- Please check and comment entries here.
Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education
This paper seeks to identify the characteristics of studies of self-regulated learning that consider the use of technology-enriched environments in higher education. To this end, a review was conducted of the scientific literature during the period 2015–2021 in various scientific databases.
2. Selection, Extraction and Presentation in Graphic Form of the Evidence
2.1. Years of Publication of the Evidence Selected
2.2. Context of the Studies
2.3. Research Methodology
2.4. Technological Elements or Environments Used
2.5. Self-Regulation Models
|Reference Models||Technological Resources to Promote Self-Regulation||SRL Assessment Strategies|
|Zimmerman’s cyclical model (2000)||Infographics
Virtual learning environments (LMS)
Interviews with the students
Interview with the teaching staff
|Bandura’s social-cognitive model (1986, 1997)||Virtual learning environments (LMS)
|Boekaerts’s Heuristic Model (1995, 1996)||Virtual learning environments (LMS)||Questionnaires|
|Winne and Hadwin (1998)||Virtual learning environments (LMS)
Intelligent tutoring system
|Virtual learning environments (LMS)
The entry is from 10.3390/su13137281
- Zimmerman, B.J. Theories of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview and Analysis. In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement; Theoretical Perspectives; Zimmerman, B.J., Shunk, Y.D., Eds.; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2001; pp. 1–38.
- Carneiro, R.; Lefrere, P.; Steffens, K. Self-regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: A European Review. Report of the KALEIDOSCOPE Seed Project: Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments. 2007. Available online: (accessed on 12 December 2020).
- Dabbagh, N.; English, M. Using Student Self-Ratings to Assess the Alignment of Instructional Design Competencies and Courses in a Graduate Program. Tech.Trends 2015, 59, 22–31.
- Dabbagh, N.; Kitsantas, A. The role of social media in self-regulated learning. Int. J. Web Based Communities 2013, 9, 256.
- Cabero, J. El Aprendizaje Autorregulado Como Marco Teórico Para la Aplicación Educativa de las Comunidades Virtu-Ales y los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje. Rev. Teoría Educ. Educ. Cult. Soc. Inf. 2013, 14, 133–156. Available online: (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Boekaerts, M. Self-regulated learning: Bridging the gap between metacognitive and metamotivation theories. Educ. Psychol. 1995, 30, 195–200.
- Boekaerts, M.; Pintrich, P.R.; Zeidner, M. (Eds.) Handbook of Self-Regulation; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2000.
- Borkowski, J.G.; Chan LK, S.; Muthukrishna, N. A process-oriented model of metacognition: Links between motivation and executive functioning. In Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition; Schraw, G., Impara, J.C., Eds.; Buros Institute of Mental Measurement: Lincoln, NE, USA, 2000; pp. 1–41.
- Pintrich, P.R. The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In Handbook of Self-Regulation; Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., Zeidner, M., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2000.
- Winne, P.H.; Perry, N.E. Measuring self-regulated learning. In Handbook of Self-Regulation; Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., Zeidner, M., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2000.
- Zimmerman, B.J. A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. J. Educ. Psychol. 1989, 81, 329–339.
- Zimmerman, B.J. Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner: An Overview. Theory Pract. 2002, 41, 64–70.
- Zimmerman, B.J.; Schunk, D.H. Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2011.
- Zimmerman, B.J. Attaining self regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In Handbook of Self–Regulation; Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., Zeidner, M., Eds.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2000; pp. 13–38.
- Panadero, E. A Review of Self-regulated Learning: Six Models and Four Directions for Research. Front. Psychol. 2017, 8, 422.
- Panadero, E.; Alonso-Tapia, J. ¿Cómo autorregulan nuestros alumnos? Modelo de Zimmerman sobre estrategias de aprendizaje. An. Psicol. 2014, 30, 450–462.
- Duffy, M.C.; Azevedo, R. Motivation matters: Interactions between achievement goals and agent scaffolding for self-regulated learning within an intelligent tutoring system. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2015, 52, 338–348.
- Nussbaumer, A.; Hillemann, E.-C.; Gütl, C.; Albert, D. A Competence-based Service for Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Virtual Environments. J. Learn. Anal. 2015, 2, 101–133.
- Chatzara, K.; Karagiannidis, C.; Stamatis, D. Cognitive support embedded in self-regulated e-learning systems for students with special learning needs. Educ. Inf. Technol. 2016, 21, 283–299.
- Edelbring, S.; Wahlström, R. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: A cross sectional survey. BMC Med. Educ. 2016, 16, 122.
- Lee, S.; Barker, T.; Kumar, V.S. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning. Educ. Technol. Soc. 2016, 19, 221–233. Available online: (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Ng, E.M. Fostering pre-service teachers’ self-regulated learning through self- and peer assessment of wiki projects. Comput. Educ. 2016, 98, 180–191.
- Zhu, Y.; Au, W.; Yates, G. University students’ self-control and self-regulated learning in a blended course. Internet High. Educ. 2016, 30, 54–62.
- Lin, J.-W.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chang, L.-C. Fostering self-regulated learning in a blended environment using group awareness and peer assistance as external scaffolds. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 2016, 32, 77–93.
- Juan, F.; Pardo García, R. El ePortafolio Como Instrumento Para Fomentar la Autorregulación del Aprendizaje. 2016, pp. 1–11. Available online: (accessed on 12 December 2020).
- Yot Domínguez, C.; Gallego Domínguez, C. Fomentar el Aprendizaje Autorregulado con Tecnologías en el Contexto Universitario. Libro de Actas. In Proceedings of the EDUNOVATIC 2016—I Congreso Virtual Internacional de Educación, Innovación y TIC, Madrid, Spain, 14– 16 December 2016; pp. 48–59. Available online: (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Broadbent, J. Comparing online and blended learner’s self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance. Internet High. Educ. 2017, 33, 24–32.
- De Bruin, A.B.H.; Kok, E.; Lobbestael, J.; de Grip, A. The impact of an online tool for monitoring and regulating learning at university: Overconfidence, learning strategy, and personality. Metacognition Learn. 2017, 12, 21–43.
- Poitras, E.G.; Doleck, T.; Huang, L.; Li, S.; Lajoie, S.P. Advancing teacher technology education using open-ended learning environments as research and training platforms. Australas. J. Educ. Technol. 2017, 33.
- Schlag, M.; Imhof, M. Does Perceived Ease of Use Mitigate Computer Anxiety and Stimulate Self-regulated Learning for Pre-Service Teacher Students? Int. J. High. Educ. 2017, 6, 154.
- Wu, J.-Y. The indirect relationship of media multitasking self-efficacy on learning performance within the personal learning environment: Implications from the mechanism of perceived attention problems and self-regulation strategies. Comput. Educ. 2017, 106, 56–72.
- Blau, I.; Shamir-Inbal, T. Re-designed flipped learning model in an academic course: The role of co-creation and co-regulation. Comput. Educ. 2017, 115, 69–81.
- Shyr, W.-J.; Chen, C.-H. Designing a technology-enhanced flipped learning system to facilitate students’ self-regulation and performance. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 2017, 34, 53–62.
- Chou, C.-Y.; Lai, K.R.; Chao, P.-Y.; Tseng, S.-F.; Liao, T.-Y. A negotiation-based adaptive learning system for regulating help-seeking behaviors. Comput. Educ. 2018, 126, 115–128.
- Rovers, S.F.; Clarebout, G.; Savelberg, H.H.; Van Merrienboer, J.J. Improving student expectations of learning in a problem-based environment. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2018, 87, 416–423.
- Pérez, A.; Marín, V.I.; Tur, G. Information Management Tools for the Development of Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Pre-service Teacher Education. Tic. Rev. D’innovació Educ. 2018, 21, 31–39.
- Hughes, C.; Costley, J.; Lange, C. The effects of self-regulated learning and cognitive load on beginning to watch and completing video lectures at a cyber-university. Interact. Technol. Smart Educ. 2018, 15, 220–237.
- Al-Hatem, A.I.; Masood, M.; Al-Samarraie, H. Fostering Student Nurses’ Self-Regulated Learning with the Second Life Environment: An Empirical Study. J. Inf. Technol. Educ. Res. 2018, 17, 285–307.
- Broadbent, J.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. Profiles in self-regulated learning and their correlates for online and blended learning students. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 2018, 66, 1435–1455.
- Haşlaman, T. Supporting students as self-regulated learners with use of infographics: “How can i learn better?”. Elem. Educ. Online 2018, 17, 277–292.
- Li, H.; Flanagan, B.; Konomi, S.; Ogata, H. Measuring Behaviors and Identifying Indicators of Self-Regulation in Computer-Assisted Language Learning Courses. Res. Pract. Technol. Enhanc. Learn. 2018, 13, 1–12.
- Xie, K.; Hensley, L.C.; Law, V.; Sun, Z. Self-regulation as a function of perceived leadership and cohesion in small group online collaborative learning. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 2017, 50, 456–468.
- Lim, L.-A.; Gentili, S.; Pardo, A.; Kovanović, V.; Whitelock-Wainwright, A.; Gašević, D.; Dawson, S. What changes, and for whom? A study of the impact of learning analytics-based process feedback in a large course. Learn. Instr. 2021, 72, 101202.
- Martínez-Sarmiento, L.F.; González, M.L.G. Use of Moodle virtual platform for the development of self-regulated learning in university students [Utilización de la plataforma virtual Moodle para el desarrollo del aprendizaje autorregulado en estudiantes universitarios]. Educar 2018, 55, 479.
- Bernacki, M.L.; Vosicka, L.; Utz, J.C. Can a brief, digital skill training intervention help undergraduates “learn to learn” and improve their STEM achievement? J. Educ. Psychol. 2020, 112, 765–781.
- Manganello, F.; Falsetti, C.; Leo, T. Self-Regulated Learning for Web-Enhanced Control Engineering Education. Educ. Technol. Soc. 2019, 22, 44–58. Available online: (accessed on 12 December 2020).
- Yick, K.-L.; Yip, J.; Au, S.-C.; Lai, Y.-Y.; Yu, A. Effectiveness of blended learning in the first year of fashion education. Int. J. Fash. Des. Technol. Educ. 2018, 12, 178–188.
- Tur, G.; Urbina, S.; Forteza, D. Rubric-based formative assessment in process eportfolio: Towards self-regulated learning. Digit. Educ. Rev. 2019, 35, 18–35.
- Nuankaew, W.; Nuankaew, P.; Teeraputon, D.; Phanniphong, K.; Bussaman, S. Perception and Attitude Toward Self-Regulated Learning of Thailand’s Students in Educational Data Mining Perspective. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn. 2019, 14, 34–49.
- Wang, K.; Zhu, C. MOOC-based flipped learning in higher education: Students’ participation, experience and learning performance. Int. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ. 2019, 16, 1–18.
- Cárdenas-Robledo, L.A.; Peña-Ayala, A. A holistic self-regulated learning model: A proposal and application in ubiquitous-learning. Expert Syst. Appl. 2019, 123, 299–314.
- Supriyono, Y.; Saukah, A.; Latief, M.A.; Widiati, U.; Suryati, N. EFL Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning in a Technol-Ogy-Mediated Language Learning Setting. Int. J. Innov. Creat. Chang. 2020, 10, 270–285. Available online: (accessed on 12 December 2020).
- Perez-Alvarez, R.A.; Maldonado-Mahauad, J.; Sharma, K.; Sapunar-Opazo, D.; Perez-Sanagustin, M. Characterizing Learners’ Engagement in MOOCs: An Observational Case Study Using the NoteMyProgress Tool for Supporting Self-Regulation. IEEE Trans. Learn. Technol. 2020, 13, 676–688.
- MacMahon, S.; Leggett, J.; Carroll, A. Promoting individual and group regulation through social connection: Strategies for remote learning. Inf. Learn. Sci. 2020, 121, 353–363.
- Cerezo, R.; Bogarín, A.; Esteban, M.; Romero, C. Process mining for self-regulated learning assessment in e-learning. J. Comput. High. Educ. 2019, 32, 74–88.
- Zheng, J.; Xing, W.; Zhu, G.; Chen, G.; Zhao, H.; Xie, C. Profiling self-regulation behaviors in STEM learning of engineering design. Comput. Educ. 2020, 143, 103669.
- Zheng, J.; Huang, L.; Li, S.; Lajoie, S.P.; Chen, Y.; Hmelo-Silver, C.E. Self-regulation and emotion matter: A case study of instructor interactions with a learning analytics dashboard. Comput. Educ. 2021, 161, 104061.
- Zimmerman, B.J.; Moylan, A.R. Self-regulation: Where metacognition and motivation intersect. In Handbook of Metacognition in Education; Hacker, D.J., Dunlosky, J., Graesser, A.C., Eds.; Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group: New York, NY, USA, 2009; pp. 299–315.
- Bandura, A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1986.
- Winne, P.H.; Hadwin, A.F. Studying as self-regulated learning. In Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice; Hacker, D.J., Dunlosky, J., Graesser, A.C., Eds.; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 1998; pp. 291–318.
- Boekaerts, M. Self-regulated Learning at the Junction of Cognition and Motivation. Eur. Psychol. 1996, 1, 100–112.