is expected to reveal its goodness once it is used during winemaking. An oenological tool can be any type of element whose use can improve both the winemaking process and the final result. Therefore, use of natural elements such as bee pollen, thanks to its rich composition, could provide nutrients to yeasts and improve fermentation kinetics.

    1. Introduction

    A nutrient deficiency, the presence of residues, and the presence of undesirable substances originating from the treatment of vineyards with pesticides[1][2][3] are some of the main factors that may slow down or even stop the alcoholic fermentation (AF) of grape-musts that winemakers have to face[2][4]. Furthermore, temperature increments due to the current global warming is affecting grape ripening processes and resulting in unbalanced musts[5][6][7]. Many of the problems that are associated with poor compound compensation in grape-musts are triggered by a content deficiency with regard to yeast easily assimilated nitrogen, vitamins, and other micronutrients[8][9][10]. This may eventually lead to cell viability problems[11] that could impact the sensory profile of the final wines[12][13].

    2. Data

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) must content is a crucial factor for the development of yeast populations. Depending on its potential alcoholic strength and fermentation conditions, inorganic and organic nitrogen, as well as ammonium salts and amino acids[14], should be found in grape-musts at over 140 mg/L[5][15][15][16][17][18][19][20]. However, such a concentration level and other compound concentrations may vary depending on the geographical location of the vineyard[21], the cultivar[22] or the rootstock used[23][24], and viticulture techniques that are implemented[23][25][26]. Since wine making yeasts metabolize both YAN and other nutrients while growing and developing biomass[27] as part of the vinification process, a proper YAN level is essential both for indigenous yeasts and commercial strains of active dry yeast[19][28][29][30].

    When Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is used to ferment wine, it consumes YAN through several molecular mechanisms[31]. If grape-must presents a poor YAN content, wine makers add fermentation activators to induce an increment of biomass content and enhance their metabolization to enhance the oenological characteristics of final wines[19][32][33]. There are many and diverse products used by wine makers to compensate for nutritional deficiencies. The purpose of such products is to boost fermentation kinetics and cell multiplication, as well as to improve the anaerobic conditions of the fermentation medium[33][34][35][36].

    This entry is adapted from 10.3390/agronomy10050634


    1. Suárez-Lepe, J. A.. Levaduras Vínicas. Funcionalidad y Uso en Bodega; Madrid Mundi-Prensa, Eds.; Mundi-Prensa: Madrid, Spain, 1997; pp. Complete.
    2. Fleet, G.H.. Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology; CRC Press, Eds.; Boca Raton: FL, USA, 1993; pp. Complete.
    3. L.B. Webb; P.H. Whetton; E.W.R. Barlow; Modelled impact of future climate change on the phenology of winegrapes in Australia. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 2007, 13, 165-175, 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2007.tb00247.x.
    4. Bisson, L.F.; Stuck and sluggish fermentations.. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1999, 50, 107-119, .
    5. E. Briche; Gérard Beltrando; Samuel Somot; Hervé Quénol; Critical analysis of simulated daily temperature data from the ARPEGE-climate model: application to climate change in the Champagne wine-producing region. Climatic Change 2014, 123, 241-254, 10.1007/s10584-013-1044-5.
    6. Sandro Sacchelli; Sara Fabbrizzi; Silvio Menghini; Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review. Wine Economics and Policy 2016, 5, 114-126, 10.1016/j.wep.2016.08.001.
    7. Gregory V. Jones; Michael White; Owen R. Cooper; Karl Storchmann; Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Climatic Change 2005, 73, 319-343, 10.1007/s10584-005-4704-2.
    8. Ough, C.; Davenport, M.; Joseph, K.; Effects of Certain Vitamins on Growth and Fermentation Rate of Several Commercial Active Dry Wine Yeasts.. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1989, 40, 208–213, .
    9. Bely, M.; Sablayrolles, J.M.; Barre, P.; Description of alcoholic fermentation kinetics: Its variability and significance. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1990, 41, 319–324, .
    10. Bataillon, M.; Rico, A.; Sablayrolles, J.M.; Salmon, J.M.; Barre, P.; Early thiamin assimilation by yeasts under enological conditions: Impact on alcoholic fermentation kinetics. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1996, 82, 145–150, .
    11. Patricia Reboredo Rodríguez; C. González-Barreiro; Raquel Rial-Otero; B. Cancho-Grande; Jesús Simal-Gandara; Effects of Sugar Concentration Processes in Grapes and Wine Aging on Aroma Compounds of Sweet Wines—A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2015, 55, 1053-1073, 10.1080/10408398.2012.680524.
    12. Ramón Mira De Orduña; Climate change associated effects on grape and wine quality and production. Food Res. Int. 2010, 43, 1844-1855, 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.05.001.
    13. C. González-Barreiro; Raquel Rial-Otero; B. Cancho-Grande; Jesús Simal-Gandara; Wine Aroma Compounds in Grapes: A Critical Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2015, 55, 202-218, 10.1080/10408398.2011.650336.
    14. Henschke, P.A.; Jiranek, V. Yeast: Metabolism of nitrogen compounds. In Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1993; pp. 77–164.
    15. Henschke, P.A.; Jiranek, V. Yeast: Metabolism of nitrogen compounds. In Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1993; pp. 77–164.
    16. Bely, M.; Sablayrolles, J.-M.; Barre, P.; Automatic detection of assimilable nitogen deficiencies during alcoholic fermentation in enological conditions. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1990, 70, 246-252, .
    17. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Dubourdieu, D.; Donéche, B.; Lonvaud, A.. Tratado de Enologia: Microbiología del Vino. Vinificacione; Mundi Prensa: Madrid, Eds.; Madrid: Madrid, Spain, 2003; pp. Complete.
    18. Sally-Jean Bell; P.A. Henschke; Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes, fermentation and wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 2005, 11, 242-295, 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2005.tb00028.x.
    19. Gemma Beltran; Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso; Nicolas Rozès; Albert Mas; José Manuel Guillamón; Influence of the Timing of Nitrogen Additions during Synthetic Grape Must Fermentations on Fermentation Kinetics and Nitrogen Consumption. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005, 53, 996-1002, 10.1021/jf0487001.
    20. Varongsiri Kemsawasd; Tiago Viana; Ylva Ardö; Nils Arneborg; Influence of nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance of different wine yeast species during alcoholic fermentation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2015, 99, 10191-10207, 10.1007/s00253-015-6835-3.
    21. A. Rapp; G. Versini; Influence of nitrogen compounds in grapes on aroma compounds of wines. Developments in Food Science 1995, 37, 1659-1694, 10.1016/s0167-4501(06)80257-8.
    22. Coldea, T.E.; Mudura, E.; Rotar, A.M.; Rodica, C.; Salant, ă, L.; Cornea, A.; Chemical composition, total phenolic content and colour of red wine obtained from grapes autochthonous to Romania.. J. Agroaliment. Process. 2015, 21, 181-185, .
    23. R. Paul Schreiner; James Osborne; Patricia A. Skinkis; Nitrogen Requirements of Pinot noir Based on Growth Parameters, Must Composition, and Fermentation Behavior. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2018, 69, 45-58, 10.5344/ajev.2017.17043.
    24. Stines, A.P.; Grubb, J.; Gockowiak, H.; Henschke, P.A.; Høj, P.B.; Heeswijck, R.; Van Proline and arginine accumulation in developing berries of Vitis vinifera L. in Australian vineyards: Influence of vine cultivar, berry maturity and tissue type.. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 2000, 6, 150-158, .
    25. Spayd, S.E.; Wample, R.L.; Evans, R.G.; Stevens, R.G.; Seymour, B.J.; Nagel, C.W.; Nitrogen fertilization of white Riesling grapes in Washington. Must and wine composition.. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1994, 45, 34-42, .
    26. Wample, R.L.; Spayd, S.E.; Evans, R.G.; Stevens, R.G.; Nitrogen fertilization of White Riesling grapes in Washington: Nitrogen seasonal effects on bud cold hardiness and carbohydrate reserves.. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1993, 44, 159-167, .
    27. Mar Vilanova; Tracey E. Siebert; Cristian Varela; Isak S. Pretorius; P.A. Henschke; Effect of ammonium nitrogen supplementation of grape juice on wine volatiles and non-volatiles composition of the aromatic grape variety Albariño. Food Chem. 2012, 133, 124-131, 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.12.082.
    28. Alicia Gutierrez; Rosana Chiva; José Manuel Guillamón; Arginine addition in the stationary phase influences the fermentation rate and synthesis of aroma compounds in a synthetic must fermented by three commercial wine strains. LWT 2015, 60, 1009-1016, 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.10.002.
    29. Alicia Gutierrez; Rosana Chiva; Marta Sancho; Gemma Beltran; Francisco Noé Arroyo-López; José Manuel Guillamón; Nitrogen requirements of commercial wine yeast strains during fermentation of a synthetic grape must. Food Microbiol. 2012, 31, 25-32, 10.1016/j.fm.2012.02.012.
    30. Patricio Gutiérrez; Ana Roldan; Ildefonso Caro; Luis Perez; Kinetic study of the velum formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beticus ssp.) during the biological aging of wines. Process Biochemistry 2010, 45, 493-499, 10.1016/j.procbio.2009.11.005.
    31. Antoine Gobert; Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal; Céline Sparrow; Christophe Morge; Hervé Alexandre; Influence of nitrogen status in wine alcoholic fermentation. Food Microbiol. 2019, 83, 71-85, 10.1016/j.fm.2019.04.008.
    32. E Albers; C Larsson; G Lidén; Claes Niklasson; L Gustafsson; Influence of the nitrogen source on Saccharomyces cerevisiae anaerobic growth and product formation.. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 1996, 62, 3187-3195, 10.1128/aem.62.9.3187-3195.1996.
    33. Teresa Garde-Cerdán; Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta; Effect of the addition of different quantities of amino acids to nitrogen-deficient must on the formation of esters, alcohols, and acids during wine alcoholic fermentation. LWT 2008, 41, 501-510, 10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.018.
    34. Purificación Hernández-Orte; M.J Ibarz; J Cacho; Vicente Ferreira; Effect of the addition of ammonium and amino acids to musts of Airen variety on aromatic composition and sensory properties of the obtained wine. Food Chem. 2005, 89, 163-174, 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.021.
    35. Margaluz Arias-Gil; Teresa Garde-Cerdán; Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta; Influence of addition of ammonium and different amino acid concentrations on nitrogen metabolism in spontaneous must fermentation. Food Chem. 2007, 103, 1312-1318, 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.037.
    36. Katarzyna Kotarska; Bogusław Czupryński; Grzegorz Kłosowski; Effect of various activators on the course of alcoholic fermentation. Journal of Food Engineering 2006, 77, 965-971, 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.08.041.