Graphicacy: History
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Graphicacy is defined as the ability to understand and present information in the form of sketches, photographs, diagrams, maps, plans, charts, graphs and other non-textual formats. The word graphicacy was coined by Balchin and Coleman as representation of the visuo-spatial abilities, they gave their reasons as follows "In the choice of a word to denote the educated counterpart of visual-spatial ability one must first ask the question what exactly does this form of communication involve. It is fundamentally the communication of spatial information that cannot be conveyed adequately by verbal or numerical means,e.g. the plan of a town, the pattern of a drainage network or a picture of a distant place - in other words the whole field of the graphic arts and much of geography cartography, computer-graphics, photography, itself. All of these words contain the syllable "graph" which seemed a logical stem for "graphicacy" which was completed by analogy with literacy, numeracy and articulacy. The modern economy is becoming increasingly reliant on graphics to communicate information. Until recently, words and numbers were the main vehicles for communication, as they have long been relatively easy to produce and distribute in comparison with graphics. Advances in information and communications technology and visualization techniques are increasing the accessibility and usage of graphics, increasing the importance of information graphics. Interpretation of graphics is loosely analogous to the process of reading text, while generation of graphics is the counterpart of writing text. However, these analogies are imperfect, as text and graphics are based on very different symbol systems. For example, whereas text is structured according to formal organisational rules that apply irrespective of the content, this is not the case for graphics. With text structure, the units of information (words) are expected to be organised according to broad conventions (such as being sequenced in orderly rows starting from top left and progressing down the page). However graphics are not subject to a similarly stringent set of structural conventions. Instead, it is the content itself that largely determines the nature of the graphic entities and the way they are arranged. For example, the form and spatial arrangement of the items that comprise the actual subject matter being represented in the graphic are used as the basis for the graphic entities and structure that are displayed in the graphic. This is not the case with written text where the words and their arrangement bear no resemblance to the represented subject matter. Because of these and other fundamental differences between text and graphics, it is appropriate that the processes involved in comprehension and production of graphics are clearly distinguished from those involved in comprehension and production of text.

  • visual-spatial ability
  • visualization techniques
  • spatial arrangement

1. Why Graphicacy?

The concept of graphicacy acknowledges the characteristic features of graphic information that distinguish it from other forms of representation such as verbal and numerical information. Separating graphicacy from literacy and numeracy helps to understand the distinctive and complementary types of contributions that graphics, words, and numbers can each make in human communication.

The interpretative components of graphicacy skills are particularly important in the increasing range of situations where graphics carry the primary responsibility for communication. Early recognition of the importance of graphicacy came from disciplines such as geography, science and mathematics in which graphics play a key role. Educators in these and similar disciplines have become increasingly concerned with the capacities of students to comprehend information presented by way of graphics.

There is a growing realization that conventional wisdom about pictures being "worth a thousand words" is a gross generalization when it comes to informational graphics. Rather, the interpretation of certain types of graphics can sometimes be a very demanding process indeed. In addition, it is becoming clear that graphicacy skills are largely learned rather than innate and that a viewer's capacity to interpret particular types of graphics has a great deal to do with their background knowledge. There are two main types of background knowledge that are important in comprehending graphics:

  • Knowledge about the specific graphic system used to depict the subject matter,
  • Knowledge about the subject matter that is depicted in the graphic.

Severe deficiencies in either of these aspects of background knowledge may prevent a viewer from comprehending a graphic.

Here's an example that highlights some of the fundamental differences between written text and a graphic representation. First, a brief explanation of the structure of a particular type of bridge (a bowstring arch bridge):

Spanning the river is the bridge’s arch structure with its ends carried by abutments on each bank. The deck of the bridge is suspended by struts attached to the arch and runs between the banks. Each end of the deck is connected to the arch’s legs.

If the main items mentioned are extracted and arranged in their order of mention in the text, this is what we get:

River; Bridge; Arch; Ends of arch; Abutments; Banks; Deck; Bridge; Struts; Arch; Banks; Ends of deck; Arch legs

It's obvious that the signs used to represent parts of the bridge in words are very different from the signs used in the picture of the bridge. Notice also that the same item (Bridge, Arch, Banks, etc.) is often mentioned more than once in the text version. This is necessary due to the constraints of text as a representational system. However, in a graphic of this bridge, such information needs to appear only once. The arrangement of these items is also different in the text from what it would be in a graphic. To appreciate this, compare the order of mention in the text with this depiction. You can see that the text is not arranged in a way that would directly map onto the bridge. Rather, it presents the bridge's components in a linear sequence that gives no visual indication of the bridge's structure.


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