Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activity of Genus Malachra L.

The genus Malachra L. belongs to the family Malvaceae. It includes herbs or subshrubs of nine accepted species with approximately thirty synonyms, and it has been widely used in community folk medicine to treat health problems including inflammation, nasal obstruction, leishmaniasis, malaria, childbirth, kidney disorders, fever, respiratory tract diseases, among others.

  • Malachra
  • ethnobotany
  • pharmacological activity

This entry is adapted from 10.3390/plants11212808


  1. World Flora Online (WFO). Malachra L. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 21 September 2022).
  2. Medicinal Plant Names Services (M.P.N.S.). Malachra. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 11 January 2022).
  3. Plants of the World Online (P.O.W.O.). Malachra. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 11 February 2022).
  4. Missouri Botanical Garden. Available online: (accessed on 1 July 2022).
  5. World Flora Online. Malachra alceifolia Jacq. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 30 June 2022).
  6. World Flora Online. Malachra capitata (L.) L. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 1 July 2022).
  7. World Flora Online. Malachra fasciata Jacq. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 1 July 2022).
  8. World Flora Online. Malachra radiata (L.) L. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 1 July 2022).
  9. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (G.B.I.G.). Malachra. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 11 February 2022).
  10. The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Available online: (accessed on 22 August 2022).
  11. Abat, J.K.; Kumar, S.; Mohanty, A. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and ethnopharmacological aspects of four medicinal plants of Malvaceae used in Indian traditional medicines: A Review. Medicines 2017, 4, 75.
  12. Varma, N. Phytoconstituents and their mode of extractions: An overview. Res. J. Chem. Environ. Sci. 2016, 4, 8–15. Available online: (accessed on 25 August 2022).
  13. Guerreo, T.; Vejarano, P.; Ochoa, R. Tamizaje fitoquímico y cuantificación de flavonoides totales de las hojas y flores de Malachra alceifolia Jacq. Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 2018, 4, 70–75. Available online: (accessed on 21 August 2022).
  14. Sindhu, L.; Neelamegam, R. HPLC determination of flavonoids in the methanol extracts of Malachra capitata (L). WJPPS 2015, 4, 1495–1503. Available online: (accessed on 21 August 2022).
  15. Sindhu, L.; Neelamegam, R. Evaluation of phytochemical profile in ethanol extracts of Malachra capitata (L.) by GC-MS analysis. World J. Pharm. Res. 2015, 4, 1342–1353.
  16. Jadhav, R.; Parihar, S. Isolation and Study of β-sitosterol the Unsaponifiable Matter from the Plant Malachra capitata (Linn). Biomed. Pharmacol. J. 2014, 7, 285–287.
  17. Dipak, K.; Rupali, S.; Syed, I.; Bhadange, D.G. Phytochemical screening of eight traditionally used ethnomedicinal plants from Akola District (M.S.) India. Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci. 2010, 1, 253–256. Available online: (accessed on 30 August 2022).
  18. Pratyusha, S.; Jayasri, P.; Elumalai, A. Study on phytochemical profile and antiulcerogenic effect of Malachra capitata (L.) in albino Wistar rats. Int. J. Preclin. Pharm. Res. 2012, 3, 97–103. Available online: (accessed on 30 August 2022).
  19. Ragasa, C.; Hofileña, J.; Co, A.; Rideout, J. Antifungal diacetylglycerols from Malachra fasciata and Pithecolobium dulce. Chem. Res. 2005, 19, 1–5. Available online: (accessed on 30 March 2022).
  20. Ragasa, C.; Peñalosa, B.; Rideout, J.A. A bioactive dipeptide derivate from Malachra fasciata. Philipp. J. Sci. 1998, 127, 267–276. Available online: (accessed on 30 March 2022).
  21. Najmi, A.; Javed, S.A.; Al Bratty, M.; Alhazmi, H.A. Modern Approaches in the Discovery and Development of Plant-Based Natural Products and Their Analogues as Potential Therapeutic Agents. Molecules 2022, 27, 349.
  22. Batiha, G.E.S.; Beshbishy, A.A.; Tayebwa, D.S.; Shaheen, M.H.; Yokoyama, N.; Igarashi, I. Inhibitory effects of Uncaria tomentosa bark, Myrtus communis roots, Origanum vulgare leaves and Cuminum cyminum seeds extracts against the growth of Babesia and Theileria in vitro. Jap. J. Vet. Parasitol. 2018, 17, 1–13.
  23. Kahkeshani, N.; Farzaei, F.; Fotouhi, M.; Alavi, S.S.; Bahramsoltani, R.; Naseri, R.; Momtaz, S.; Abbasabadi, Z.; Rahimi, R.; Farzaei, M.H.; et al. Pharmacological effects of gallic acid in health and diseases: A mechanistic review. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. 2019, 22, 225–237.
  24. Ojeaburu, S.I.; Oriakhi, K. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant and, anti-inflammatory potentials of gallic acid in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. Toxicol. Rep. 2021, 8, 177–185.
  25. Goudarzi, M.; Kalantar, M.; Kalantar, H. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Gallic Acid on Mercuric Chloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats. Jundishapur J. Nat. Pharm. Prod. 2017, 12, e12345.
  26. Kępa, M.; Miklasińska-Majdanik, M.; Wojtyczka, R.D.; Idzik, D.; Korzeniowski, K.; Smoleń-Dzirba, J.; Wąsik, T.J. Antimicrobial Potential of Caffeic Acid against Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains. BioMed Res. Int. 2018, 2018, 7413504.
  27. Anand David, A.V.; Arulmoli, R.; Parasuraman, S. Overviews of biological importance of quercetin: A bioactive flavonoid. Pharmacogn. Rev. 2016, 10, 84–89.
  28. Pramanik, P.K.; Chakraborti, S.; Bagchi, A.; Chakraborti, T. Bioassay-based Corchorus capsularis L. leaf-derived β-sitosterol exerts antileishmanial effects against Leishmania donovani by targeting trypanothione reductase. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 20440.
  29. Application and Its Preparation of the Aurantiamide Acetate in Anti-Influenza virus Medicament. Patent CN106431960B, 6 November 2018. Available online: (accessed on 25 August 2022).
  30. Batiha, G.E.; Alkazmi, L.M.; Wasef, L.G.; Beshbishy, A.M.; Nadwa, E.H.; Rashwan, E.K. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): Traditional Uses, Bioactive Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 202.
  31. Gopi, G.; Jayasri, P.; Elumalai, A. Anti-epileptic activity of Malachra capitata (L) on maximal electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induce seizures models. Int. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2012, 2, 104–108. Available online: (accessed on 22 September 2022).
  32. Anil-Kumar, V.; Prunachander, K.; Vasudevamurthy, V.; Kannappan, N.; Spandana, V. Anti-oxidante activity of Malachra capitata (L) against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) induce erythrocyte damage in rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. Res. 2012, 2, 74–78.
  33. Sriam, N.; Vinoth-Kumar, K.; Mantry, S.; Sakthivel, S.; Shiva-Prasad, P. Hepatoprotective effect of Malachra capitata (L) against Carbon Tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Int. J. Pharm. Rev. Res. 2012, 2, 106–110. Available online: https://file:///D:/Documents/Downloads/HEPATOPROTECTIVE_EFFECT_OF_MALACHRA_CAPI.pdf (accessed on 22 September 2022).
  34. Srirangam, G.M.; Rao, P. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extract of against Malachra capitata. RJC 2017, 10, 46–53.
  35. Naik, R.M.; Ahmed, S.; Venkatalakshmi, K. Preliminary Phytochemistry and Anti-Microbial Activity of Malachra capitata Plant. Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2018, 8, 258–263. Available online: (accessed on 22 September 2022).
  36. De Araújo, V.O.; Neto, T.S.O.; Simões, S.V.D.; da Silva, T.K.F.; Riet-Correa, F.; Lucena, R.B. Primary photosensitization and contact dermatitis caused by Malachra fasciata Jacq. N.V. (Malvaceae) in sheep. Toxicon 2017, 138, 184–187.
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!