Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins
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  • Release Date: 2023-07-06
  • bulk-fill
  • composite resin
  • dual-cure
  • light
  • light-cure
  • extended curing
  • temperature rise
  • thermocouples
  • transmittance
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/polym15132837

This study aimed to assess the light transmittance (T) and temperature increase through different increments of dual-cure bioactive bulk-fill restorative material (ACTIVA), light-cure bulkfill, and conventional composite resin materials. Cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 8 mm and heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm of ACTIVA, Tetric-N-Ceram bulk-fill (TBF), Filtek One bulk-fill (FBF), and Filtek Z250 (FZ) (n = 6 per group, 96 in total) were light-cured with a visible blue low-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) (650–800 mW/cm2 irradiance). T, and the temperature increase, were measured using an optical power meter and a digital thermometer during curing. The T mean values ranged between 0.012 and 0.239 (76.02 to 98.81% light attenuation), while the temperature rise mean values ranged between 9.02 and 20.80 degreed Celcius. The parameters, including material type, thickness, and their interaction, significantly affected the T values, whereas only the material type affected the temperature rise values. The T and temperature rise mean values were highest in ACTIVA increments of 1-mm increments, in particular, showing the highest T mean values, followed by similar increments of TBF. A significantly higher T was found in 1-mm increments compared to thicker increments for all materials, and a significant positive correlation existed between T and temperature rise values. These findings show that the bioactive material ACTIVA and TBF allow for better T than the other materials, with ACTIVA recording a higher temperature rise. However, the large light attenuation observed for all materials, irrespective of thickness, suggests that curing in more than one location with a low-intensity LED is necessary to optimize the curing process. Furthermore, incremental filling of bulk-fill materials using a low intensity LED could be beneficial.

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Alharbi, R.; Al-Haj Ali, S.N.; Alharbi, E.; Farah, R.I. Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 19 June 2024).
Alharbi R, Al-Haj Ali SN, Alharbi E, Farah RI. Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 19, 2024.
Alharbi, Reema, Sanaa N. Al-Haj Ali, Eid Alharbi, Ra’fat I. Farah. "Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 19, 2024).
Alharbi, R., Al-Haj Ali, S.N., Alharbi, E., & Farah, R.I. (2023, July 06). Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins. In Encyclopedia.
Alharbi, Reema, et al. "Transmittance and Temperature Rise in Bulk-Fill Composite Resins." Encyclopedia. Web. 06 July, 2023.
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