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Beer Brewed from Sorghum
Beer is a complex beverage system despite being made up of only four ingredients: yeast, water, hops, and malted grain. Typically, malted barley is used as the primary grain source for brewing, however alternative grains/pseudo-grains like sorghum are gaining popularity. However, the use of sorghum in beer manufacturing does have its issues, which are largely due to its low amylolytic activity (which is insufficient for complete saccharification), high gelatinization temperature, and low free amino content. Sorghum malt has a higher concentration of alpha-amylase and a lower concentration of beta-amylase compared to malted barley. Due to the reduced enzymatic activity of sorghum this deficiency can lead to insufficient production of fermentable sugars, high dextrin content, and increased viscosity. Due to sorghum’s higher gelatinization temperature, the hydrolysis of sugars into fermentable sugars is only partially completed. Thus, resulting in fewer fermentable sugars for the yeast to metabolize for the production of ethanol, and volatile and semi-volatile compounds.
There is currently an increased demand for foodstuffs that are classified as gluten-free including beer. Beer produced using gluten-free grains has a distinct flavor profile that differs greatly from that of beer produced from gluten-containing grains. The chemical difference between beers made from these two different grain sources has been explored and some key differences have been identified. Here malt sources containing gluten (barley) and malt without gluten (sorghum) were used to determine which compounds are statistically different based upon their concentrations. A total of 14 (7 barley and 7 sorghum) small-batch beers were made from malt extract. The aroma profile was sampled using SPME with chemical separation and identification and quantification using GC-MS. As expected, the differences were not the result of unique compounds but compounds present in differing amounts. A total of 17 compounds were found to be present in beer brewed from both extracts but in amounts that were highly significantly different.
2. Sorghum and Beer
The entry is from 10.3390/beverages7030056
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