- Please check and comment entries here.
Intelligent Buildings in Smart Grids
During the last decade, the smart grid (SG) concept has started to become a reality, mainly thanks to the technical progress achieved in telecommunications, informatics and power electronics, among other domains, leading to an evolution of the traditional electrical grid into an intelligent one. Nowadays, the SG can be seen as a system of smart systems that include cyber and physical parts from different technologies that interact with each other. In this context, intelligent buildings (IBs) constitute a paradigm in which such smart systems are able to guarantee the comfort of residents while ensuring an appropriate tradeoff of energy production and consumption by means of an energy management system (EMS).
2. From the Smart Grid to Intelligent Buildings
2.1. The Smart Grid, a System of Systems
Traditional electrical system, composed of power plants, transmission grid and distribution grid;
Customer-side system, including several elements located at the end of the distribution network, like electrical microgrids (MGs), intelligent buildings (IBs) and smart homes (SHs), and electrical vehicles (EVs);
Communication system, which gives the SG its intelligent nature, mainly composed of communication networks and data storage and processing centers.
2.2. The Intelligent Building, a System of Systems
3. Main Features of Intelligent Buildings as Part of Smart Grids
Smart metering, a part of the whole advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) of the SG;
Management and control methods to guarantee the energy efficiency in the building and the power balance in the electrical grid.
3.1. Energy Management in Intelligent Buildings
3.1.1. Building Energy Management System Architecture
3.1.2. Making the Energy Management Systems More Intelligent
General management methods
Reactive agents, with a stimulus–response behavior based on sending and receiving messages;
Cognitive agents, with a high level of intelligence and autonomy. These agents can memorize their history and develop a learning ability by adopting ML behavior. An example of an MAS with a “learning” phase for better managing a large and complex microgrid was proposed in ;
Hybrid agents, offering combined behavior: reactive with respect to some properties and cognitive with respect to other properties. The main properties to consider here are autonomy, cooperation, and adaptation.
|Energy Management Method Classification||Energy Management Method||Kind of
|Conventional Methods||On/Off switching||Nonresidential||Based on classic rules
|PID controllers||Can be software
implemented or use an external device
|Intelligent Methods||Model predictive control||Nonresidential||Often used for DSM|
|Fuzzy logic||Nonresidential & residential||Supports cloud or edge computing|
|Multi Agent System||Nonresidential & residential||Distributed nature
Supports cloud or edge computing
Supports learning ability
Contribution of computing tools in intelligent energy management
The Internet of Things and related computing solutions
3.2. Communication Networks and Intelligent Buildings
3.2.1. Communication Technologies for Interconnecting IBs to the SG
|Communication Technologies||Inward-IB Network||Outward-IB Network||Media||HAN||NAN||WAN|
|Digital Subscriber Lines||✓||Wired||✓||✓|
3.2.2. Communication Infrastructure Requirements for IBs as a Part of the SG
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/en14092733
- Ipakchi, A.; Albuyeh, F. Grid of the future. IEEE Power Energy Mag. 2009, 7, 52–62.
- Gharavi, H.; Ghafurian, R. Smart Grid: The electric energy system of the future [Scanning the issue]. Proc. IEEE 2011, 99, 917–921.
- Dileep, G. A survey on smart grid technologies and applications. Renew. Energy 2020, 146, 2589–2625.
- Joseph, A.; Balachandra, P. Smart grid to energy internet: A systematic review of transitioning electricity systems. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 215787–215805.
- Mahmud, K.; Khan, B.; Ravishankar, J.; Ahmadi, A.; Siano, P. An internet of energy framework with distributed energy resources, prosumers and small-scale virtual power plants: An overview. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2020, 127, 109840.
- Bie, Z.; Lin, Y.; Li, G.; Li, F. Battling the extreme: A study on the power system resilience. Proc. IEEE 2017, 105, 1253–1266.
- Gellings, C.W.; Samotyj, M. Smart Grid as advanced technology enabler of demand response. Energy Effic. 2013, 6, 685–694.
- Wormuth, B.; Wang, S.; Dehghanian, P.; Barati, M.; Estebsari, A.; Filomena, T.P.; Kapourchali, M.H.; Lejeune, M.A. Electric power grids under high-absenteeism pandemics: History, context, response, and opportunities. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 215727–215747.
- de C Henshaw, M.J. Systems of systems, cyber-physical systems, the internet-of-things…whatever next? Insight 2016, 19, 51–54.
- Yu, X.; Xue, Y. Smart grids: A cyber–physical systems perspective. Proc. IEEE 2016, 104, 1058–1070.
- Chapurlat, V.; Daclin, N. System interoperability: Definition and proposition of interface model in MBSE Context. IFAC Proc. Vol. 2012, 45–46, 1523–1528.
- Masior, J.; Schneider, B.; Kürümlüoglu, M.; Riedel, O. Beyond Model-Based Systems Engineering towards Managing Complexity. Procedia CIRP 2020, 91, 325–329.
- Penya, Y.K.; Borges, C.E.; Haase, J.; Bruckner, D. Smart Buildings and the Smart Grid. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Vienna, Austria, 10–13 November 2013.
- Mofidi, F.; Akbari, H. Intelligent buildings: An overview. Energy Build. 2020, 223, 110192.
- Tang, H.; Wang, S.; Li, H. Flexibility categorization, sources, capabilities and technologies for energy-flexible and grid-responsive buildings: State-of-the-art and future perspective. Energy 2021, 219, 119598.
- Llaria, A.; Terrasson, G.; Curea, O.; Jiménez, J. Application of wireless sensor and actuator networks to achieve intelligent microgrids: A promising approach towards a global smart grid deployment. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 61.
- Adu-Kankam, K.O.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M. Towards collaborative Virtual Power Plants: Trends and convergence. Sustain. Energy Grids Netw. 2018, 16, 217–230.
- Jia, M.; Komeily, A.; Wang, Y.; Srinivasan, R.S. Adopting Internet of Things for the development of smart buildings: A review of enabling technologies and applications. Autom. Constr. 2019, 101, 111–126.
- Ahmad, T.; Zhang, D. Using the internet of things in smart energy systems and networks. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2021, 68, 102783.
- Llaria, A.; Jiménez, J.; Curea, O. Study on communication technologies for the optimal operation of smart grids. Trans. Emerg. Tel. Tech. 2014, 25, 1009–1019.
- Kabalci, Y. A survey on smart metering and smart grid communication. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 57, 302–318.
- Wang, S. Making buildings smarter, grid-friendly, and responsive to smart grids. Sci. Technol. Built Environ. 2016, 22, 629–632.
- Taveres-Cachat, E.; Grynning, S.; Thomsen, J.; Selkowitz, S. Responsive building envelope concepts in zero emission neighborhoods and smart cities—A roadmap to implementation. Build. Environ. 2019, 149, 446–457.
- Kim, H.; Choi, H.; An, J.; Yeom, S.; Hong, T. A systematic review of the smart energy conservation system: From smart homes to sustainable smart cities. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 140, 110755.
- Moslehi, K.; Kumar, R. A reliability perspective of the smart grid. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2010, 1, 57–64.
- Chen, T.M.; Abu-Nimeh, S. Lessons from Stuxnet. Computer 2011, 44, 91–93.
- Nguyen, T.; Wang, S.; Alhazmi, M.; Nazemi, M.; Estebsari, A.; Dehghanian, P. Electric power grid resilience to cyber adversaries: State of the art. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 87592–87608.
- Tan, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, P.; Guerrero, J.M.; Vasquez, J.C.; Abusorrah, A. New challenges in the design of microgrid systems: Communication networks, cyberattacks, and resilience. IEEE Electrif. Mag. 2020, 8, 98–106.
- Mylrea, M.; Gourisetti, S.N.G.; Nicholls, A. An Introduction to Buildings Cybersecurity Framework. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI), Honolulu, HI, USA, 27 November–1 December 2017.
- Lopes, A.J.; Lezama, R.; Pineda, R. Model Based Systems Engineering for Smart Grids as Systems of Systems. Procedia Comput. Sci. 2011, 6, 441–450.
- NIST—National Institute of Standard and Technology. NIST—National Institute of Standard and Technology. NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 1.0. In Special Publication (NIST SP)–1108; Locke, G., Gallagher, P.D., Eds.; Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability: Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2010.
- Nielsen, C.B.; Larsen, P.G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Woodcock, J.; Peleska, J. Systems of Systems Engineering: Basic concepts, model-based techniques, and research directions. ACM Comput. Surv. 2015, 48, 18.
- Maier, M.W. Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Syst. Eng. 1998, 1, 267–284.
- Merlo, C.; Girard, P. Information system modelling for engineering design co-ordination. Comput. Ind. 2004, 55, 317–334.
- Marashi, K.; Sarvestani, S.S.; Hurson, A.R. Consideration of cyber-physical interdependencies in reliability modeling of smart grids. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Comput. 2018, 3, 73–83.
- Hossain, M.M.; Peng, C. Cyber–physical security for on-going smart grid initiatives: A survey. IET Cyber Phys. Syst. Theor. Appl. 2020, 5, 233–244.
- Monostori, L. Cyber-physical production systems: Roots, Expectations and R&D challenges. Procedia CIRP 2014, 17, 9–13.
- Rudtsch, V.; Gausemeier, J.; Gesing, J.; Mittag, T.; Peter, S. Pattern-based business model development for cyber-physical production systems. Procedia CIRP 2014, 25, 313–319.
- Al-Mhiqani, M.N.; Ahmad, R.; Abdulkareem, K.H.; Ali, N.S. Investigation study of cyber-physical systems: Characteristics, application domains, and security challenges. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2017, 12, 6557–6567.
- Nunes, D.S.; Zhang, P.; Sá Silva, J. A survey on Human-in-the-Loop applications towards an Internet of All. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2015, 17, 944–965.
- Cimini, C.; Pirola, F.; Pinto, R.; Cavalieri, S. A human-in-the-loop manufacturing control architecture for the next generation of production systems. J. Manuf. Syst. 2020, 54, 258–271.
- Zhao, J.; Wen, F.; Xue, Y.; Li, X.; Dong, Z. Cyber-physical power systems Architecture, implementation techniques and challenges. Autom. Electr. Power Syst. 2010, 34, 1–7.
- Masera, M.; Bompard, E.F.; Profumo, F.; Hadjsaid, N. Smart (electricity) grids for smart cities: Assessing roles and societal impacts. Proc. IEEE 2018, 106, 613–625.
- Wong, J.K.W.; Li, H.; Wang, S.W. Intelligent building research: A review. Autom. Constr. 2005, 14, 143–159.
- Manic, M.; Amarasinghe, K.; Rodriguez-Andina, J.J.; Rieger, C. Intelligent buildings of the future: Cyberaware, deep learning powered, and human interacting. IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 2016, 10, 32–49.
- Dakheel, J.A.; Del Pero, C.; Aste, N.; Leonforte, F. Smart buildings features and key performance indicators: A review. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2020, 61, 102328.
- Lee, E.A. Cyber-Physical Systems—Are Computing Foundations Adequate? In Proceedings of the Position Paper for NSF Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems: Research Motivation, Techniques and Roadmap, Austin, TX, USA, 16–17 October 2006.
- Jimada-Ojuolape, B.; Teh, J. Impact of the integration of information and communication technology on power system reliability: A review. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 24600–24615.
- Kolokotsa, D. The role of smart grids in the building sector. Energy Build. 2016, 116, 703–708.
- Lawrence, T.M.; Boudreau, M.C.; Helsen, L.; Henze, G.; Mohammadpour, J.; Noonan, D.; Patteeuw, D.; Pless, S.; Watson, R.T. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid. Build. Environ. 2016, 108, 273–283.
- Li, C.Z.; Lai, X.; Xiao, B.; Tam, V.W.Y.; Guo, S.; Zhao, Y. A holistic review on life cycle energy of buildings: An analysis from 2009 to 2019. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2020, 134, 110372.
- Krarti, M.; Aldubyan, M. Review analysis of COVID-19 impact on electricity demand for residential buildings. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 110888.
- Takigawa, T.; Wang, B.L.; Sakano, N.; Wang, D.H.; Ogino, K.; Kishi, R. A longitudinal study of environmental risk factors for subjective symptoms associated with sick building syndrome in new dwellings. Sci. Total Environ. 2009, 407, 5223–5228.
- Lee, D.; Cheng, C.C. Energy savings by energy management systems: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 56, 760–777.
- Yang, T.; Clements-Croome, D.; Marson, M. Building energy management systems. In Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies; Abraham, M.A., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 291–309.
- Domingues, P.; Carreira, P.; Vieira, R.; Kastner, W. Building automation systems: Concepts and technology review. Comp. Stand. Inter. 2016, 45, 1–12.
- Kumar, A.; Singh, A.; Kumar, M.; Singh, M.K.; Mahanta, P.; Mukhopadhyay, S.C. Sensing technologies for monitoring intelligent buildings: A review. IEEE Sens. J. 2018, 18, 4847–4860.
- Hannan, M.A.; Faisal, M.; Ker, P.J.; Mun, L.H.; Parvin, K.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Blaabjerg, F. A review of internet of energy based building energy management systems: Issues and recommendations. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 38997–39014.
- Sartori, I.; Napolitano, A.; Voss, K. Net zero energy buildings: A consistent definition framework. Energy Build. 2012, 48, 220–232.
- Cao, X.; Dai, X.; Liu, J. Building energy-consumption status worldwide and the state-of-the-art technologies for zero-energy buildings during the past decade. Energy Build. 2016, 128, 198–213.
- Wei, W.; Skye, H.M. Residential net-zero energy buildings: Review and perspective. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 142, 110859.
- Magrini, A.; Lentini, G.; Cuman, S.; Bodrato, A.; Marenco, L. From nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB) to positive energy buildings (PEB): The next challenge—The most recent European trends with some notes on the energy analysis of a forerunner PEB example. Dev. Built Environ. 2020, 3, 100019.
- Zhou, B.; Li, W.; Chan, K.W.; Cao, Y.; Kuang, Y.; Liu, X.; Wang, X. Smart home energy management systems: Concept, configurations, and scheduling strategies. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 61, 30–40.
- Leitão, J.; Gil, P.; Ribeiro, B.; Cardoso, A. A survey on home energy management. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 5699–5722.
- Zafar, U.; Bayhan, S.; Sanfilippo, A. Home energy management system concepts, configurations, and technologies for the smart grid. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 119271–119286.
- Hong, T.; Yan, D.; D’Oca, S.; Chen, C. Ten questions concerning occupant behavior in buildings: The big picture. Build. Environ. 2017, 114, 518–530.
- Nguyen, T.A.; Aiello, M. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity: A survey. Energy Build. 2013, 56, 244–257.
- Palensky, P.; Dietrich, D. Demand side management: Demand response, intelligent energy systems, and smart loads. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 2011, 7, 381–388.
- Mariano-Hernández, D.; Hernández-Callejo, L.; Zorita-Lamadrid, A.; Duque-Pérez, O.; Santos García, F. A review of strategies for building energy management system: Model predictive control, demand side management, optimization, and fault detect & diagnosis. J. Build. Eng. 2021, 33, 101692.
- Chen, Y.; Xu, P.; Gu, J.; Schmidt, F.; Li, W. Measures to improve energy demand flexibility in buildings for demand response (DR): A review. Energy Build. 2018, 177, 125–139.
- Shareef, H.; Ahmed, M.S.; Mohamed, A.; Al Hassan, E. Review on home energy management system considering demand responses, smart technologies, and intelligent controllers. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 24498–24509.
- Beaudin, M.; Zareipour, H. Home energy management systems: A review of modelling and complexity. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 45, 318–335.
- Shakeri, M.; Pasupuleti, J.; Amin, N.; Rokonuzzaman, M.; Low, F.W.; Yaw, C.T.; Asim, N.; Samsudin, N.A.; Tiong, S.K.; Hen, C.K.; et al. An overview of the building energy management system considering the demand response programs, smart strategies and smart grid. Energies 2020, 13, 3299.
- Liu, Y.; Yu, N.; Wang, W.; Guan, X.; Xu, Z.; Dong, B.; Liu, T. Coordinating the operations of smart buildings in smart grids. Appl. Energy 2018, 228, 2510–2525.
- Liu, N.; Wang, J.; Yu, X.; Ma, L. Hybrid energy sharing for smart building cluster with CHP system and PV prosumers: A coalitional game approach. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 34098–34108.
- Shaikh, P.H.; Nor, N.B.M.; Nallagownden, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ibrahim, T. A review on optimized control systems for building energy and comfort management of smart sustainable buildings. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 34, 409–429.
- Freire, V.A.; Arruda, L.V.R.; Bordons, C.; Teno, G. Home Energy Management for a AC/DC Microgrid Using Model Predictive Control. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), Porto, Portugal, 9–11 September 2019.
- Novickij, I.; Joós, G. Model Predictive Control-Based Approach for Microgrid Energy Management. In Proceedings of the IEEE Canadian Conference of Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), Edmonton, AB, Canada, 5–8 May 2019.
- Hamidi, M.; Bouattane, O. Commercial Building Energy Management Design for HVAC System Based on Fuzzy Logic. In Proceedings of the 7th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), Agadir, Morocco, 27–30 November 2019.
- Ghaffar, M.; Naseer, N.; Sheikh, S.R.; Naved, M.; Aziz, U.; Koreshi, Z.U. Electrical Energy Management of Building Using Fuzzy Control. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation in Industry (ICRAI), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 21–22 October 2019.
- Tingting, H.; Abhisek, U. Design of Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Energy Efficient Operation in Building. In Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON, Florence, Italy, 23–26 October 2016.
- Kontogiannis, D.; Bargiotas, D.; Daskalopulu, A. Fuzzy control system for smart energy management in residential buildings based on environmental data. Energies 2021, 14, 752.
- Aung, H.N.; Khambadkone, A.M.; Srinivasan, D.; Logenthiran, T. Agent-based intelligent control for real-time operation of a microgrid. In Proceedings of the 2010 Joint International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems & 2010 Power India, New Delhi, India, 20–23 December 2010.
- Oliveira, P.; Gomes, L.; Pinto, T.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.; Morais, H. Load Control Timescales Simulation in a Multi-Agent Smart Grid Platform. In Proceedings of the IEEE PES ISGT Europe, Lyngby, Denmark, 6–9 October 2013.
- McArthur, S.D.J.; Davidson, E.M.; Catterson, V.M.; Dimeas, A.L.; Hatziargyriou, N.D.; Ponci, F.; Funabashi, T. Multi-agent systems for power engineering applications—Part I: Concepts, approaches, and technical challenges. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2007, 22, 1743–1752.
- Khamphanchai, W.; Pipattanasomporn, M.; Rahman, S. A Multi-Agent System for Restoration of an Electric Power Distribution Network with Local Generation. In Proceedings of the Power and Energy Society General Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, 22–26 July 2012.
- Chen, M.; McArthur, S.D.J.; Kockar, I.; Pitt, J. Evaluating a MAS Architecture for Flexible Distribution Power Flow Management. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems, Porto, Portugal, 11–16 September 2015.
- Lagorse, J.; Paire, D.; Miraoui, A. A multi-agent system for energy management of distributed power sources. Renew. Energy 2010, 35, 174–182.
- Ferber, J. Multi-Agent Systems. An Introduction to Distributed Artificial Intelligence; Addison Wesley: London, UK, 1999.
- Cirrincione, M.; Cossentino, M.; Gaglio, S.; Hilaire, V.; Koukam, A.; Pucci, M.; Sabatucci, L.; Vitale, G. Intelligent Energy Management System. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Cardiff, UK, 23–26 June 2009.
- Boussaada, Z.; Curea, O.; Camblong, H.; Mrabet, N.B.; Hacala, A. Multi-agent systems for the dependability and safety of microgrids. Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf. 2016, 10, 1–13.
- Dimeas, A.L.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. A MAS Architecture for Microgrids Control. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems, Arlington, VA, USA, 6–10 November 2005.
- Iksan, N.; Udayanti, E.D.; Arfriandi, A.; Widodo, D.A. Automatic Control Using Fuzzy Techniques for Energy Management on Smart Building. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Engineering, Network and Intelligent Multimedia (CENIM), Surabaya, Indonesia, 26–27 November 2018.
- Feng, C.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Ding, Y.; Strbac, G.; Kang, C. Smart grid encounters edge computing: Opportunities and applications. Adv. Appl. Energy 2021, 1, 100006.
- Runge, J.; Zmeureanu, R. A review of deep learning techniques for forecasting energy use in buildings. Energies 2021, 14, 608.
- Boussaada, Z.; Curea, O.; Camblong, H.; Mrabet, N.B. Energy management for embedded microgrid using multi agent system. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automation, Control Engineering & Computer Science (ACECS), Sousse, Tunisia, 12–13 October 2020; pp. 26–31. Available online: (accessed on 25 March 2021).
- Khan, Z.A.; Hussain, T.; Ullah, A.; Rho, S.; Lee, M.; Baik, S.W. Towards efficient electricity forecasting in residential and commercial buildings: A novel hybrid CNN with a LSTM-AE based framework. Sensors 2020, 20, 1399.
- Verma, A.; Prakash, S.; Srivastava, V.; Kumar, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.C. Sensing, controlling, and IoT infrastructure in smart building: A review. IEEE Sens. J. 2019, 19, 9036–9046.
- Yaïci, W.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Entchev, E.; Longo, M. Recent advances in Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructures for building energy systems: A review. Sensors 2021, 21, 2152.
- Iqbal, J.; Khan, M.; Talha, M.; Farman, H.; Jan, B.; Muhammad, A.; Khattak, H.A. A generic internet of things architecture for controlling electrical energy consumption in smart homes. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2018, 43, 443–450.
- Karthick, T.; Charles Raja, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Chandrasekaran, K. Design of IoT based smart compact energy meter for monitoring and controlling the usage of energy and power quality issues with demand side management for a commercial building. Sustain. Energy Grids Netw. 2021, 26, 100454.
- Hossain, M.; Weng, Z.; Schiano-Phan, R.; Scott, D.; Lau, B. Application of IoT and BEMS to visualise the environmental performance of an educational building. Energies 2020, 13, 4009.
- Usman, A.; Haider Shami, S. Evolution of Communication Technologies for Smart Grid applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2013, 19, 191–199.
- Ancillotti, E.; Bruno, R.; Conti, M. The role of communication systems in smart grids: Architectures, technical solutions and research challenges. Comput. Commun. 2013, 36, 1665–1697.
- Shaukat, N.; Ali, S.M.; Mehmood, C.A.; Khan, B.; Jawad, M.; Farid, U.; Ullah, Z.; Anwar, S.M.; Majid, M. A survey on consumers empowerment, communication technologies, and renewable generation penetration within Smart Grid. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 81, 1453–1475.
- Gungor, V.C.; Sahin, D.; Kocak, T.; Ergüt, S.; Buccella, C.; Cecati, C.; Hancke, G.P. Smart Grid Technologies: Communication Technologies and Standards. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2011, 7, 529–539.
- Saleem, Y.; Crespi, N.; Rehmani, M.H.; Copeland, R. Internet of things-aided smart grid: Technologies, architectures, applications, prototypes, and future research directions. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 62962–63003.
- Zhu, Z.; Lambotharan, S.; Chin, W.H.; Fan, Z. Overview of demand management in smart grid and enabling wireless communication technologies. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 2012, 19, 48–56.
- Ahmed, S.; Gondal, T.M.; Adil, M.; Malik, S.A.; Qureshi, R. A Survey on Communication Technologies in Smart Grid. In Proceedings of the IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia), Bangkok, Thailand, 19–23 March 2019.
- Kuzlu, M.; Pipattanasomporn, M.; Rahman, S. Review of communication technologies for smart homes/building applications. In Proceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies—Asia (ISGT ASIA), Bangkok, Thailand, 3–6 November 2015.
- Vega, A.M.; Santamaria, F.; Rivas, E. Modeling for home electric energy management: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 52, 948–959.
- Emmanuel, M.; Rayudu, R. Communication technologies for smart grid applications: A survey. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 2016, 74, 133–148.
- Fan, Z.; Kulkarni, P.; Gormus, S.; Efthymiou, C.; Kalogridis, G.; Sooriyabandara, M.; Zhu, Z.; Lambotharan, S.; Chin, W.H. Smart grid communications: Overview of research challenges, solutions, and standardization activities. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2013, 15, 21–38.
- Lohia, K.; Jain, Y.; Patel, C.; Doshi, N. Open Communication Protocols for Building Automation Systems. Procedia Comput. Sci. 2019, 160, 723–727.
- Gungor, V.; Hancke, G. Industrial wireless sensor networks: Challenges, design principles, and technical approaches. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2009, 56, 4258–4265.
- Risteska Stojkoska, B.L.; Trivodaliev, K.V. A review of Internet of Things for smart home: Challenges and solutions. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 140, 1454–1464.
- Lobaccaro, G.; Carlucci, S.; Löfström, E. A review of systems and technologies for smart homes and smart grids. Energies 2016, 9, 348.
- Mocrii, D.; Chen, Y.; Musilek, P. IoT-based smart homes: A review of system architecture, software, communications, privacy and security. Internet Things 2018, 1–2, 81–98.
- De Almeida, L.F.F.; Dos Santos, J.R.; Melo Pereira, L.A.; Cerqueira Sodré, A., Jr.; Leonel Mendes, L.; Rodrigues, J.J.P.C.; Rabelo, R.A.L.; Alberti, A.M. Control networks and smart grid teleprotection: Key aspects, technologies, protocols, and case-studies. IEEE Access 2020, 8, 174049–174079.
- Komninos, N.; Philippou, E.; Pitsillides, A. Survey in smart grid and smart home security: Issues, challenges and countermeasures. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2014, 16, 1933–1954.
- Granzer, W.; Praus, F.; Kastner, W. Security in Building Automation Systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2010, 57, 3622–3630.