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Telomerase and Telomere Natural Modulation
Proper functioning of cells—their ability to divide, differentiate, and regenerate—is dictated by genomic stability. The main factors contributing to this stability are the telomeric ends that cap chromosomes. All these processes are accompanied by telomere-length modulation. Maintaining the key levels of telomerase component (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity that provide optimal telomere length as well as some nontelomeric functions represents a promising step in advanced anti-aging strategies, especially in dermocosmetics. Therefore telomere biology and telomerase activity have been of interest to scientists in various medical science fields for years, including the study of both cancer and of senescence and aging. This paper focuses on the metabolic potential of natural compounds to modulate telomerase and telomere biology and thus prevent senescence and skin aging.
2. Molecular Basis of Senescence and Aging
3. Roles of Telomeres in Skin Aging
The primary indicators of aging are telomere attrition, epigenetic and mitochondrial dysfunction, and general DNA damage. Significantly, this process can be accelerated by stress, which leads to the accumulation of damage and eventually to mitotic crisis orcell death . Numerous agents can trigger DNA damage, including ionizing radiation, radiomimetic drugs, reactive oxygen species, metabolic errors during replication and transcription , and deficient DNA repair . Some of those factors are just a result of cells’ metabolic activity and cannot be eliminated, but some of them can be prevented to slow down senescence and aging. Evaluation of the aging of skin has revealed the primary roles of alterations observed in the metabolism of fibroblasts. In young skin, fibroblasts adhere to the surrounding intact extracellular matrix (ECM), which is mainly comprised of type I collagen . In aged skin, fibroblast attachment is impaired due to progressive ECM degradation, resulting in fibroblast size reduction, decreased elongation, and collapsed morphology . Simultaneously, their proliferative potential is also significantly reduced, which impedes skin regeneration, thus contributing to progressive aging. The reduction of dermal fibroblast spreading and cell size can also increase mitochondrial ROS generation, which induces senescence .
The entry is from 10.3390/ijms22126381
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