Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect
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  • Release Date: 2024-05-28
  • freezing effect
  • bystander effect
  • trauma
  • bullying
Definition and New Discoveries
Leading Figures
Definition of the Bystander Effect
Leading Figures
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/psych6010017

The research provides a detailed comparison of two psychological phenomena, the freezing effect and the bystander effect, across their neurobiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions. This research focuses on identifying and analyzing the similarities and differences between these two responses to stressful and traumatic events. While the freezing effect is characterized by an involuntary neurobiological response to immediate threats, resulting in temporary immobilization or paralysis, the bystander effect describes a cognitive and social phenomenon where individuals refrain from offering help in emergencies when others are present. The research explores affective aspects, including emotional responses and trauma-related impacts associated with both phenomena. Through a comparative analysis, this research unveils important understandings regarding the distinctions among these responses, including their triggers, underlying mechanisms, and observable behaviors. It also highlights overlapping aspects, particularly in how both phenomena can lead to inaction in critical moments. This comparative research contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the brain, individual cognition, and social dynamics in the face of danger and stress. The findings of this research have significant implications for understanding human behavior in emergencies, offering valuable perspectives that can be applied in the domains of psychology, training for emergency response, and trauma therapy.

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Mautone, A.; Siligato, E.; Iuele, G.; Barbera, M.; Bruno, F.; Tordonato, G.; Rizzo, A. Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 16 June 2024).
Mautone A, Siligato E, Iuele G, Barbera M, Bruno F, Tordonato G, et al. Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 16, 2024.
Mautone, Aurora, Elena Siligato, Giada Iuele, Martina Barbera, Francesca Bruno, Guendalina Tordonato, Amelia Rizzo. "Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 16, 2024).
Mautone, A., Siligato, E., Iuele, G., Barbera, M., Bruno, F., Tordonato, G., & Rizzo, A. (2024, May 28). Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect. In Encyclopedia.
Mautone, Aurora, et al. "Freezing Effect and Bystander Effect." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 May, 2024.
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