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Intelligent Buildings in Smart Grids
During the last decade, the smart grid (SG) concept has started to become a reality, mainly thanks to the technical progress achieved in telecommunications, informatics and power electronics, among other domains, leading to an evolution of the traditional electrical grid into an intelligent one. Nowadays, the SG can be seen as a system of smart systems that include cyber and physical parts from different technologies that interact with each other. In this context, intelligent buildings (IBs) constitute a paradigm in which such smart systems are able to guarantee the comfort of residents while ensuring an appropriate tradeoff of energy production and consumption by means of an energy management system (EMS).
2. From the Smart Grid to Intelligent Buildings
2.1. The Smart Grid, a System of Systems
Traditional electrical system, composed of power plants, transmission grid and distribution grid;
Customer-side system, including several elements located at the end of the distribution network, like electrical microgrids (MGs), intelligent buildings (IBs) and smart homes (SHs), and electrical vehicles (EVs);
Communication system, which gives the SG its intelligent nature, mainly composed of communication networks and data storage and processing centers.
2.2. The Intelligent Building, a System of Systems
3. Main Features of Intelligent Buildings as Part of Smart Grids
Smart metering, a part of the whole advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) of the SG;
Management and control methods to guarantee the energy efficiency in the building and the power balance in the electrical grid.
3.1. Energy Management in Intelligent Buildings
3.1.1. Building Energy Management System Architecture
3.1.2. Making the Energy Management Systems More Intelligent
General management methods
Reactive agents, with a stimulus–response behavior based on sending and receiving messages;
Cognitive agents, with a high level of intelligence and autonomy. These agents can memorize their history and develop a learning ability by adopting ML behavior. An example of an MAS with a “learning” phase for better managing a large and complex microgrid was proposed in ;
Hybrid agents, offering combined behavior: reactive with respect to some properties and cognitive with respect to other properties. The main properties to consider here are autonomy, cooperation, and adaptation.
|Energy Management Method Classification||Energy Management Method||Kind of
|Conventional Methods||On/Off switching||Nonresidential||Based on classic rules
|PID controllers||Can be software
implemented or use an external device
|Intelligent Methods||Model predictive control||Nonresidential||Often used for DSM|
|Fuzzy logic||Nonresidential & residential||Supports cloud or edge computing|
|Multi Agent System||Nonresidential & residential||Distributed nature
Supports cloud or edge computing
Supports learning ability
Contribution of computing tools in intelligent energy management
The Internet of Things and related computing solutions
3.2. Communication Networks and Intelligent Buildings
3.2.1. Communication Technologies for Interconnecting IBs to the SG
|Communication Technologies||Inward-IB Network||Outward-IB Network||Media||HAN||NAN||WAN|
|Digital Subscriber Lines||✓||Wired||✓||✓|
3.2.2. Communication Infrastructure Requirements for IBs as a Part of the SG
The entry is from 10.3390/en14092733
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