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Seaweeds and Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the onset and exacerbation of various conditions including dyslipidemia, activation of the renin–angiotensin system, vascular endothelial cell damage, and oxidative stress, is a leading cause of high mortality rates and accounts for one-third of deaths worldwide. Accordingly, as dietary changes in daily life are thought to greatly reduce the prevalence of CVD, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the potential use of foods and their bioactive components for preventing and treating CVD. In particular, seaweeds contain unique bioactive metabolites that are not found in terrestrial plants because of the harsh environment in which they survive, leading to in vitro and in vivo studies of their prevention and treatment effects.
2. Marine Natural Product on Hyperlipidemia
|Seaweeds||Experimental Models||Effects (% or mmol/L)||Ref.|
|Himanthalia elongate, B||Hypercholesterolaemic wistar rats
: 21% in diets for four weeks
|↓: TG by 28%
↑: HDL-C by 20%
|Gigartina pistillata, R||Hypercholesterolaemic wistar rats
: 23% in diets for four weeks
|↓: TG by 30%, TC by 18%, LDL-C by 16%|||
|Derbesia tenuissima, G||High-Fat Fed Rats
: 5% in diets for eight weeks
|↓: TG by 38% and TC by 17%|||
|Gracilaria changii, R||High-cholesterol/high-fat Sprague Dawley rats
: 5% or 10% in diets for eight weeks
↓: TC by 39.19%, LDL-C by 36.36%, TG by 25.45%
↓: TC by 40.34%, LDL-C by 35.95%, TG by 30.91%
|Ecklonia cava, B||STZ-diabetic mice
: 5% in diets for four weeks
|↓: TG by 72%, TC by 53%, and LDL-C by 78%|||
|Ecklonia stolonifera, B||3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells
: Phloroglucinol, Eckol, Dieckol, Dioxinodehydroeckol, Phlorofucofuroeckol A,
12.5 to 100 µM, eight days
|↓: lipid accumulation.
↓: level of adipocyte marker genes
|Rhizoclonium implexum, G||A: Adult Albino rats (Sprauge-Dawley)
T: Triton-induced hyperlipidaemic rats
H: High-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats
: 10 mg/200 g/day for 12 days, OA
|A: ↓: TC by 14.4%, TG by 26.4%, LDL-C by 25.5%
↑: HDL-C by 3.1%
|Dictyota Indica, B||A:↓: TC by 13.5%, TG by 24.6%, LDL-C by 25.4%
↑: HDL-C by 3.1%
|Padina pavonia, B||A: ↓: TC by 26.5%, TG by 37%, LDL-C by 54.3%
↑: HDL-C by 23.5%
|Stoechospermum marginatum, B||A: ↓: TC by 21.7%, TG by 40.2%, LDL-C by 30%
↑: HDL-C by 6.2%
|Stokeyia indica, B||A: ↓: TC by 22.6%, TG by 17.2%, LDL-C by 40.9%
↑: HDL-C by 0.7%
|Jolyna laminarioides, B||A: ↓: TC by 10%, TG by 49%, LDL-C by 28.7%
↑: HDL-C by 23.5%
|T: ↓: TC by 41.2%, TG by 25.2%, LDL-C by 92.4%
↑: HDL-C by 60.6%
|H: ↓: TC by 19.8%, TG by 31.6%, LDL-C by 34.5%
↑: HDL-C by 33.1%
|Sargassum binderi, B||A: ↓: TC by 20.5%, TG by 4.2%, LDL-C by 28.0%, HDL-C by 17.4%|
|T: ↓: TC by 37.6%, TG by 52.2%, LDL-C by 51.1%
↑: HDL-C by 8.6%
|H: ↓: TC by 2.5%, TG by 33%, LDL-C by 2.9%
↑: HDL-C by 30%
|Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, R||A: ↓: TC by 10.3%, TG by 36.1%, LDL-C by 17.5%
↑: HDL-C by 5%
|T: ↓: TC by 35.2%, TG by 43.2%, LDL-C by 71.4%
↑: HDL-C by 57.3%
|H: ↓: TC by 14.2%, TG by 25.1%, LDL-C by 5.4%
↑: HDL-C by 16.8%
|Fucoidan from Sargassum henslowianum (B)||High-fat diet albino mice of BALB/c strain
: 100 mg/kg/day for four weeks, OA
|↓: TC by 21.09%, TG by 6.35%, LDL-C by 18.74%|||
|Carrageenans||Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) patients
: 250 mg/day for 20 days, OA
|↓: TC by 16.5%, LDL-C by 33.5%|||
|Kappaphycus alvarezii, R||High-cholesterol diet Male Sprague–Dawley rats
: 300 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, OA
|↓: TC by 1.91±0.62%, TG by 0.65±0.05, LDL-C by 1.65±0.08 (mmol/L)
↑: HDL-C by 1.74±0.08 (mmol/L)
|Sargassum polycystum, B||↓: TC by 1.91±0.62%, TG by 0.65±0.05, LDL-C by 1.65±0.08 (mmol/L)
↑: HDL-C by 1.74±0.08 (mmol/L)
|Ulva fasciata, G||High-cholesterol diet rats
: 175 mg/kg/day for four weeks, OA
|↓: TC by 46.43%, TG by 69.03%, LDL-C by 81.04%
↑: HDL-C by 668.31%
|Ulva lactuca, G||Hypercholesterolemic diet rats
: 250 mg/kg/day for four weeks, OA
|↑: HDL-C by 180%|||
|Monostroma nitidum, G||lipid-loaded hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line)
: 200 µg/mL for one day
|↓: Cellular cholesterol by 36%, TG by 31%,|||
|Fucoidan||Hyperlipidemic diet mice
: 10 to 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks, OA
|↓: TC, TG and LDL-C
|Fucoxanthin||Hyperlipidemic diet mice
: 21% in diets for six weeks, OA
|↓: Liver TG synthesis, adipocyte fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol-regulating enzyme activity
↑: Plasma HDL-C
↑: Fecal TG level
3. Marine Natural Products Affect Endothelial Dysfunction
|Astaxanthin||ISO-induced myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy model in rats
: 25 mg/kg/day for two weeks, OA
|↓: ROS generation in heart tissue
↓: Oxidative damage
↑: Antioxidant enzyme activity
|STZ-induced diabetes in male rats
: 10 mg/kg/d, OA
|↓: Blunted endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to Ach
↓: Aorta-induced oxidative stress and LOX-1 levels
↑: eNOS levels
|Dieckol||High glucose stimulation in cultured vascular endothelial cells.
: 10 or 50 μg/mL
|↓: ROS production
↓: iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB levels
|Eckol and its derivates||Cultured vascular endothelial cells/mice
: 50∼200 μg/mL
|Protects the vascular barrier|||
|DPHC from Ishige okamurae||Cultured vascular endothelial (EA.hy926) cells)/Tg(flk:EGFP) Transgenic Zebrafish
: 100 μM/0.6 μM
|↑: Ach receptor and VEGF receptor 2
↑: NO production
↑: Ca2+ release
↑: Endothelium vasodilation
|Sulfated polysaccharides from Padina tetrastromatica||ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats
: 50 mg/kg/day for 12 days, OA
↓: Endothelial dysfunction
↓: Inflammatory reactions
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/md19090507
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