Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate
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  • Release Date: 2022-09-27
  • neutrophil
  • activation
  • phorbol myristate acetate
  • respiratory burst
  • NETs
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/cells11182889

PMA is widely used to understand neutrophil pathways and formation of NETs. PMA activates PKC; however, researchers highlight some isoforms that contribute to specific functions. PKC α, β and δ contribute to ROS production while PKC βII and PKC ζ are involved in cytoskeleton remodeling. Actin polymerization is important for the chemotaxis of neutrophils and its remodeling is connected to ROS balance. Researchers suggest that, although ROS and production of NETs are usually observed together in PMA-activated neutrophils, there might be a regulatory mechanism balancing both. Interestingly, researchers suggest that serine proteases might determine the PAD4 action. PAD4 could be responsible for the activation of the NF-κB pathway that leads to IL-1β release, triggering the cleavage of gasdermin D by serine proteases such as elastase, leading to pore formation contributing to release of NETs. On the other hand, when serine proteases are inhibited, NETs are formed by citrullination through the PAD4 pathway. 

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Fontes, W.;  Damascena, H.L.;  Silveira, W.A.A.;  Castro, M. Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 21 April 2024).
Fontes W,  Damascena HL,  Silveira WAA,  Castro M. Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 21, 2024.
Fontes, Wagner, Hylane Luiz Damascena, Wendy Ann Assis Silveira, Mariana Castro. "Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 21, 2024).
Fontes, W.,  Damascena, H.L.,  Silveira, W.A.A., & Castro, M. (2022, September 27). Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate. In Encyclopedia.
Fontes, Wagner, et al. "Neutrophil Activated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate." Encyclopedia. Web. 27 September, 2022.