- Please check and comment entries here.
Human granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA)
Human granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is a tick-borne infectious disease transmitted by ticks, resulting in acute feverish episodes. The etiological agent is the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum; which is spread by ticks of the genus Ixodes spp. to complete its life cycle.
2. Patients Infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Human granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is a tick-borne infectious disease transmitted by ticks, resulting in acute feverish episodes. The etiological agent is the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum; which is spread by ticks of the genus Ixodes spp. to complete its life cycle. In Mexico, there is only one case report. The primary challenge is understanding how other bacteria affect or overlap with the clinical manifestation of the disease. Sample collection occurred over the period September 2017 through October 2019. Blood samples from human subjects were obtained immediately after they signed consent forms. We analyzed for the presence for A. phagocytophilum by serological (IFA IgG two times) and PCR targeting 16SrRNA and groEL genes, followed by DNA sequencing. All patients with a history of travel abroad were dismissed for this project. In total, 1924 patients participated and of these, 1014 samples across the country were analyzed. Of these, 85 (8.38%) had IFA results that ranged from 1:384 to 1:896. Of the positive samples, 7.10% were used for PCR. Significant clinical manifestations included: dizziness, nausea, petechial, epistaxis, enlarged liver and/or spleen and thrombocytopenia. Hospitalization of at least 1.5 days was necessary for 3.2% of patients. None of the cases analyzed were lethal. This is the first clinical manifestations along with serological test results and molecular analysis confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum resulting in HGA in patients from Mexico. Health institutions and medical practitioners in general should include diagnostic testing for HGA among high risk populations and should recognize it as a vector-borne emerging infectious disease in Mexico.
The entry is from 10.3390/diseases9020037
- Sosa-Gutierrez, C.G.; Vargas, M.; Torres, J.; Gordillo-Perez, M.G. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in rodents from Mexico. J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 2014, 7, 884–889.
- Dumler, J.S.; Choi, K.S.; Garcia, J.C.; Barat, N.S.; Scorpio, D.G.; Garyu, J.W.; Bakken, J.S. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2005, 11, 1828–1834.
- Nicholson, W.L.; Allen, K.E.; McQuiston, J.H.; Breitschwerdt, E.B.; Little, S.E. The increasing recognition of rickettsial pathogen in dogs and people. Trends Parasitol. 2010, 26, 205–212.
- Guzman, N.; Beidas, S.O. Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Anaplasmosis). In StatPearls; StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island, FL, USA, 2019. Available online: (accessed on 1 February 2021).
- Bakken, J.S.; Dumler, J.S. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 2015, 29, 341–355.
- Biggs, H.M.; Behravesh, C.B.; Bradley, K.K.; Dahlgren, F.S.; Drexler, N.A.; Dumler, J.S.; Traeger, M.S. Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, Ehrlichioses, and Anaplasmosis—United States. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 2016, 65, 1–44.
- Graf, P.C.; Chretien, D.L.; Ung, L.; Gaydos, J.C.; Richards, A.L. Prevalence of seropositivity to Spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a agrge, demographically diverse US sample. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008, 46, 70–77.
- Thomas, R.J.; Dumler, J.S.; Carlyon, J.A. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii Ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev. Anti-Infect. 2009, 7, 709–722.
- Sosa-Gutierrez, C.G.; Cervcantes-Castillo, M.A. First case report of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Mexico with serological and molecular evidence. Biomed. J. Sci. Tech. Res. 2018, 3, 304–306.
- Liz, J.S.; Sumner, J.W.; Pfister, K.; Brossard, M. PCR detection and serological evidence of granulocytic ehrlichial infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002, 40, 892–897.
- Sosa-Gutierrez, C.G.; Vargas-Sandoval, M.; Torres, J.; Gordillo-Pérez, G. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico. J. Vet. Sci. 2016, 17, 353–360.
- Maggi, R.G.; Krämer, F. A review on the occurrence of companion vector-borne diseases in pet animals in Latin America. Parasit Vectors 2019, 12, 145.
- Álvarez-Hernández, G.; Roldán, J.F.G.; Milan, N.S.H.; Lash, R.R.; Behravesh, C.B.; Paddock, C.D. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: Past, present, and future. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2017, 17, e189–e196.
- Álvarez-Hernández, G.; Candia-Plata, M.; Delgado-de la Mora, J.; Acuña-Meléndrez, N.; Vargas-Ortega, A.; Licona-Enríquez, J. Fiebre maculosa de las Montañas Rocosas en niños y adolescentes mexicanos: Cuadro clínico y factores de mortalidad. Salud Pública México 2016, 58, 385–392. (In Spanish)
- Feria-Arroyo, T.P.; Castro-Arellano, I.; Gordillo-Perez, G.; Cavazos, A.L.; Vargas-Sandoval, M.; Grover, A.; Esteve-Gassent, M.D. Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. Parasites Vectors 2014, 7, 199.
- Vargas-sandoval, M.; Priego-Santander, A.G.; Larrazábal, A.; Sosa-Gutierrez, C.G.; Lara-Chavez, M.B.; Avila-Val, T. Potential sepecies distribution and richness of Ixodidae ticks associated with wild vertebrates from Michoacan, Mexico. J. Geogr. Inf. Syst. 2014, 6, 2014.
- Illoldi-Rangel, P.; Rivaldi, C.L.; Sissel, B.; Trout Fryxell, R.; Gordillo-Pérez, G.; Rodríguez-Moreno, A.; Sarkar, S. Species distribution models and ecological suitability analysis for potential tick vectors of lyme disease in Mexico. J. Trop. Med. 2012, 2012, 959101.
- Frans, O.L.; Wilhelmsson, P.; Sjöwall, J.; Jonsson-Henningsson, A.; Nordberg, M.; Jørgensen, C.S.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Forsberg, P.; Lindgren, P.E. Emerging tick-borne pathogens in the Nordic countries: A clinical and laboratory follow-up study of high-risk tick-bitten individuals. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis. 2020, 11, 101303.
- Carpi, G.; Bertolotti, L.; Pecchioli, E.; Cagnacci, F.; Rizzoli, A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum groEL gene heterogeneity in Ixodes ricinus larvae feeding on roe deer in Northeastern Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009, 9, 179–184.
- Dewage, B.G.; Little, S.; Payton, M.; Beall, M.; Braff, J.; Szlosek, D.; Knupp, A. Trends in canine seroprevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. in the eastern USA, 2010–2017. Parasites Vectors 2019, 12, 476.
- Pascoe, E.L.; Stephenson, N.; Abigana, A.; Clifford, D.; Gabriel, M.; Wengert, G.; Brown, R.; Higley, M.; Bloch, E.M.; Foley, J.E. Human Seroprevalence of Tick-Borne Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia Species in Northern California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019.
- Nelder, M.P.; Russell, C.B.; Lindsay, R.; Dibernardo, A.; Brandon, N.C.; Pritchard, J.; Johnson, S.; Cronin, K.; Patel, S.N. Recent Emergence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ontario, Canada: Early Serological and Entomological Indicators. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2019, 1–10.
- Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; van Leeuwen, A.D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Sprong, H. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe. Parasites Vector 2014, 7, 365.
- Sosa-Gutierrez, C.G.; Solorzano-Santos, F.; Walker, D.H.; Torres, J.; Serrano, C.A.; Gordillo-Perez, G. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2016, 22, 871–874.
- Gordillo-Perez, G.; Torres, J.; Solórzano-Santos, F.; De Martino, S.; Lipsker, D.; Velazquez, E.; Jaulhac, B. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and cutaneous Lyme disease, Mexico. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2007, 13, 1556–1558.
- Ismail, N.; Bloch, K.C.; McBride, J.W. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clin. Lab. Med. 2010, 30, 261–292.
- Rojero-Vazquez, E.; Gordillo-Perez, G.; Weber, M. Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. In Opposums and dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The role of tick infestation. Front. Ecol. Evol 2017, 5, 161.
- Movilla, R.; Garcia, C.; Siebert, S.; Roura, X. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico. Parasites Vectors 2016, 9, 421.