Children are the world’s most important resource. However, children are totally different from adults in several regards, including anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can not be considered small adults. It would be impractical to think that children could receive the exact same treatment as adults and attain the same results. Therefore, the therapeutic plans for children with diseases should be individually reconsidered. Pediatricians are trained to focus on the health—both physical and mental—psychological growth, and development of children. Moreover, it is laborious to properly look after children because they do not always follow their parent’s instructions and are not aware of potential environmental dangers. Issues regarding environmental and social influences have become trending topics in terms of children’s health.

Advances in biotechnology have allowed both clinical and basic research in the field of children’s health to continue to expand. The aim of this Entry Collection is to introduce the recent dramatic advances in pediatrics, including the fields of neurology, imaging, hematology, pharmacology, ophthalmology, and public health, to provide a broader perspective of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of  pediatric clinical science.

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Hueng-Chuen Fan

Institution: Department of Pediatrics, Tungs' MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 43503, Taiwan

Interests: neuroscience; TRP channel; meconium aspiration; pediatrics

Shyi-jou Chen

Institution: 1. Department of Pediatrics, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 2. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Interests: immunology; pediatric neurology

Chun-Jung Juan

Institution: 1. Department of Medical Imaging, China Medical University Hsinchu Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan, China 2. Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, China 3. Department of Medical Imaging, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, China 4. Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, China 5. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, China 6. Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, China

Interests: neuroradiology; head and neck radiology; stroke; magnetic resonance imaging; medical imaging processing; artificial intelligence in medical imaging

Yih-Jing Lee

Institution: School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Hsinchuang, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan

Interests: vision; nociception

I-Hsun Li

Institution: 1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 2. Institute and Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Interests: neuropharmacology; positron emission tomography; pharmacy administration

Po-Ya Chang

Institution: Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei 11219, Taiwan

Interests: chronic disease epidemiology; public health

Der-Shiun Wang

Institution: Department of Pediatrics, Tri-service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan

Interests: pediatric hematology; pediatric oncology; pharmacogentics; leukemia; hemophilia