- Please check and comment entries here.
Phenolic compounds are phytochemicals with functions in pigmentation, astringency, protection against ultraviolet rays and antioxidant activity, being widely found in natural sources such as fruits, teas, spices, wine and honey. These compounds have received much attention in recent decades due to evidence related to positive health effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, vasodilatory and cardioprotective activity, contributing to the improvement in metabolic markers associated with diabetes, hypertension and obesity.
Since antiquity, even without being aware of the proliferation of microorganisms, when observing the high perishability of meat and the need for its immediate consumption, man began to use techniques of physical and chemical changes capable of delaying spoilage and improving the flavor of this and other food classes, which allowed the significant extension of the availability period of certain foods. One of the oldest forms of meat processing is the manufacture of by-products from the processing of meat pieces, which started around 1500 BC in the Mediterranean region, whose climate was favorable for the maturation of products, when several procedures that resulted in the reduction in water activity and consequently the prolongation of their shelf life, such as desiccation, drying, curing, smoking, salting and/or mixture of aromatic herbs, were also applied .
As they are nutritionally rich foods with a large amount of available water in their composition, meats become susceptible to contamination by pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms. In order to overcome this problem and offer safe meat products to consumers, it is necessary to adopt measures for their conservation, such as good manufacturing practices, use of low temperatures during storage, heat treatment and use of additives .
Processing has the purpose of extending the shelf life of meat, adding value to deboning by-products, which are generally not marketed in the fresh form, in addition to generating a wide variety of differentiated products in terms of color, flavor, aroma and texture . Due to the low cost and easy preparation, a considerable part of the population developed the habit of regularly consuming meat derivatives such as sausages, bologna and hamburgers, contributing to a significant expansion of the meat products market .
The quality of meat derivatives is directly related to the origin of raw materials and ingredients and to the sanitary conditions of the manufacturing process. Products are classified according to the types of meat used, fat content, offal or edible by-products from slaughter, and may or may not be added with condiments and additives permitted by legislation . In the meat production process, meat comminution increases the contact surface area, favoring microbial contamination and proliferation . 272/2019, which regulates the use of food additives for each class of meat derivative, their conditions of use and maximum limits .
For a long time, the food industry has incorporated various ingredients into formulations that do not have the function of nourishing, but rather have a technological purpose, while they can also make the food more attractive to consumers. These ingredients are called food additives and are classified according to their technological function . The class of preservatives is one of them, the main purpose of which is to reduce the effect of spoilage caused by the multiplication of microorganisms or chemical reactions during the storage period . Synthetic substances that have their use approved within an acceptable daily intake limit, such as nitrite and sodium nitrate, preservatives most commonly used in the production of meat derivatives, are also used, which in addition to their antimicrobial capacity, particularly for the control and prevention of the growth of anaerobic bacteria, especiallyClostridium botulinum, also promote a protective effect against lipid oxidation and act in the development and fixation of the pink color and flavor characteristics of cured meat products .
The application of sodium nitrite in the production of cured meats allows obtaining differentiated products with regard to color and flavor, safe and stable during storage. However, a discussion that started around the 1970s showed the great risk to human health from the generation of a class of substances considered potentially carcinogenic, the nitrosamines, when high nitrite concentrations are exposed to high temperature conditions, as usually occurs in the manufacture of cured meat products, and since then, its use has been considered increasingly controversial .
Although they are substances that significantly contribute to the conservation of products and have their use officially regulated, there are indications of negative health implications associated with the excessive consumption of these and other synthetic additives, such as carcinogenic effects and generation of toxic and mutagenic compounds, and, consequently, the maximum acceptable limits of their use have been gradually changed or prohibited in several countries .
Diet is one of the important factors that affect the well-being and health of human beings, and today, there is great concern among consumers about the correlation between eating habits and health problems . The reformulation of meat products through the substitution of ingredients, such as sodium nitrite, is an alternative to provide these products with a “cleaner label” in order to reduce the negative consumer perception about the excessive use of synthetic additives and their carcinogenic potential, decreasing the association between consumption of meat products and possible health problems . For these reasons, many studies have been conducted in order to substitute synthetic antimicrobials for natural versions.
2. Phenolic Compounds
Phenolic compounds are phytochemicals with functions in pigmentation, astringency, protection against ultraviolet rays and antioxidant activity, being widely found in natural sources such as fruits, teas, spices, wine and honey . These compounds have received much attention in recent decades due to evidence related to positive health effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, vasodilatory and cardioprotective activity, contributing to the improvement in metabolic markers associated with diabetes, hypertension and obesity .
Phenolic molecules are structurally characterized by the presence of at least one aromatic ring containing one or more hydroxyl radicals, the main groups being phenolic acids, flavonoids and polyphenols, whose main source is fruits . In addition, recent studies have reported antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds, indicating that their chemical nature, especially the presence of hydroxyl groups in the molecule, may be associated with inhibitory mechanisms through interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall and nucleic acids of bacteria, impairing vital functions such as protein synthesis and DNA transport or replication .
The generation of large amounts of waste from the processing of fruits and vegetables is one of the main challenges that the food industry has faced due to the need for large investment by companies to properly treat and dispose of this type of material in order to cause minimal negative impacts on the environment . These agro-industrial waste products from fruits are rich in phenolic compounds and other bioactive substances that can add antioxidant and antimicrobial properties to foods and provide health benefits . Thereby, the use of this raw material as a natural substitute for synthetic additives can be a great alternative, because in addition to providing compounds with functional properties, it reduces the environmental impact caused by the disposal of a significant part of the fruit, such as seeds and peels that are generally not used by the industry .
Thus, this review searched the scientific literature for reports of extracts obtained from fruits or their agro-industrial waste rich in antimicrobial bioactive compounds and that have potential applications in meat products, being able to maintain microbiological stability and safety during storage. More specifically, this review focused on the natural extracts obtained from jabuticaba, grape and prickly pear.
3. Fruit Extracts with Potential Application in Meat Products
3.1. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora)
3.2. Grape (Vitis sp.)
|Staphylococcus aureus||+||6.25 g/L||Pinot Noir (V. vinifera)||Martin et al. |
|1.56 g/L||Petit Verdot (V. vinifera)||Martin et al. |
|100.0 mL/L||Tempranillo (V. vinifera)||Adámez et al. |
|Listeria innocua||+||100.0 mL/L||Tempranillo (V. vinifera)||Adámez et al. |
|Listeria monocytogenes||+||12.5 g/L||Pinot Noir (V. vinifera)||Martin et al. |
|6.25 g/L||Petit Verdot (V. vinifera)||Martin et al. |
3.3. Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica)
|Strain||Gram||MIC (mg/L)||MBC (mg/L)|
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10071469
- Ordoñez, J.A.; Rodriguez, M.I.C.; Sanz, M.L.G.; Minguillón, G.D.G.F.; Perales, L.H.; Cortecero, M.D.S. Tecnologia de Alimentos: Alimentos de Origem Animal; Artmed: Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2005; p. 279. ISBN 9788536304311.
- Sindelar, J.J.; Milkowski, A.L. Human safety controversies surrounding nitrate and nitrite in the diet. Nitric Oxide 2012, 26, 259–266.
- Terra, N.N. Apontamentos de Tecnologia de Carnes; Unisinos: São Leopoldo, Brazil, 1998; p. 216. ISBN 858558081X.
- Pardi, M.C.; dos Santos, I.F.; de Souza, E.R.; Pardi, H.S. Ciência, Higiene e Tecnologia Da Carne; UFG e Universidade Federal Fluminense (Eduff): Goiania, Brazil, 2006; ISBN 9788572741880.
- de Melo Filho, A.B.; Biscontini, T.M.B.; Andrade, S.A.C. Níveis de nitrito e nitrato em salsichas comercializadas na região metropolitana do recife. Ciência Tecnol. Aliment. 2004, 24, 390–392.
- Martins, L.L.; dos Santos, I.F.; Franco, R.M.; de Oliveira, L.A.T.; Bezz, J. Avaliação do perfil bacteriológico de salsicha tipo “Hot dog”comercializadas em embalagens a vácuo e a granel em supermercados dos municípios Rio de Janeiro e niterói, RJ/Brasil. Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz 2008, 67, 215–220.
- Malavota, L.C.M.; Conte-Junior, C.A.; Macedo, B.T.; Lopes, M.M.; de Souza, V.G.; Stussi, J.S.P.; Pardi, H.S.; Mano, S.B. Análise micológica de linguiça de frango embalada em atmosfera modificada. Rev. Bras. de Ciência Veterinária 2006, 13.
- Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resolução RDC No 272, de 14 de Março de 2019. Estabelece os aditivos alimentares autorizados para uso em carnes e produtos cárneos. Diário Of. União 2019, 52, 194. Available online: (accessed on 3 March 2020).
- Lamas, A.; Miranda, J.; Vázquez, B.; Cepeda, A.; Franco, C. An evaluation of alternatives to nitrites and sulfites to inhibit the growth of salmonella enterica and listeria monocytogenes in meat products. Foods 2016, 5, 74.
- Hasiak, R.J.; Chaves, J.; Sebranek, J.; Kraft, A.A. Effect of sodium nitrite and sodium erythorbate on the chemical, sensory and microbiological properties of water-added Turkey ham. Poult. Sci. 1984, 63, 1364–1371.
- Clemente, F.; Marinelli, P.S.; Otoboni, A.M.M.B.; Tanaka, A.Y.; da Oliveira, A.S.; Nicolau, C.C.T. Verificação do teor de nitrito e nitrato em salsichas tipo hot dog em função dos métodos de cocção. Rev. Anal. 2014, 1, 72–78.
- Cassens, R.G. Composition and safety of cured meats in the USA. Food Chem. 1997, 59, 561–566.
- Martínez, L.; Bastida, P.; Castillo, J.; Ros, G.; Nieto, G. Green alternatives to synthetic antioxidants, antimicrobials, nitrates, and nitrites in clean label Spanish chorizo. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 184.
- Verma, A.K.; Sharma, B.D.; Banerjee, R. Effect of sodium chloride replacement and apple pulp inclusion on the physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of low fat chicken nuggets. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2010, 43, 715–719.
- do Nascimento, R.; Campagnol, P.C.B.; Monteiro, E.S.; Pollonio, M.A.R. Substituição de cloreto de sódio por cloreto de potássio: Influência sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de salsichas. Aliment. Nutr. Braz. J. Food Nutr. 2007, 18, 297–302.
- Pires, M.A.; Munekata, P.E.S.; Villanueva, N.D.M.; Tonin, F.G.; Baldin, J.C.; Rocha, Y.J.P.; Carvalho, L.T.; Rodrigues, I.; Trindade, M.A. The antioxidant capacity of rosemary and green tea extracts to replace the carcinogenic antioxidant (BHA) in chicken burgers. J. Food Qual. 2017, 2017, 1–6.
- Lima, M.C.; Paiva de Sousa, C.; Fernandez-Prada, C.; Harel, J.; Dubreuil, J.D.; de Souza, E.L. A review of the current evidence of fruit phenolic compounds as potential antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria. Microb. Pathog. 2019, 130, 259–270.
- Rice-Evans, C.; Miller, N.; Paganga, G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 1997, 2, 152–159.
- Balasundram, N.; Sundram, K.; Samman, S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem. 2006, 99, 191–203.
- Xie, Y.; Yang, W.; Tang, F.; Chen, X.; Ren, L. Antibacterial activities of flavonoids: Structure-activity relationship and mechanism. Curr. Med. Chem. 2015, 22, 132–149.
- Sanhueza, L.; Melo, R.; Montero, R.; Maisey, K.; Mendoza, L.; Wilkens, M. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0172273.
- Brewer, M.S. Natural antioxidants: Sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2011, 10.
- Martin, J.G.P.; Porto, E.; Corrêa, C.B.; de Alencar, S.M.; da Gloria, E.M.; Cabral, I.S.R.; de Aquino, L.M. Antimicrobial potential and chemical composition of agro-industrial wastes. J. Nat. Prod. 2012, 5, 27–36.
- Ascheri, D.P.R.; Ascheri, J.L.R.; Carvalho, C.W.P. De caracterização da farinha de bagaço de jabuticaba e propriedades funcionais dos extrusados. Ciência Tecnol. Aliment. 2006, 26, 897–905.
- Donadio, L.C. Jaboticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora (Vell) Berg); Funep: Jaboticabal, Brazil, 2000.
- Baldin, J.C.; Michelin, E.C.; Polizer, Y.J.; Rodrigues, I.; de Godoy, S.H.S.; Fregonesi, R.P.; Pires, M.A.; Carvalho, L.T.; Fávaro-Trindade, C.S.; de Lima, C.G.; et al. Microencapsulated Jabuticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora) extract added to fresh sausage as natural dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Meat Sci. 2016, 118, 15–21.
- Bordignon-Luiz, M.T.; Gauche, C.; Gris, E.F.; Falcão, L.D. Colour stability of anthocyanins from isabel grapes (Vitis Labrusca L.) in model systems. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2007, 40, 594–599.
- de Oliveira, A.L.; Brunini, M.A.; Salandini, C.A.R.; Bazzo, F.R. Caracterização tecnológica de jabuticabas “sabará” provenientes de diferentes regiões de cultivo. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 2003, 25, 397–400.
- Pereira, M.C.T.; Salomão, L.C.C.; Mota, W.F.; Vieira, G. Atributos físicos e químicos de frutos de oito clones de jabuticabeiras. Rev. Bras. de Frutic. 2000, 22, 16–21.
- Caillet, S.; Côté, J.; Sylvain, J.F.; Lacroix, M. Antimicrobial effects of fractions from cranberry products on the growth of seven pathogenic bacteria. Food Control 2012, 23, 419–428.
- ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods). Microorganisms in Foods—Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications; University of Toronto Press: Toronto, ON, Canada, 1986; p. 193.
- Brazil. Ministério da Saúde/Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária/Diretoria Colegiada. Resolução RDC No 331, de 23 de Dezembro de 2019. Dispõe Sobre Os Padrões Microbiológicos de Alimentos e Sua Aplicação. Available online: (accessed on 3 March 2020).
- FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Agribusiness Handbook: Grapes Wine; FAO Investment Centre Division: Rome, Italy, 2009; Available online: (accessed on 16 April 2020).
- Baydar, N.G.; Sagdic, O.; Ozkan, G.; Cetin, S. Determination of antibacterial effects and total phenolic contents of grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) seed extracts. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2006, 41, 799–804.
- IBGE. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Inteligência e Mercado de Uva e Vinho: A Viticultura No Brasil. Available online: (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Nardoia, M.; Ruiz-Capillas, C.; Casamassima, D.; Herrero, A.M.; Pintado, T.; Jiménez-Colmenero, F.; Chamorro, S.; Brenes, A. Effect of polyphenols dietary grape by-products on chicken patties. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2018, 244, 367–377.
- Delgado Adámez, J.; Gamero Samino, E.; Valdés Sánchez, E.; González-Gómez, D. In Vitro Estimation of the Antibacterial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Extracts from Grape-Seeds (Vitis Vinifera L.). Food Control 2012, 24, 136–141.
- Monagas, M.; Gómez-Cordovés, C.; Bartolomé, B.; Laureano, O.; Ricardo da Silva, J.M. Monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric Flavan-3-Ol Composition of wines and grapes from Vitis Vinifera L. Cv. graciano, tempranillo, and cabernet sauvignon. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 6475–6481.
- Carpes, S.T.; Pereira, D.; de Moura, C.; dos Reis, A.S.; da Silva, L.D.; Oldoni, T.L.C.; Almeida, J.F.; Plata-Oviedo, M.V.S. Lyophilized and microencapsulated extracts of grape pomace from winemaking industry to prevent lipid oxidation in chicken pâté. Braz. J. Food Technol. 2020, 23, 1–13.
- Al-Kahtani, H.A.; Abu-Tarboush, H.M.; Bajaber, A.S.; Atia, M.; Abou-Arab, A.A.; El-Mojaddidi, M.A. Chemical changes after irradiation and post-irradiation storage in tilapia and Spanish mackerel. J. Food Sci. 1996, 61, 729–733.
- Selani, M.M.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Shirahigue, L.D.; Gallo, C.R.; Plata-Oviedo, M.; Montes-Villanueva, N.D. Wine industry residues extracts as natural antioxidants in raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. Meat Sci. 2011, 88, 397–403.
- Zakynthinos, G.; Varzakas, T. Lipid profile and antioxidant properties of selected pear cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) ecotypes from southern greece. Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci. J. 2016, 4, 54–57.
- Taguchi, M.; Harinder Makkar, F.; Mounir Louhaichi, F.; Duffy, R.; Moretti, D.; Inglese, P.; Mondragon, C.; Nefzaoui, A.; Sáenz, C. Crop Ecology, Cultivation and Uses of Cactus Pear. Available online: (accessed on 16 April 2020).
- Maiorano, J.A. Figo Da Índia—Ficha Técnica. 2016. Available online: (accessed on 2 March 2020).
- CEAGESP. Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo. Guia CEAGESP: Figo Da Índia. 2018. Available online: (accessed on 2 March 2020).
- Osuna-Martínez, U.; Reyes-Esparza, J.; Rodríguez-Fragoso, L. Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica): A review on its antioxidants properties and potential pharmacological use in chronic diseases. Nat. Prod. Chem. Res. 2014, 2, 1–8.
- Stintzing, F.C.; Herbach, K.M.; Mosshammer, M.R.; Carle, R.; Yi, W.; Sellappan, S.; Akoh, C.C.; Bunch, R.; Felker, P. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 442–451.
- Palumbo, B.; Ethimiou, Y.; Stamatopoulos, J.; Oguogho, A.; Budinsky, A.; Palumbo, R.; Sinzinger, H. Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia. Nucl. Med. Rev. 2003, 6, 35–39.
- Galati, E.M.; Mondello, M.R.; Giuffrida, D.; Dugo, G.; Miceli, N.; Pergolizzi, S.; Taviano, M.F. Chemical characterization and biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L.) Mill. Fruit juice: Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 4903–4908.
- Wolfram, R.; Budinsky, A.; Efthimiou, Y.; Stomatopoulos, J.; Oguogho, A.; Sinzinger, H. Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fat. Acids 2003, 69, 61–66.
- Park, E.-H.; Kahng, J.-H.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, K.-H. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus. Fitoterapia 2001, 72, 288–290.
- Sreekanth, D.; Arunasree, M.K.; Roy, K.R.; Chandramohan Reddy, T.; Reddy, G.V.; Reddanna, P. Betanin a betacyanin pigment purified from fruits of Opuntia Ficus-Indica induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line-K562. Phytomedicine 2007, 14, 739–746.
- Chougui, N.; Tamendjari, A.; Hamidj, W.; Hallal, S.; Barras, A.; Richard, T.; Larbat, R. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia Ficus-Indica Seeds. Food Chem. 2013, 139, 796–803.
- Liu, H.G.; Liang, Q.Y.; Meng, H.L.; Huang, H.X. Hypoglycemic effect of extracts of cactus pear fruit polysaccharide in rats. Zhong Yao Cai 2010, 33, 240–242.
- Matthäus, B.; Özcan, M.M. Habitat effects on yield, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of prickly pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica L.) seed oils. Sci. Hortic. 2011, 131, 95–98.
- Abou-Elella, F.M.; Ali, R.F.M. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of different constituents extracted from Egyptian prickly pear cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) Peel. Biochem. Anal. Biochem. 2014, 3, 1–9.
- Mobraten, K.; Haug, T.M.; Kleiveland, C.R.; Lea, T. Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFAs induce the same GPR120-mediated signalling events, but with different kinetics and intensity in Caco-2 Cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2013, 12, 1–7.
- Berraaouan, A.; Ziyyat, A.; Mekhfi, H.; Legssyer, A.; Sindic, M.; Aziz, M.; Bnouham, M. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of cactus pear seed oil in rats. Pharm. Biol. 2014, 52, 1286–1290.
- Seo, Y.H.; Han, C.H.; Lee, J.M.; Choi, S.M.; Moon, K.D. Effects of Opuntia Ficus-Indica extracts on inactivation of escherichia coli O157:H7 and listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut apples. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 2012, 41, 1009–1013.
- Zito, P.; Sajeva, M.; Bruno, M.; Rosselli, S.; Maggio, A.; Senatore, F. Essential Oils Composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Fruits (Prickly Pear). Nat. Prod. Res. 2013, 27.
- Parafati, L.; Palmeri, R.; Trippa, D.; Restuccia, C.; Fallico, B. Quality Maintenance of Beef Burger Patties by Direct Addiction or Encapsulation of a Prickly Pear Fruit Extract. Front. Microbiol. 2019, 10.
- Kharrat, N.; Salem, H.; Mrabet, A.; Aloui, F.; Triki, S.; Fendri, A.; Gargouri, Y. Synergistic Effect of Polysaccharides, Betalain Pigment and Phenolic Compounds of Red Prickly Pear (Opuntia Stricta) in the Stabilization of Salami. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2018, 111, 561–568.