- Please check and comment entries here.
Orchard Target-Oriented Spraying Systems
Pests in orchards are mainly controlled through the use of chemical pesticides, which decrease fruit loss by 66% to 90%. Orchard air-assisted spraying technology is recommended as highly effective by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and this method has been widely used for orchard pest control. Traditional orchard air-assisted spraying methods involve spraying a pesticide solution in a continuous and uniform manner. This not only requires a large amount of pesticide, but also causes environmental pollution due to the drift of excess spray into the air and onto the ground. To address this problem, orchard air-assisted target-oriented spraying systems with various sensors have been developed, thus enabling variable-rate spraying based on information such as tree location, canopy profile and leaf density, and significantly reducing the amount of pesticides used.
Orchard pesticide off-target deposition and drift cause substantial soil and water pollution, and other environmental pollution. Orchard target-oriented spraying technologies have been used to reduce the deposition and drift caused by off-target spraying and control environmental pollution to within an acceptable range. Two target-oriented spraying systems based on photoelectric sensors or ultrasonic sensors were developed. Three spraying treatments of young cherry trees and adult apple trees were conducted using a commercial sprayer with a photoelectric-based target-oriented spraying system, an ultrasonic-based target-oriented spraying system or no target-oriented spraying system. A rhodamine tracer was used instead of pesticide. Filter papers were fixed in the trees and on the ground. The tracer on the filter papers was washed off to calculate the deposition distribution in the trees and on the ground. The deposition data were used to evaluate the systems and pesticide off-target deposition achieved with orchard target-oriented sprayers. The results showed that the two target-oriented spraying systems greatly reduced the ground deposition compared to that caused by off-target spraying. Compared with that from off-target spraying, the ground deposition from photoelectric-based (trunk-based) and ultrasonic-based (canopy-based) target-oriented spraying decreased by 50.63% and 38.74%, respectively, for the young fruit trees and by 21.66% and 29.87%, respectively, for the adult fruit trees. The trunk-based target-oriented detection method can be considered more suitable for young trees, whereas the canopy-based target-oriented detection method can be considered more suitable for adult trees. The maximum ground deposition occurred 1.5 m from the tree trunk at the back of the tree canopy and was caused by the high airflow at the air outlet of the sprayer. A suitable air speed and air volume at the air outlet of the sprayer can reduce pesticide deposition on the ground.
2. Pests in Orchards
The entry is from 10.3390/agriculture11080753
- He, X. Research progress and developmental recommendations on precision spraying technology and equipment in China. Smart Agric. 2020, 2, 133–146.
- Wandkar, S.V.; Bhatt, Y.C.; Jain, H.K.; Nalawade, S.M.; Pawar, S.G. Real-time variable rate spraying in orchards and vineyards: A review. J. Inst. Eng. Ser. A 2018, 99, 385–390.
- Zhai, C.; Zhao, C.; Wang, N.; Long, J.; Zhang, H. Research progress on precision control methods of air-assisted spraying in orchards. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 2018, 34, 1–15.
- Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Lai, Q.; Zhang, Z. Review of variable-rate sprayer applications based on real-time sensor technologies. Autom. Agric. Secur. Food Supplies Future Gener. 2018, 4, 53–79.
- Hassen, N.S.; Sidik, N.A.C.; Sheriff, J.M. Advanced techniques for reducing spray losses in agrochemical application system. Life Sci. J. 2014, 11, 56–66.
- Eugen, M.; Mihai, M.; Mihaela, N.; Gabriel, G. Experimental researches regarding assessment of coverage degree obtained by orchard spraying machine. In Proceedings of the 16th International Scientific Conference: Engineering for Rural Development, Jelgava, Latvia, 24–26 May 2017.
- Michael, C.; Gil, E.; Gallart, M.; Stavrinides, M.C. Influence of Spray Technology and Application Rate on Leaf Deposit and Ground Losses in Mountain Viticulture. Agriculture 2020, 10, 615.
- Michael, C.; Gil, E.; Gallart, M.; Stavrinides, M.C. Evaluation of the effects of spray technology and volume rate on the control of grape berry moth in mountain viticulture. Agriculture 2021, 11, 178.
- Brown, D.L.; Giles, D.K.; Oliver, M.N.; Klassen, P. Targeted spray technology to reduce pesticide in runoff from dormant orchards. Crop Prot. 2008, 27, 545–552.
- Llorens, J.; Gil, E.; Llop, J. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: Advances to improve pesticide application methods. Sensors 2011, 11, 2177–2194.
- Miranda-Fuentes, A.; Rodríguez-Lizana, A.; Cuenca, A.; González-Sánchez, E.J.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Gil-Ribes, J.A. Improving plant protection product applications in traditional and intensive olive orchards through the development of new prototype air-assisted sprayers. Crop Prot. 2017, 94, 44–58.
- Abbas, I.; Liu, J.; Faheem, M.; Noor, R.S.; Shaikh, S.A.; Solangi, K.A.; Raza, S.M. Different real-time sensor technologies for the application of variable-rate spraying in agriculture. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 2020, 316, 112265.
- Lee, W.S.; Alchanatis, V.; Yang, C.; Hirafuji, M.; Moshou, D.; Li, C. Sensing technologies for precision specialty crop production. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2010, 74, 2–33.
- Rosell, J.R.; Sanz, R. A review of methods and applications of the geometric characterization of tree crops in agricultural activities. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2012, 81, 124–141.
- Zhou, L.; Xue, X.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.; Ding, S.; Chang, C.; Zhang, X.; Chen, C. Research situation and progress analysis on orchard variable rate spraying technology. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 2017, 33, 80–92.
- He, X.; Zeng, A.; Liu, Y.; Song, J. Precision orchard sprayer based on automatically infrared target detecting and electrostatic spraying techniques. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng. 2011, 4, 35–40.
- Zhai, C.; Zhao, C.; Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Xue, W. Design and experiment of young tree target detector. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 2012, 28, 18–22.
- Zou, W.; Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Su, S.; Wang, S.; Fan, P. Design and test of automatic toward-target sprayer used in orchard. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Shenyang, China, 8–12 June 2015; pp. 697–702.
- Giles, D.K.; Delwiche, M.J.; Dodd, R.B. Sprayer control by sensing orchard crop characteristics: Orchard architecture and spray liquid savings. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 1989, 43, 271–289.
- Doruchowski, G.; Swiechowski, W.; Godyn, A.; Holownicki, R. Automatically controlled sprayer to implement spray drift reducing application strategies in orchards. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 2011, 19, 175–182.
- Hołownicki, R.; Doruchowski, G.; Świechowski, W.; Godyń, A.; Konopacki, P.J. Variable air assistance system for orchard sprayers; concept, design and preliminary testing. Biosyst. Eng. 2017, 163, 134–149.
- Maghsoudi, H.; Minaei, S.; Ghobadian, B.; Masoudi, H. Ultrasonic sensing of pistachio canopy for low-volume precision spraying. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2015, 112, 149–160.
- Gil, E.; Llorens, J.; Llop, J.; Fàbregas, X.; Escolà, A.; Rosell-Polo, J.R. Variable rate sprayer. Part 2-Vineyard prototype: Design, implementation, and validation. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2013, 95, 136–150.
- Petrović, D.; Banaj, Đ.; Banaj, A.; Barač, Ž.; Vidaković, I.; Tadić, V. The impact of conventional and Sensor Spraying on Drift and Deposit in Cherry Orchard. Teh. Vjesn. 2019, 26, 1211–1217.
- Osterman, A.; Godeša, T.; Hočevar, M.; Širok, B.; Stopar, M. Real-time positioning algorithm for variable-geometry air-assisted orchard sprayer. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2013, 98, 175–182.
- Li, L.; He, X.; Song, J.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Jia, X.; Liu, Z. Comparative experiment on profile variable rate spray and conventional air assisted spray in orchards. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 2017, 33, 56–63.
- Zhu, H.; Rosetta, R.; Reding, M.E.; Zondag, R.H.; Ranger, C.M.; Canas, L.; Fulcher, A.; Derksen, R.C.; Erdal Ozkan, H.; Krause, C.R. Validation of a laser-guided variable-rate sprayer for managing insects in ornamental nurseries. Trans. ASABE 2017, 60, 337–345.