Children are the world’s most important resource. However, children are totally different from adults in several regards, including anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can not be considered small adults. It would be impractical to think that children could receive the exact same treatment as adults and attain the same results. Therefore, the therapeutic plans for children with diseases should be individually reconsidered. Pediatricians are trained to focus on the health—both physical and mental—psychological growth, and development of children. Moreover, it is laborious to properly look after children because they do not always follow their parent’s instructions and are not aware of potential environmental dangers. Issues regarding environmental and social influences have become trending topics in terms of children’s health.

Advances in biotechnology have allowed both clinical and basic research in the field of children’s health to continue to expand. The aim of this Entry Collection is to introduce the recent dramatic advances in pediatrics, including the fields of neurology, imaging, hematology, pharmacology, ophthalmology, and public health, to provide a broader perspective of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of  pediatric clinical science.

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