MicrOmega-IR: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.
Subjects: Others
Contributor:

MicrOmega-IR is an infrared hyperspectral microscope that is part of the science payload on board the European Rosalind Franklin rover, tasked to search for biosignatures on Mars. The rover is planned to land on Mars in the mid- or late 2020s. MicrOmega-IR will analyse in situ the powder material derived from crushed samples collected by the rover's core drill.

  • infrared hyperspectral
  • micromega-ir
  • biosignatures

1. Development

The MicrOmega mnemonic is derived from its French name Micro observatoire pour la mineralogie, l'eau, les glaces et l'activité;[1] IR stands for infrared. It was developed by France's Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale at the CNRS. France has also flown MicrOmega on other missions such as the 2011 Fobos-Grunt and the Hayabusa2 MASCOT mobile lander currently exploring asteroid Ryugu.[2] France is also developing a variant called MacrOmega Near-IR Spectrometer for the Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) lander, a Japanese sample-return mission to Mars' moon Phobos.[3]

The Principal Investigator of the MicrOmega-IR for the Rosalind Franklin rover is Jean-Pierre Bibring, a French astronomer and planetary scientist at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale. Co-PIs are astrobiologists Frances Westall and Nicolas Thomas.[4]

MicrOmega was developed by a consortium including:[5]

  • IAS (Orsay, France) 
  • LESIA (Meudon, France)
  • CBM (Orléans, France), 
  • University Of Bern (Bern, Switzerland) 
  • Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) (Moscow, Russia) 

2. Overview

MicrOmega-IR Parameter/units [6]
Type Infrared hyperspectral microscope
Manufacturer Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale,
of the CNRS
Spectral range 0.9–4 μm [7]
Spectral sampling 20/cm from 0.95 μm to 3.65 μm
Imaging resolution 20 μm2/pixel
Field of view 5 × 5 mm2
Mass ≈ 2 kilograms (4.4 lb)

MicrOmega-IR is a visible and infrared hyperspectral microscope that is designed to characterize the texture and composition of crushed samples presented to the instrument.[6] Its objective is to study mineral grain assemblages in detail to try to unravel their geological origin, structure and composition, including potential organics.[6] These data will be vital for interpreting past and present geological processes and environments on Mars. Because MicrOmega-IR is an imaging instrument, it can also be used to identify grains that are particularly interesting, and assign them as targets for Raman and MOMA observations.[6]

It is composed of 2 microscopes: MicrOmega/VIS has a spatial sampling of approximately 4 μm, working in 4 colors in the visible range. The other one is the MicrOmega/NIR hyperspectral microscope working in the spectral range 0.95 μm - 3.65 μm with a spatial sampling of 20 μm per pixel.[7] Its main supporting components include:[8]

  • A monochromator based on an Acousto-optic modulator illumination system.
  • Infrared magnification optics.
  • Infrared focal plane.
  • The thermal control system.
  • The sample container.

The IR instrument uses a HgCdTe (Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride) matrix detector, the Sofradir Mars SW 320 x 256 pixels.[9]

Examples of materials for identification, if present:[10]

  • pyroxene
  • olivine
  • ferric oxides
  • hydrated phyllosilicates
  • sulfates
  • carbonates
  • ices
  • organics (organic as in organic chemistry)

The content is sourced from: https://handwiki.org/wiki/Engineering:MicrOmega-IR

References

  1. Vago, Jorge L. (July 2017). "Habitability on Early Mars and the Search for Biosignatures with the ExoMars Rover". Astrobiology 17 (6–7): 471–510. doi:10.1089/ast.2016.1533. PMID 31067287. Bibcode: 2017AsBio..17..471V.  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5685153
  2. MicroMega Instrument for MASCOT. CNES, France. August 26, 2016. Accessed: 21 July 2018. https://mascot.cnes.fr/en/MASCOT/GP_micromega.htm
  3. Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) Mission Overview. (PDF). JAXA. 10 April 2017. http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/en/topics/files/MMX170412_EN.pdf#page=19
  4. The ExoMars Rover Instrument Suite - MicrOmega. European Space Agency. Published: 25 August 2017. http://exploration.esa.int/mars/45103-rover-instruments/
  5. Vaitua, Leroi; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthé, Michel (2017-11-21). "MicrOmega IR: a new infrared hyperspectral imaging microscope or in situ analysis". International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2008. 10566. pp. 50. doi:10.1117/12.2308234. ISBN 9781510616219.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1117%2F12.2308234
  6. The MicrOmega Investigation Onboard ExoMars. Jean-Pierre Bibring, Vincent Hamm, Cédric Pilorget, Jorge L. Vago, and the MicrOmega Team. Astrobiology, Vol. 17, No. 6-7. 1 July 2017. doi:10.1089/ast.2016.1642. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ast.2016.1642
  7. Leroi, Vaitua; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthe, Michel (2009). "Micromega/IR: Design and status of a near-infrared spectral microscope for in situ analysis of Mars samples". Planetary and Space Science 57 (8–9): 1068–1075. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.12.014. Bibcode: 2009P&SS...57.1068L.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.pss.2008.12.014
  8. MicrOmega Instrument Prototype. European Space Agency. 12 October 2015. http://exploration.esa.int/mars/47868-micromega-instrument-prototype/
  9. Vaitua, Leroi; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthé, Michel (2017-11-21). "MicrOmega IR: a new infrared hyperspectral imaging microscope or in situ analysis". International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2008. 10566. pp. 50. doi:10.1117/12.2308234. ISBN 9781510616219.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1117%2F12.2308234
  10. Leroi, Vaitua; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthe, Michel (July 2009). "Micromega/IR: Design and status of a near-infrared spectral microscope for in situ analysis of Mars samples" (in en). Planetary and Space Science 57 (8–9): 1068–1075. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.12.014. ISSN 0032-0633. Bibcode: 2009P&SS...57.1068L.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.pss.2008.12.014
More
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!