Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling
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  • Release Date: 2022-10-13
  • atherosclerosis
  • cholesterol
  • hydoxychloroquine
  • macrophage
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/medicina58091287

Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and there is an urgent need to prevent heart attacks in the vulnerable RA population [2]. RA patient plasma causes atherosclerosis-promoting disruptions in cholesterol transport leading to macrophage foam cell formation (FCF), a crucial step in atherosclerosis initiation and progression [3]. The TARGET randomized clinical trial is a prospective cohort study that compares CV benefits of 2 RA drug regimens: (1) methotrexate (MTX) + tumor necrosis factor inhibitor versus (2) a triple therapy of MTX + sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) [1]. HCQ is a medication commonly used in RA treatment and a component of  TARGET triple therapy. This study examines HCQ-induced changes in lipid handling and expression of cholesterol transport genes in a human macrophage cell line as a way to understand whether or not it might be atheroprotective in RA [4]. This type of cell culture model may be useful in determining optimal treatment regimens in RA and other autoimmune disorders where elevated CV risk is a key consideration and has the potential to be applied in precision medicine to tailor therapeutic combinations to the individual.

  1. Giles; Testing the Effects of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Vascular Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rationale and Design of the TARGET Trial.. ACR Open Rheumatol 2021, 3, 371, 10.1002/acr2.11256.
  2. Ahmed S, Jacob B, Carsons SE, De Leon J, Reiss AB.; Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Complex Challenge with Increased Atherosclerotic Risk. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021, 15, 11, 10.3390/ph15010011.
  3. Voloshyna, I., Modayil, S., Littlefield, M. J., Belilos, E., Belostocki, K., Bonetti, L., Rosenblum, G., Carsons, S. E., Reiss, A. B.; Plasma from rheumatoid arthritis patients promotes pro-atherogenic cholesterol transport gene expression in THP-1 human macrophages. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2013, 238, 1192, 10.1177/1535370213503262.
  4. Ahmed, S., Konig, J., Kasselman, L. J., Renna, H. A., De Leon, J., Carsons, S. E., Reiss, A. B.; Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling: Cell Culture Studies Corresponding to the TARGET Cardiovascular Trial. Medicina 2022, 58, 1287, 10.3390/medicina58091287.
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Reiss, A.B.; Ahmed, S.;  Konig, J.; Kasselman, L.;  Renna, H.A.; De Leon, J.; Carsons, S. Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/439 (accessed on 14 April 2024).
Reiss AB, Ahmed S,  Konig J, Kasselman L,  Renna HA, De Leon J, et al. Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/439. Accessed April 14, 2024.
Reiss, Allison B., Saba Ahmed, Justin Konig, Lora Kasselman, Heather A Renna, Joshua De Leon, Steven Carsons. "Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/439 (accessed April 14, 2024).
Reiss, A.B., Ahmed, S.,  Konig, J., Kasselman, L.,  Renna, H.A., De Leon, J., & Carsons, S. (2022, October 13). Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/439
Reiss, Allison B., et al. "Hydroxychloroquine Effects on THP-1 Macrophage Cholesterol Handling." Encyclopedia. Web. 13 October, 2022.