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Genomics and Crop Domestication
Most domesticated crop species share common traits such as increased yield and seed size and decreased dormancy and seed shattering. Though crop domestication is long and slow, only a few genes are involved in it, and some of them are conserved in various species. Hence, both targeted re-domestication and de novo wild species domestication are feasible. In these processes, targeted genes are identified, introgressed, or modified to produce new cultivars. Unlocking the potential of wild crop species domestication will improve global food security and help realize certain sustainable development goals of the United Nations such as zero poverty (No. 1) and zero hunger (No. 2). Targeted domestication, crop improvement, and mass crop cultivation are generally cost-effective approaches towards these objectives.
Crop domestication occurred ~10,000–12,000 years ago when humans shifted from a hunter–gatherer to an agrarian society. Crops were domesticated by selecting the traits in wild plant species that were suitable for human use. Research is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms and processes involved in modern crop improvement and breeding. Recent advances in genomics have revolutionized our understanding of crop domestication. In this review, we summarized cutting-edge crop domestication research by presenting its (1) methodologies, (2) current status, (3) applications, and (4) perspectives. Advanced genomics approaches have clarified crop domestication processes and mechanisms, and supported crop improvement.
3. Population Genomics
|Crop||Population Type||Population Size||Key Statistic||Discovery||Ref.|
|Rice||Ancestral progenitor; cultivated indica and japonica varieties||1529||Sequence diversity (π) population-differentiation (FST), cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH)||Identify 55 domestication sweeps, and reveal the domesticaiton and development of cultivated rice|||
|Maize||Wild, landraces and improved maize lines||75||π, ρ, FST, Tajima’s D, normalized Fay and Wu’s H, and a composite likelihood approach (XP-CLR)||Evidence of recovery of diversity after domestication, and stronger selection for domestication than improvement|||
|Maize||Ancient samples, modern maizes landraces, and teosintes||134||Mutation load, D-statistics, and f3 and f4 statistic||Reveal domestication center and human-mediated spread of maize|||
|Wheat||Ancient and modern domestic emmer||64||Haplotype structure||Uncover the history and diversity of emmar wheat|||
|Cotton||Wild and domesticated cotton accessions||352||π, FST, and XP-CLR||Identify 93 domestication sweeps|||
The entry is from 10.3390/plants10081571
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